Articles | Volume 17, issue 7
Research article
11 Jul 2023
Research article |  | 11 Jul 2023

Southern Ocean polynyas and dense water formation in a high-resolution, coupled Earth system model

Hyein Jeong, Adrian K. Turner, Andrew F. Roberts, Milena Veneziani, Stephen F. Price, Xylar S. Asay-Davis, Luke P. Van Roekel, Wuyin Lin, Peter M. Caldwell, Hyo-Seok Park, Jonathan D. Wolfe, and Azamat Mametjanov

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Cited articles

Abernathey, R., Cerovecki, I., Holland, P., Newsom, E., Mazloff, M., and Talley, L.: Water-mass transformation by sea ice in the upper branch of the Southern Ocean overturning, Nat. Geosci., 9, 596,, 2016. a
Aguiar, W., Mata, M. M., and Kerr, R.: On deep convection events and Antarctic Bottom Water formation in ocean reanalysis products, Ocean Sci., 13, 851–872,, 2017. a, b, c, d
Årthun, M., Holland, P. R., Nicholls, K. W., and Feltham, D. L.: Eddy-driven exchange between the open ocean and a sub-ice shelf cavity, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 2372–2387,, 2013. a
Azaneu, M., Kerr, R., and Mata, M. M.: Assessment of the representation of Antarctic Bottom Water properties in the ECCO2 reanalysis, Ocean Sci., 10, 923–946,, 2014. a, b, c, d, e
Bromwich, D. H. and Kurtz, D. D.: Katabatic wind forcing of the Terra Nova Bay polynya, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 89, 3561–3572,, 1984. a
Short summary
We find that E3SM-HR reproduces the main features of the Antarctic coastal polynyas. Despite the high amount of coastal sea ice production, the densest water masses are formed in the open ocean. Biases related to the lack of dense water formation are associated with overly strong atmospheric polar easterlies. Our results indicate that the large-scale polar atmospheric circulation must be accurately simulated in models to properly reproduce Antarctic dense water formation.