Articles | Volume 14, issue 11
05 Nov 2020
Research article | 05 Nov 2020
Representative surface snow density on the East Antarctic Plateau
Alexander H. Weinhart et al.
No articles found.
Nora Hirsch, Alexandra Zuhr, Thomas Münch, Maria Hörhold, Johannes Freitag, Remi Dallmayr, and Thomas Laepple
Stable water isotopes from firn cores provide valuable information on past climates, yet their utility is hampered by stratigraphic noise, i.e. the irregular deposition and wind driven redistribution of snow. We found stratigraphic noise on the Antarctic Plateau to be related to the local accumulation rate, snow surface roughness and slope inclination, which can guide future decisions on sampling locations and expand the usage of high resolution isotope records from low accumulation regions.
Chiara I. Paleari, Florian Mekhaldi, Tobias Erhardt, Minjie Zheng, Marcus Christl, Florian Adolphi, Maria Hörhold, and Raimund Muscheler
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
In this study we test the use of excess meltwater from continuous flow analysis from a firn core from Greenland for the measurement of 10Be for solar activity reconstructions. We show that the quality of results is similar to the measurements on clean firn which opens the possibility to obtain continuous 10Be records without requiring large amounts of clean ice. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility to identify solar storm signals in 10Be records from Greenland and Antarctica.
Vjeran Višnjević, Reinhard Drews, Clemens Schannwell, Inka Koch, Steven Franke, Daniela Jansen, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 16, 4763–4777,Short summary
We present a simple way to model the internal layers of an ice shelf and apply the method to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf in East Antarctica. Modeled results are compared to measurements obtained by radar. We distinguish between ice directly formed on the shelf and ice transported from the ice sheet, and we map the spatial changes in the volume of the locally accumulated ice. In this context, we discuss the sensitivity of the ice shelf to future changes in surface accumulation and basal melt.
Julian Gutt, Stefanie Arndt, David Keith Alan Barnes, Horst Bornemann, Thomas Brey, Olaf Eisen, Hauke Flores, Huw Griffiths, Christian Haas, Stefan Hain, Tore Hattermann, Christoph Held, Mario Hoppema, Enrique Isla, Markus Janout, Céline Le Bohec, Heike Link, Felix Christopher Mark, Sebastien Moreau, Scarlett Trimborn, Ilse van Opzeeland, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Fokje Schaafsma, Katharina Teschke, Sandra Tippenhauer, Anton Van de Putte, Mia Wege, Daniel Zitterbart, and Dieter Piepenburg
Biogeosciences, 19, 5313–5342,Short summary
Long-term ecological observations are key to assess, understand and predict impacts of environmental change on biotas. We present a multidisciplinary framework for such largely lacking investigations in the East Antarctic Southern Ocean, combined with case studies, experimental and modelling work. As climate change is still minor here but is projected to start soon, the timely implementation of this framework provides the unique opportunity to document its ecological impacts from the very onset.
Alice C. Frémand, Peter Fretwell, Julien Bodart, Hamish D. Pritchard, Alan Aitken, Jonathan L. Bamber, Robin Bell, Cesido Bianchi, Robert G. Bingham, Donald D. Blankenship, Gino Casassa, Ginny Catania, Knut Christianson, Howard Conway, Hugh F. J. Corr, Xiangbin Cui, Daniel Damaske, Volkmar Damm, Reinhard Drews, Graeme Eagles, Olaf Eisen, Hannes Eisermann, Fausto Ferraccioli, Elena Field, René Forsberg, Steven Franke, Shuji Fujita, Yonggyu Gim, Vikram Goel, Siva Prasad Gogineni, Jamin Greenbaum, Benjamin Hills, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Per Holmlund, Nicholas Holschuh, John W. Holt, Angelika Humbert, Robert W. Jacobel, Daniela Jansen, Adrian Jenkins, Wilfried Jokat, Tom Jordan, Edward King, Jack Kohler, William Krabill, Kirsty Langley, Joohan Lee, German Leitchenkov, Carlton Leuschen, Bruce Luyendyk, Joseph MacGregor, Emma MacKie, Kenichi Matsuoka, Mathieu Morlinghem, Jeremie Mouginot, Frank O. Nitsche, Yoshifumi Nogi, Ole A. Nost, John Paden, Frank Pattyn, Sergey V. Popov, Mette Riger-Kusk, Eric Rignot, David M. Rippin, Andres Rivera, Jason Roberts, Neil Ross, Antonia Ruppel, Dustin M. Schroeder, Martin J. Siegert, Andrew M. Smith, Daniel Steinhage, Michael Studinger, Bo Sun, Ignazio Tabacco, Kirsty Tinto, Stefano Urbini, David Vaughan, Brian C. Welch, Douglas S. Wilson, Duncan A. Young, and Achille Zirizzotti
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
This paper presents the release of over 60 years of ice thickness, bed and surface elevation data acquired over Antarctica by the international community. These data are a crucial component of the Antarctic Bedmap initiative which aims to produce a new map and datasets of Antarctic ice thickness and bed topography for the international glaciology and geophysical community.
Ole Zeising, Tamara Annina Gerber, Olaf Eisen, M. Reza Ershadi, Nicolas Stoll, Ilka Weikusat, and Angelika Humbert
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
The flow of glaciers and ice streams is influenced by the crystal fabric orientation. Beside from sparse ice cores, these can be investigated by radar measurements. Here, we present an improved method which allows to infer the horizontal fabric asymmetry using polarimetric phase-sensitive radar data. A validation of the method on a deep ice core from the Greenland ice sheet shows near perfect agreement, which is a large improvement over previously used methods.
