Articles | Volume 11, issue 2
Research article
07 Apr 2017
Research article |  | 07 Apr 2017

Determination of snowmaking efficiency on a ski slope from observations and modelling of snowmaking events and seasonal snow accumulation

Pierre Spandre, Hugues François, Emmanuel Thibert, Samuel Morin, and Emmanuelle George-Marcelpoil

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Cited articles

Armstrong, R. and Brun, E.: Snow and climate: physical processes, surface energy exchange and modeling, Polar Res., 29, 461–462,, 2008.
Bergstrom, K. and Ekeland, A.: Effect of trail design and grooming on the incidence of injuries at alpine ski areas, Brit. J. Sport. Med., 38, 264–268,, 2004.
Bevington, P. R. and Robinson, D. K.: Data reduction and error analysis, McGraw-Hill, 3rd Edn., available at: (last access: 4 April 2017), 2003.
Brun, E., David, P., Sudul, M., and Brunot, G.: A numerical model to simulate snow-cover stratigraphy for operational avalanche forecasting, J. Glaciol., 38, 13–22, 1992.
Damm, A., Koeberl, J., and Prettenthaler, F.: Does artificial snow production pay under future climate conditions? – A case study for a vulnerable ski area in Austria, Tourism Manage., 43, 8–21,, 2014.
Short summary
The production of machine-made snow is generalized in ski resorts and represents the most common adaptation method to mitigate effects of climate variability and its projected changes. However, the actual snow mass that can be recovered from a given water mass used for snowmaking remains poorly known. All results were consistent with 60 % (±10 %) of the water mass found as snow within the edge of the ski slope, with most of the lost fraction of water being due to site-dependent characteristics.