Articles | Volume 7, issue 1
The Cryosphere, 7, 19–29, 2013
The Cryosphere, 7, 19–29, 2013

Research article 04 Jan 2013

Research article | 04 Jan 2013

Manufactured solutions and the verification of three-dimensional Stokes ice-sheet models

W. Leng1, L. Ju3,2, M. Gunzburger4, and S. Price5 W. Leng et al.
  • 1State Key Laboratory of Scientific and Engineering Computing, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
  • 2Department of Mathematics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
  • 3Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084, China
  • 4Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
  • 5Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA

Abstract. The manufactured solution technique is used for the verification of computational models in many fields. In this paper, we construct manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional, isothermal, nonlinear Stokes model for flows in glaciers and ice sheets. The solution construction procedure starts with kinematic boundary conditions and is mainly based on the solution of a first-order partial differential equation for the ice velocity that satisfies the incompressibility condition. The manufactured solutions depend on the geometry of the ice sheet, basal sliding parameters, and ice softness. Initial conditions are taken from the periodic geometry of a standard problem of the ISMIP-HOM benchmark tests. The upper surface is altered through the manufactured solution procedure to generate an analytic solution for the time-dependent flow problem. We then use this manufactured solution to verify a parallel, high-order accurate, finite element Stokes ice-sheet model. Simulation results from the computational model show good convergence to the manufactured analytic solution.