Antoine Grisart, Mathieu Casado, Vasileios Gkinis, Bo Vinther, Philippe Naveau, Mathieu Vrac, Thomas Laepple, Bénédicte Minster, Frederic Prié, Barbara Stenni, Elise Fourré, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, Jean Jouzel, Martin Werner, Katy Pol, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Maria Hoerhold, Trevor Popp, and Amaelle Landais
Clim. Past, 18, 2289–2301,Short summary
This paper presents a compilation of high-resolution (11 cm) water isotopic records, including published and new measurements, for the last 800 000 years from the EPICA Dome C ice core, Antarctica. Using this new combined water isotopes (δ18O and δD) dataset, we study the variability and possible influence of diffusion at the multi-decadal to multi-centennial scale. We observe a stronger variability at the onset of the interglacial interval corresponding to a warm period.
Astrid Oetting, Emma C. Smith, Jan Erik Arndt, Boris Dorschel, Reinhard Drews, Todd A. Ehlers, Christoph Gaedicke, Coen Hofstede, Johann P. Klages, Gerhard Kuhn, Astrid Lambrecht, Andreas Läufer, Christoph Mayer, Ralf Tiedemann, Frank Wilhelms, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 16, 2051–2066,Short summary
This study combines a variety of geophysical measurements in front of and beneath the Ekström Ice Shelf in order to identify and interpret geomorphological evidences of past ice sheet flow, extent and retreat. The maximal extent of grounded ice in this region was 11 km away from the continental shelf break. The thickness of palaeo-ice on the calving front around the LGM was estimated to be at least 305 to 320 m. We provide essential boundary conditions for palaeo-ice-sheet models.
Julien Westhoff, Giulia Sinnl, Anders Svensson, Johannes Freitag, Helle Astrid Kjær, Paul Vallelonga, Bo Vinther, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, and Ilka Weikusat
Clim. Past, 18, 1011–1034,Short summary
We present a melt event record from an ice core from central Greenland, which covers the past 10 000 years. Our record displays warm summer events, which can be used to enhance our understanding of the past climate. We compare our data to anomalies in tree ring width, which also represents summer temperatures, and find a good correlation. Furthermore, we investigate an outstandingly warm event in the year 986 AD or 991 AD, which has not been analyzed before.
M. Reza Ershadi, Reinhard Drews, Carlos Martín, Olaf Eisen, Catherine Ritz, Hugh Corr, Julia Christmann, Ole Zeising, Angelika Humbert, and Robert Mulvaney
The Cryosphere, 16, 1719–1739,Short summary
Radio waves transmitted through ice split up and inform us about the ice sheet interior and orientation of single ice crystals. This can be used to infer how ice flows and improve projections on how it will evolve in the future. Here we used an inverse approach and developed a new algorithm to infer ice properties from observed radar data. We applied this technique to the radar data obtained at two EPICA drilling sites, where ice cores were used to validate our results.
Nicolas Stoll, Maria Hörhold, Tobias Erhardt, Jan Eichler, Camilla Jensen, and Ilka Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 16, 667–688,Short summary
We mapped and analysed solid inclusion in the upper 1340 m of the EGRIP ice core with Raman spectroscopy and microstructure mapping, based on bulk dust content derived via continuous flow analysis. We observe a large variety in mineralogy throughout the core and samples. The main minerals are sulfates, especially gypsum, and terrestrial dust minerals, such as quartz, mica, and feldspar. A change in mineralogy occurs around 900 m depth indicating a climate-related imprint.
Steven Franke, Daniela Jansen, Tobias Binder, John D. Paden, Nils Dörr, Tamara A. Gerber, Heinrich Miller, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Veit Helm, Daniel Steinhage, Ilka Weikusat, Frank Wilhelms, and Olaf Eisen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 763–779,Short summary
The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the largest ice stream in Greenland. In order to better understand the past and future dynamics of the NEGIS, we present a high-resolution airborne radar data set (EGRIP-NOR-2018) for the onset region of the NEGIS. The survey area is centered at the location of the drill site of the East Greenland Ice-Core Project (EastGRIP), and radar profiles cover both shear margins and are aligned parallel to several flow lines.
Nicolas Stoll, Jan Eichler, Maria Hörhold, Tobias Erhardt, Camilla Jensen, and Ilka Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 15, 5717–5737,Short summary
We did a systematic analysis of the location of inclusions in the EGRIP ice core, the first ice core from an ice stream. We combine this with crystal orientation and grain size data, enabling the first overview about the microstructure of this unique ice core. Micro-inclusions show a strong spatial variability and patterns (clusters or horizontal layers); roughly one-third is located at grain boundaries. More holistic approaches are needed to understand deformation processes in the ice better.
Romilly Harris Stuart, Anne-Katrine Faber, Sonja Wahl, Maria Hörhold, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Kristian Vasskog, Melanie Behrens, Alexandra Zuhr, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
This empirical study uses continuous daily measurements from the Greenland Ice Sheet to document changes in surface snow properties. Consistent changes in snow isotopic composition are observed in the absence of deposition due to surface processes, indicating the isotopic signal of deposited precipitation is not always preserved. Our observations have potential implications for the interpretation of water isotopes in ice cores – historically assumed to reflect isotopic composition at deposition.
Abigail G. Hughes, Sonja Wahl, Tyler R. Jones, Alexandra Zuhr, Maria Hörhold, James W. C. White, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
The Cryosphere, 15, 4949–4974,Short summary
Water isotope records in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores are a valuable proxy for paleoclimate reconstruction and are traditionally thought to primarily reflect precipitation input. However, post-depositional processes are hypothesized to contribute to the isotope climate signal. In this study we use laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling to show that sublimation and vapor–snow isotope exchange can rapidly influence the isotopic composition of the snowpack.
