Articles | Volume 9, issue 6
The Cryosphere, 9, 2271–2293, 2015
The Cryosphere, 9, 2271–2293, 2015
Research article
07 Dec 2015
Research article | 07 Dec 2015

Verification of the multi-layer SNOWPACK model with different water transport schemes

N. Wever et al.

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Cited articles

Avanzi, F., Caruso, M., Jommi, C., Michele, C. D., and Ghezzi, A.: Continuous-time monitoring of liquid water content in snowpacks using capacitance probes: a preliminary feasibility study, Adv. Water Resour., 68, 32–41,, 2014.
Baggi, S. and Schweizer, J.: Characteristics of wet-snow avalanche activity: 20 years of observations from a high alpine valley (Dischma, Switzerland), Nat. Hazards, 50, 97–108,, 2009.
Bartelt, P. and Lehning, M.: A physical SNOWPACK model for the Swiss avalanche warning, Part I: numerical model, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 35, 123–145,, 2002.
Baunach, T., Fierz, C., Satyawali, P. K., and Schneebeli, M.: A model for kinetic grain growth, Ann. Glaciol., 32, 1–6,, 2001.
Bormann, K. J., Westra, S., Evans, J. P., and McCabe, M. F.: Spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow density, J. Hydrol., 484, 63–73,, 2013.
Short summary
A verification of the physics based SNOWPACK model with field observations showed that typical snowpack properties like density and temperature are adequately simulated. Also two water transport schemes were verified, showing that although Richards equation improves snowpack runoff and several aspects of the internal snowpack structure, the bucket scheme appeared to have a higher agreement with the snow microstructure. The choice of water transport scheme may depend on the intended application.