Articles | Volume 10, issue 4
The Cryosphere, 10, 1771–1797, 2016
The Cryosphere, 10, 1771–1797, 2016
Research article
17 Aug 2016
Research article | 17 Aug 2016

Anisotropy of seasonal snow measured by polarimetric phase differences in radar time series

Silvan Leinss et al.

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Cited articles

Alley, R.: Texture of polar firn for remote sensing, Ann. Glaciol., 9, 1–4, 1987.
Ao, C. O. and Kong, J. A.: Analytical approximations in multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by aligned dielectric spheroids, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 19, 1145–1156, 2002.
Bilodeau, F., Gauthier, G., and Berteaux, D.: The effect of snow cover on lemming population cycles in the Canadian High Arctic, Oecologia, 172, 1007–1016,, 2013.
Bohleber, P., Wagner, N., and Eisen, O.: Permittivity of ice at radio frequencies: Part II. Artificial and natural polycrystalline ice, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 83–84, 13–19,, 2012.
Bormann, K. J., Westra, S., Evans, J. P., and McCabe, M. F.: Spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow density, J. Hydrol., 484, 63–73,,2013.
Short summary
Four years of anisotropy measurements of seasonal snow are presented in the paper. The anisotropy was measured every 4 h with a ground-based polarimetric radar. An electromagnetic model has been developed to measured the anisotropy with radar instruments from ground and from space. The anisotropic permittivity was derived with Maxwell–Garnett-type mixing formulas which are shown to be equivalent to series expansions of the permittivity tensor based on spatial correlation function of snow.