Alexandra M. Zuhr, Thomas Münch, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, Maria Hörhold, and Thomas Laepple
The Cryosphere, 15, 4873–4900,Short summary
Firn and ice cores are used to infer past temperatures. However, the imprint of the climatic signal in stable water isotopes is influenced by depositional modifications. We present and use a photogrammetry structure-from-motion approach and find variability in the amount, the timing, and the location of snowfall. Depositional modifications of the surface are observed, leading to mixing of snow from different snowfall events and spatial locations and thus creating noise in the proxy record.
Laura Crick, Andrea Burke, William Hutchison, Mika Kohno, Kathryn A. Moore, Joel Savarino, Emily A. Doyle, Sue Mahony, Sepp Kipfstuhl, James W. B. Rae, Robert C. J. Steele, R. Stephen J. Sparks, and Eric W. Wolff
Clim. Past, 17, 2119–2137,Short summary
The ~ 74 ka eruption of Toba was one of the largest eruptions of the last 100 ka. We have measured the sulfur isotopic composition for 11 Toba eruption candidates in two Antarctic ice cores. Sulfur isotopes allow us to distinguish between large eruptions that have erupted material into the stratosphere and smaller ones that reach lower altitudes. Using this we have identified the events most likely to be Toba and place the eruption on the transition into a cold period in the Northern Hemisphere.
Saeid Bagheri Dastgerdi, Melanie Behrens, Jean-Louis Bonne, Maria Hörhold, Gerrit Lohmann, Elisabeth Schlosser, and Martin Werner
The Cryosphere, 15, 4745–4767,Short summary
In this study, for the first time, water vapour isotope measurements in Antarctica for all seasons of a year are performed. Local temperature is identified as the main driver of δ18O and δD variability. A similar slope of the temperature–δ18O relationship in vapour and surface snow points to the water vapour isotope content as a potential key driver. This dataset can be used as a new dataset to evaluate the capability of isotope-enhanced climate models.
Johannes Sutter, Hubertus Fischer, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 15, 3839–3860,Short summary
Projections of global sea-level changes in a warming world require ice-sheet models. We expand the calibration of these models by making use of the internal architecture of the Antarctic ice sheet, which is formed by its evolution over many millennia. We propose that using our novel approach to constrain ice sheet models, we will be able to both sharpen our understanding of past and future sea-level changes and identify weaknesses in the parameterisation of current continental-scale models.
Helle Astrid Kjær, Lisa Lolk Hauge, Marius Simonsen, Zurine Yoldi, Iben Koldtoft, Maria Hörhold, Johannes Freitag, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Anders Svensson, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 15, 3719–3730,Short summary
Ice core analyses are often done in home laboratories after costly transport of samples from the field. This limits the amount of sample that can be analysed. Here, we present the first truly field-portable continuous flow analysis (CFA) system for the analysis of impurities in snow, firn and ice cores while still in the field: the lightweight in situ analysis (LISA) box. LISA is demonstrated in Greenland to reconstruct accumulation, conductivity and peroxide in snow cores.
David A. Lilien, Daniel Steinhage, Drew Taylor, Frédéric Parrenin, Catherine Ritz, Robert Mulvaney, Carlos Martín, Jie-Bang Yan, Charles O'Neill, Massimo Frezzotti, Heinrich Miller, Prasad Gogineni, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 15, 1881–1888,Short summary
We collected radar data between EDC, an ice core spanning ~800 000 years, and BELDC, the site chosen for a new
oldest icecore at nearby Little Dome C. These data allow us to identify 50 % older internal horizons than previously traced in the area. We fit a model to the ages of those horizons at BELDC to determine the age of deep ice there. We find that there is likely to be 1.5 Myr old ice ~265 m above the bed, with sufficient resolution to preserve desired climatic information.
Coen Hofstede, Sebastian Beyer, Hugh Corr, Olaf Eisen, Tore Hattermann, Veit Helm, Niklas Neckel, Emma C. Smith, Daniel Steinhage, Ole Zeising, and Angelika Humbert
The Cryosphere, 15, 1517–1535,Short summary
Support Force Glacier rapidly flows into Filcher Ice Shelf of Antarctica. As we know little about this glacier and its subglacial drainage, we used seismic energy to map the transition area from grounded to floating ice where a drainage channel enters the ocean cavity. Soft sediments close to the grounding line are probably transported by this drainage channel. The constant ice thickness over the steeply dipping seabed of the ocean cavity suggests a stable transition and little basal melting.
Stefan Kowalewski, Veit Helm, Elizabeth Mary Morris, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 15, 1285–1305,Short summary
This study presents estimates of total mass input for the Pine Island Glacier (PIG) over the period 2005–2014 from airborne radar measurements. Our analysis reveals a total mass input similar to an earlier estimate for the period 1985–2009 and same area. This suggests a stationary total mass input contrary to the accelerated mass loss of PIG over the past decades. However, we also find that its uncertainty is highly sensitive to the geostatistical assumptions required for its calculation.
Helle Astrid Kjær, Patrick Zens, Ross Edwards, Martin Olesen, Ruth Mottram, Gabriel Lewis, Christian Terkelsen Holme, Samuel Black, Kasper Holst Lund, Mikkel Schmidt, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Bo Vinther, Anders Svensson, Nanna Karlsson, Jason E. Box, Sepp Kipfstuhl, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
We have reconstructed accumulation in 6 firn cores and 8 snow cores in Northern Greenland and compared with a regional Climate model over Greenland. We find the model underestimate precipitation especially in north-eastern part of the ice cap- an important finding if aiming to reconstruct surface mass balance. Temperatures at 10 meters depth at 6 sites in Greenland were also determined and show a significant warming since the 1990's of 0.9 to 2.5 °C.
Seyedhamidreza Mojtabavi, Frank Wilhelms, Eliza Cook, Siwan M. Davies, Giulia Sinnl, Mathias Skov Jensen, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Anders Svensson, Bo M. Vinther, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Gwydion Jones, Nanna B. Karlsson, Sergio Henrique Faria, Vasileios Gkinis, Helle Astrid Kjær, Tobias Erhardt, Sarah M. P. Berben, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Iben Koldtoft, and Sune Olander Rasmussen
Clim. Past, 16, 2359–2380,Short summary
We present a first chronology for the East Greenland Ice-core Project (EGRIP) over the Holocene and last glacial termination. After field measurements and processing of the ice-core data, the GICC05 timescale is transferred from the NGRIP core to the EGRIP core by means of matching volcanic events and common patterns (381 match points) in the ECM and DEP records. The new timescale is named GICC05-EGRIP-1 and extends back to around 15 kyr b2k.
Clemens Schannwell, Reinhard Drews, Todd A. Ehlers, Olaf Eisen, Christoph Mayer, Mika Malinen, Emma C. Smith, and Hannes Eisermann
The Cryosphere, 14, 3917–3934,Short summary
To reduce uncertainties associated with sea level rise projections, an accurate representation of ice flow is paramount. Most ice sheet models rely on simplified versions of the underlying ice flow equations. Due to the high computational costs, ice sheet models based on the complete ice flow equations have been restricted to < 1000 years. Here, we present a new model setup that extends the applicability of such models by an order of magnitude, permitting simulations of 40 000 years.
Jann Schrod, Dominik Kleinhenz, Maria Hörhold, Tobias Erhardt, Sarah Richter, Frank Wilhelms, Hubertus Fischer, Martin Ebert, Birthe Twarloh, Damiano Della Lunga, Camilla M. Jensen, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12459–12482,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations of the last 6 centuries are presented from an ice core in Greenland. The data are accompanied by physical and chemical aerosol data. INPs are correlated to the dust signal from the ice core and seem to follow the annual input of mineral dust. We find no clear trend in the INP concentration. However, modern-day concentrations are higher and more variable than the concentrations of the past. This might have significant atmospheric implications.
Jean-Louis Bonne, Hanno Meyer, Melanie Behrens, Julia Boike, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Benjamin Rabe, Toni Schmidt, Lutz Schönicke, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, and Martin Werner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10493–10511,Short summary
This study introduces 2 years of continuous near-surface in situ observations of the stable isotopic composition of water vapour in parallel with precipitation in north-eastern Siberia. We evaluate the atmospheric transport of moisture towards the region of our observations with simulations constrained by meteorological reanalyses and use this information to interpret the temporal variations of the vapour isotopic composition from seasonal to synoptic timescales.
Anders Svensson, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Jørgen Peder Steffensen, Thomas Blunier, Sune O. Rasmussen, Bo M. Vinther, Paul Vallelonga, Emilie Capron, Vasileios Gkinis, Eliza Cook, Helle Astrid Kjær, Raimund Muscheler, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Frank Wilhelms, Thomas F. Stocker, Hubertus Fischer, Florian Adolphi, Tobias Erhardt, Michael Sigl, Amaelle Landais, Frédéric Parrenin, Christo Buizert, Joseph R. McConnell, Mirko Severi, Robert Mulvaney, and Matthias Bigler
Clim. Past, 16, 1565–1580,Short summary
We identify signatures of large bipolar volcanic eruptions in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores during the last glacial period, which allows for a precise temporal alignment of the ice cores. Thereby the exact timing of unexplained, abrupt climatic changes occurring during the last glacial period can be determined in a global context. The study thus provides a step towards a full understanding of elements of the climate system that may also play an important role in the future.
Kirstin Hoffmann, Francisco Fernandoy, Hanno Meyer, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Marcelo Aliaga, Dieter Tetzner, Johannes Freitag, Thomas Opel, Jorge Arigony-Neto, Christian Florian Göbel, Ricardo Jaña, Delia Rodríguez Oroz, Rebecca Tuckwell, Emily Ludlow, Joseph R. McConnell, and Christoph Schneider
The Cryosphere, 14, 881–904,
Achim Heilig, Olaf Eisen, Martin Schneebeli, Michael MacFerrin, C. Max Stevens, Baptiste Vandecrux, and Konrad Steffen
The Cryosphere, 14, 385–402,Short summary
We investigate the spatial representativeness of point observations of snow accumulation in SW Greenland. Such analyses have rarely been conducted but are necessary to link regional-scale observations from, e.g., remote-sensing data to firn cores and snow pits. The presented data reveal a low regional variability in density but snow depth can vary significantly. It is necessary to combine pits with spatial snow depth data to increase the regional representativeness of accumulation observations.
Kévin Fourteau, Patricia Martinerie, Xavier Faïn, Christoph F. Schaller, Rebecca J. Tuckwell, Henning Löwe, Laurent Arnaud, Olivier Magand, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Johannes Freitag, Robert Mulvaney, Martin Schneebeli, and Vladimir Ya. Lipenkov
The Cryosphere, 13, 3383–3403,Short summary
Understanding gas trapping in polar ice is essential to study the relationship between greenhouse gases and past climates. New data of bubble closure, used in a simple gas-trapping model, show inconsistency with the final air content in ice. This suggests gas trapping is not fully understood. We also use a combination of high-resolution measurements to investigate the effect of polar snow stratification on gas trapping and find that all strata have similar pores, but that some close in advance.
Damiano Della Lunga, Hörhold Maria, Birthe Twarloh, Behrens Melanie, Dallmayr Remi, Erhardt Tobias, Jensen Camille Marie, and Wilhelms Frank
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The extent of sea ice plays a major role in the present Arctic warming, and it is possibly one of its first victims, since it has been predicted to disappear in the near future, if warming proceed. Our manuscript validates ice core proxies for the reconstruction of the variability of sea ice extent around Greenland in the last 600 years, and simultanesouly infers the evolution of the proxy-sources with time. Understanding past sea ice extent variability, is thus crucial in predicting its future.
Clemens Schannwell, Reinhard Drews, Todd A. Ehlers, Olaf Eisen, Christoph Mayer, and Fabien Gillet-Chaulet
The Cryosphere, 13, 2673–2691,Short summary
Ice rises are important ice-sheet features that archive the ice sheet's history in their internal structure. Here we use a 3-D numerical ice-sheet model to simulate mechanisms that lead to changes in the geometry of the internal structure. We find that changes in snowfall result in much larger and faster changes than similar changes in ice-shelf geometry. This result is integral to fully unlocking the potential of ice rises as ice-dynamic archives and potential ice-core drilling sites.
Johannes Sutter, Hubertus Fischer, Klaus Grosfeld, Nanna B. Karlsson, Thomas Kleiner, Brice Van Liefferinge, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 13, 2023–2041,Short summary
The Antarctic Ice Sheet may have played an important role in moderating the transition between warm and cold climate epochs over the last million years. We find that the Antarctic Ice Sheet grew considerably about 0.9 Myr ago, a time when ice-age–warm-age cycles changed from a 40 000 to a 100 000 year periodicity. Our findings also suggest that ice as old as 1.5 Myr still exists at the bottom of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet despite the major climate reorganisations in the past.
Anna Winter, Daniel Steinhage, Timothy T. Creyts, Thomas Kleiner, and Olaf Eisen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1069–1081,
Tetsuro Taranczewski, Johannes Freitag, Olaf Eisen, Bo Vinther, Sonja Wahl, and Sepp Kipfstuhl
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We used melt layers detected in ice cores from the Renland ice cap in East Greenland to find evidence of past climate trends in this region. Our record provides such information for the past 10,000 years. We developed an attempt to increase the reliability of such a record by correcting deformation-induced biases. It proves that such simple to obtain melt records can be used to gather information about paleoclimate especially for regions where climate records are sparse.
Brice Van Liefferinge, Frank Pattyn, Marie G. P. Cavitte, Nanna B. Karlsson, Duncan A. Young, Johannes Sutter, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 12, 2773–2787,Short summary
Our paper provides an important review of the state of knowledge for oldest-ice prospection, but also adds new basal geothermal heat flux constraints from recently acquired high-definition radar data sets. This is the first paper to contrast the two primary target regions for oldest ice: Dome C and Dome Fuji. Moreover, we provide statistical comparisons of all available data sets and a summary of the community's criteria for the retrieval of interpretable oldest ice since the 2013 effort.
Nanna B. Karlsson, Tobias Binder, Graeme Eagles, Veit Helm, Frank Pattyn, Brice Van Liefferinge, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 12, 2413–2424,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the probability that the Dome Fuji region in East Antarctica contains ice more than 1.5 Ma old. The retrieval of a continuous ice-core record extending beyond 1 Ma is imperative to understand why the frequency of ice ages changed from 40 to 100 ka approximately 1 Ma ago. We use a new radar dataset to improve the ice thickness maps, and apply a thermokinematic model to predict basal temperature and age of the ice. Our results indicate several areas of interest.
Achim Heilig, Olaf Eisen, Michael MacFerrin, Marco Tedesco, and Xavier Fettweis
The Cryosphere, 12, 1851–1866,Short summary
This paper presents data on temporal changes in snow and firn, which were not available before. We present data on water infiltration in the percolation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet that improve our understanding of liquid water retention in snow and firn and mass transfer. We compare those findings with model simulations. It appears that simulated accumulation in terms of SWE is fairly accurate, while modeling of the individual parameters density and liquid water content is incorrect.
Johanna Kerch, Anja Diez, Ilka Weikusat, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 12, 1715–1734,Short summary
We investigate the effect of crystal anisotropy on seismic velocities in glacier ice by calculating seismic phase velocities using the exact c axis angles to describe the crystal orientations in ice-core samples for an alpine and a polar ice core. Our results provide uncertainty estimates for earlier established approximative calculations. Additionally, our findings highlight the variation in seismic velocity at non-vertical incidence as a function of the horizontal azimuth of the seismic plane.
Nancy A. N. Bertler, Howard Conway, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Daniel B. Emanuelsson, Mai Winstrup, Paul T. Vallelonga, James E. Lee, Ed J. Brook, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Taylor J. Fudge, Elizabeth D. Keller, W. Troy Baisden, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Peter D. Neff, Thomas Blunier, Ross Edwards, Paul A. Mayewski, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Christo Buizert, Silvia Canessa, Ruzica Dadic, Helle A. Kjær, Andrei Kurbatov, Dongqi Zhang, Edwin D. Waddington, Giovanni Baccolo, Thomas Beers, Hannah J. Brightley, Lionel Carter, David Clemens-Sewall, Viorela G. Ciobanu, Barbara Delmonte, Lukas Eling, Aja Ellis, Shruthi Ganesh, Nicholas R. Golledge, Skylar Haines, Michael Handley, Robert L. Hawley, Chad M. Hogan, Katelyn M. Johnson, Elena Korotkikh, Daniel P. Lowry, Darcy Mandeno, Robert M. McKay, James A. Menking, Timothy R. Naish, Caroline Noerling, Agathe Ollive, Anaïs Orsi, Bernadette C. Proemse, Alexander R. Pyne, Rebecca L. Pyne, James Renwick, Reed P. Scherer, Stefanie Semper, Marius Simonsen, Sharon B. Sneed, Eric J. Steig, Andrea Tuohy, Abhijith Ulayottil Venugopal, Fernando Valero-Delgado, Janani Venkatesh, Feitang Wang, Shimeng Wang, Dominic A. Winski, V. Holly L. Winton, Arran Whiteford, Cunde Xiao, Jiao Yang, and Xin Zhang
Clim. Past, 14, 193–214,Short summary
Temperature and snow accumulation records from the annually dated Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core show that for the past 2 700 years, the eastern Ross Sea warmed, while the western Ross Sea showed no trend and West Antarctica cooled. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. Now all three regions show concurrent warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea.
Thomas Laepple, Thomas Münch, Mathieu Casado, Maria Hoerhold, Amaelle Landais, and Sepp Kipfstuhl
The Cryosphere, 12, 169–187,Short summary
We explain why snow pits across different sites in East Antarctica show visually similar isotopic variations. We argue that the similarity and the apparent cycles of around 20 cm in the δD and δ18O variations are the result of a seasonal cycle in isotopes, noise, for example from precipitation intermittency, and diffusion. The near constancy of the diffusion length across many ice-coring sites explains why the structure and cycle length is largely independent of the accumulation conditions.
Tim Carlsen, Gerit Birnbaum, André Ehrlich, Johannes Freitag, Georg Heygster, Larysa Istomina, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Anaïs Orsi, Michael Schäfer, and Manfred Wendisch
The Cryosphere, 11, 2727–2741,Short summary
The optical size of snow grains (ropt) affects the reflectivity of snow surfaces and thus the local surface energy budget in particular in polar regions. The temporal evolution of ropt retrieved from ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne remote sensing could reproduce optical in situ measurements for a 2-month period in central Antarctica (2013/14). The presented validation study provided a unique testbed for retrievals of ropt under Antarctic conditions where in situ data are scarce.
Christoph Florian Schaller, Johannes Freitag, and Olaf Eisen
Clim. Past, 13, 1685–1693,Short summary
In order to interpret the paleoclimatic record stored in the air enclosed in polar ice cores, it is crucial to understand the fundamental lock-in process. In our study, we present the first extensive data set of direct firn microstructure measurements and use it to show that the critical porosity of gas enclosure is independent of the climatic site conditions (such as temperature and accumulation rate). This leads to significant changes in dating and interpretation of ice-core gas records.
Thomas Münch, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Johannes Freitag, Hanno Meyer, and Thomas Laepple
The Cryosphere, 11, 2175–2188,Short summary
The importance of post-depositional changes for the temperature interpretation of water isotopes is poorly constrained by observations. Here, for the first time, temporal isotope changes in the open-porous firn are directly analysed using a large array of shallow isotope profiles. By this, we can reject the possibility of post-depositional change beyond diffusion and densification as the cause of the discrepancy between isotope and local temperature variations at Kohnen Station, East Antarctica.
Ilka Weikusat, Ernst-Jan N. Kuiper, Gill M. Pennock, Sepp Kipfstuhl, and Martyn R. Drury
Solid Earth, 8, 883–898,Short summary
Understanding the flow of large ice masses on Earth is a major challenge in our changing climate. Deformation mechanisms are governed by the strong anisotropy of ice. As anisotropy is currently moving into the focus of ice sheet flow studies, we provide a detailed analysis of microstructure data from natural ice core samples which directly relate to anisotropic plasticity. Our findings reveal surprising dislocation activity which seems to contradict the concept of macroscopic ice anisotropy.
Jan Eichler, Ina Kleitz, Maddalena Bayer-Giraldi, Daniela Jansen, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Wataru Shigeyama, Christian Weikusat, and Ilka Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 11, 1075–1090,Short summary
This study contributes to investigations of the effect of impurities on ice microstructure and flow properties. For the first time we mapped over 5000 micro-inclusions in four samples from the EDML and NEEM polar ice cores. The particle distributions show no correlation with grain boundaries and thus we conclude that particle pinning plays only a secondary role for the microstructure evolution. Alternative mechanisms are discussed.
Anna Winter, Daniel Steinhage, Emily J. Arnold, Donald D. Blankenship, Marie G. P. Cavitte, Hugh F. J. Corr, John D. Paden, Stefano Urbini, Duncan A. Young, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 11, 653–668,
Christoph Florian Schaller, Johannes Freitag, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Thomas Laepple, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 10, 1991–2002,Short summary
Along a traverse through North Greenland in May 2015 we collected snow cores up to 2 m in depth and analyzed their properties (e.g., density). A new technique for this sampling and an adapted algorithm for comparing data sets from different positions and aligning stratigraphic features are presented. We find good agreement of the density layering in the snowpack over hundreds of kilometers. This allows the construction of a representative density profile that is statistically validated.
François Ritter, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, Martin Werner, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Anais Orsi, Melanie Behrens, Gerit Birnbaum, Johannes Freitag, Camille Risi, and Sepp Kipfstuhl
The Cryosphere, 10, 1647–1663,Short summary
We present successful continuous measurements of water vapor isotopes performed in Antarctica in January 2013. The interest is to understand the impact of the water vapor isotopic composition on the near-surface snow isotopes. Our study reveals a diurnal cycle in the snow isotopic composition in phase with the vapor. This finding suggests fractionation during the sublimation of the ice, which has an important consequence on the interpretation of water isotope variations in ice cores.
Thomas Münch, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Johannes Freitag, Hanno Meyer, and Thomas Laepple
Clim. Past, 12, 1565–1581,Short summary
Ice-core oxygen isotope ratios are a key climate archive to infer past temperatures, an interpretation however complicated by non-climatic noise. Based on 50 m firn trenches, we present for the first time a two-dimensional view (vertical × horizontal) of how oxygen isotopes are stored in Antarctic firn. A statistical noise model allows inferences for the validity of ice coring efforts to reconstruct past temperatures, highlighting the need of replicate cores for Holocene climate reconstructions.
Rachael H. Rhodes, Xavier Faïn, Edward J. Brook, Joseph R. McConnell, Olivia J. Maselli, Michael Sigl, Jon Edwards, Christo Buizert, Thomas Blunier, Jérôme Chappellaz, and Johannes Freitag
Clim. Past, 12, 1061–1077,Short summary
Local artifacts in ice core methane data are superimposed on consistent records of past atmospheric variability. These artifacts are not related to past atmospheric history and care should be taken to avoid interpreting them as such. By investigating five polar ice cores from sites with different conditions, we relate isolated methane spikes to melt layers and decimetre-scale variations as "trapping signal" associated with a difference in timing of air bubble closure in adjacent firn layers.
D. Jansen, M.-G. Llorens, J. Westhoff, F. Steinbach, S. Kipfstuhl, P. D. Bons, A. Griera, and I. Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 10, 359–370,Short summary
In this study we present examples of typical small-scale folds observed in the NEEM ice core, North Greenland, and discuss their characteristics. Numerical modelling of viscoplastic deformation and dynamic recrystallisation was used to improve the understanding of the formation of the observed structures under simple shear boundary conditions. We conclude that the folds originate from bands of grains with a tilted lattice relative to the strong lattice preferred orientation below 1500 m depth.
S. Weißbach, A. Wegner, T. Opel, H. Oerter, B. M. Vinther, and S. Kipfstuhl
Clim. Past, 12, 171–188,Short summary
Based on a set of 12 intermediate deep ice cores, covering an area of about 200 000 km2, we studied the spatial and temporal d18O patterns of northern Greenland over the past millennium and found a strong east-west gradient related to the main ice divide. A stacked record with significantly reduced noise revealed distinct climate variations with a pronounced Little Ice Age and distinct warm events such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly, around AD 1420 and in the 20th century.
N. Wever, L. Schmid, A. Heilig, O. Eisen, C. Fierz, and M. Lehning
The Cryosphere, 9, 2271–2293,Short summary
A verification of the physics based SNOWPACK model with field observations showed that typical snowpack properties like density and temperature are adequately simulated. Also two water transport schemes were verified, showing that although Richards equation improves snowpack runoff and several aspects of the internal snowpack structure, the bucket scheme appeared to have a higher agreement with the snow microstructure. The choice of water transport scheme may depend on the intended application.
A. Svensson, S. Fujita, M. Bigler, M. Braun, R. Dallmayr, V. Gkinis, K. Goto-Azuma, M. Hirabayashi, K. Kawamura, S. Kipfstuhl, H. A. Kjær, T. Popp, M. Simonsen, J. P. Steffensen, P. Vallelonga, and B. M. Vinther
Clim. Past, 11, 1127–1137,
J. Christmann, R. Müller, K. G. Webber, D. Isaia, F. H. Schader, S. Kipfstuhl, J. Freitag, and A. Humbert
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 87–92,
A. Diez and O. Eisen
The Cryosphere, 9, 367–384,
A. Diez, O. Eisen, C. Hofstede, A. Lambrecht, C. Mayer, H. Miller, D. Steinhage, T. Binder, and I. Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 9, 385–398,
C. Elsässer, D. Wagenbach, I. Levin, A. Stanzick, M. Christl, A. Wallner, S. Kipfstuhl, I. K. Seierstad, H. Wershofen, and J. Dibb
Clim. Past, 11, 115–133,
P. Vallelonga, K. Christianson, R. B. Alley, S. Anandakrishnan, J. E. M. Christian, D. Dahl-Jensen, V. Gkinis, C. Holme, R. W. Jacobel, N. B. Karlsson, B. A. Keisling, S. Kipfstuhl, H. A. Kjær, M. E. L. Kristensen, A. Muto, L. E. Peters, T. Popp, K. L. Riverman, A. M. Svensson, C. Tibuleac, B. M. Vinther, Y. Weng, and M. Winstrup
The Cryosphere, 8, 1275–1287,
H. C. Steen-Larsen, V. Masson-Delmotte, M. Hirabayashi, R. Winkler, K. Satow, F. Prié, N. Bayou, E. Brun, K. M. Cuffey, D. Dahl-Jensen, M. Dumont, M. Guillevic, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, T. Popp, C. Risi, K. Steffen, B. Stenni, and A. E. Sveinbjörnsdottír
Clim. Past, 10, 377–392,
S. O. Rasmussen, P. M. Abbott, T. Blunier, A. J. Bourne, E. Brook, S. L. Buchardt, C. Buizert, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, E. Cook, D. Dahl-Jensen, S. M. Davies, M. Guillevic, S. Kipfstuhl, T. Laepple, I. K. Seierstad, J. P. Severinghaus, J. P. Steffensen, C. Stowasser, A. Svensson, P. Vallelonga, B. M. Vinther, F. Wilhelms, and M. Winstrup
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730,
A. Svensson, M. Bigler, T. Blunier, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, S. Fujita, K. Goto-Azuma, S. J. Johnsen, K. Kawamura, S. Kipfstuhl, M. Kohno, F. Parrenin, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, J. Schwander, I. Seierstad, M. Severi, J. P. Steffensen, R. Udisti, R. Uemura, P. Vallelonga, B. M. Vinther, A. Wegner, F. Wilhelms, and M. Winstrup
Clim. Past, 9, 749–766,
Related subject area
Discipline: Snow | Subject: AntarcticThe sensitivity of satellite microwave observations to liquid water in the Antarctic snowpackSpectral characterization, radiative forcing and pigment content of coastal Antarctic snow algae: approaches to spectrally discriminate red and green communities and their impact on snowmeltDistinguishing the impacts of ozone and ozone-depleting substances on the recent increase in Antarctic surface mass balanceBrief communication: Evaluating Antarctic precipitation in ERA5 and CMIP6 against CloudSat observationsDrifting-snow statistics from multiple-year autonomous measurements in Adélie Land, East AntarcticaImpact of exhaust emissions on chemical snowpack composition at Concordia Station, AntarcticaObservation of the process of snow accumulation on the Antarctic Plateau by time lapse laser scanningEvaluation of CloudSat snowfall rate profiles by a comparison with in situ micro-rain radar observations in East AntarcticaInvestigation of a wind-packing event in Queen Maud Land, AntarcticaArchival processes of the water stable isotope signal in East Antarctic ice cores
Ghislain Picard, Marion Leduc-Leballeur, Alison F. Banwell, Ludovic Brucker, and Giovanni Macelloni
The Cryosphere, 16, 5061–5083,Short summary
Using a snowpack radiative transfer model, we investigate in which conditions meltwater can be detected from passive microwave satellite observations from 1.4 to 37 GHz. In particular, we determine the minimum detectable liquid water content, the maximum depth of detection of a buried wet snow layer and the risk of false alarm due to supraglacial lakes. These results provide information for the developers of new, more advanced satellite melt products and for the users of the existing products.
Alia L. Khan, Heidi M. Dierssen, Ted A. Scambos, Juan Höfer, and Raul R. Cordero
The Cryosphere, 15, 133–148,Short summary
We present radiative forcing (RF) estimates by snow algae in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) region from multi-year measurements of solar radiation and ground-based hyperspectral characterization of red and green snow algae collected during a brief field expedition in austral summer 2018. Mean daily RF was double for green (~26 W m−2) vs. red (~13 W m−2) snow algae during the peak growing season, which is on par with midlatitude dust attributions capable of advancing snowmelt.
Rei Chemke, Michael Previdi, Mark R. England, and Lorenzo M. Polvani
The Cryosphere, 14, 4135–4144,Short summary
The increase in Antarctic surface mass balance (SMB, precipitation vs. evaporation/sublimation) is projected to mitigate sea-level rise. Here we show that nearly half of this increase over the 20th century is attributed to stratospheric ozone depletion and ozone-depleting substance (ODS) emissions. Our results suggest that the phaseout of ODS by the Montreal Protocol, and the recovery of stratospheric ozone, will act to decrease the SMB over the 21st century and the mitigation of sea-level rise.
Marie-Laure Roussel, Florentin Lemonnier, Christophe Genthon, and Gerhard Krinner
The Cryosphere, 14, 2715–2727,Short summary
The Antarctic precipitation is evaluated against space radar data in the most recent climate model intercomparison CMIP6 and reanalysis ERA5. The seasonal cycle is mostly well reproduced, but relative errors are higher in areas of complex topography, particularly in the higher-resolution models. At continental and regional scales all results are biased high, with no significant progress in the more recent models. Predicting Antarctic contribution to sea level still requires model improvements.
The Cryosphere, 14, 1713–1725,Short summary
This paper presents an assessment of drifting-snow occurrences and snow mass transport from up to 9 years (2010–2018) of half-hourly observational records collected at two remote locations in coastal Adelie Land (East Antarctica) using second-generation IAV Engineering acoustic FlowCapt sensors. The dataset is freely available to the scientific community and can be used to complement satellite products and evaluate snow-transport models close to the surface and at high temporal frequency.
Detlev Helmig, Daniel Liptzin, Jacques Hueber, and Joel Savarino
The Cryosphere, 14, 199–209,Short summary
We present 15 months of trace gas observations from air withdrawn within the snowpack and from above the snow at Concordia Station in Antarctica. The data show occasional positive spikes, indicative of pollution from the station generator. The pollution signal can be seen in snowpack air shortly after it is observed above the snow surface, and lasting for up to several days, much longer than above the surface.
Ghislain Picard, Laurent Arnaud, Romain Caneill, Eric Lefebvre, and Maxim Lamare
The Cryosphere, 13, 1983–1999,Short summary
To study how snow accumulates in Antarctica, we analyze daily surface elevation recorded by an automatic laser scanner. We show that new snow often accumulates in thick patches covering a small fraction of the surface. Most patches are removed by erosion within weeks, implying that only a few contribute to the snowpack. This explains the heterogeneity on the surface and in the snowpack. These findings are important for surface mass and energy balance, photochemistry, and ice core interpretation.
Florentin Lemonnier, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, Chantal Claud, Christophe Genthon, Claudio Durán-Alarcón, Cyril Palerme, Alexis Berne, Niels Souverijns, Nicole van Lipzig, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Tristan L'Ecuyer, and Norman Wood
The Cryosphere, 13, 943–954,Short summary
Evaluation of the vertical precipitation rate profiles of CloudSat radar by comparison with two surface-based micro-rain radars (MRR) located at two antarctic stations gives a near-perfect correlation between both datasets, even though climatic and geographic conditions are different for the stations. A better understanding and reassessment of CloudSat uncertainties ranging from −13 % up to +22 % confirms the robustness of the CloudSat retrievals of snowfall over Antarctica.
Christian Gabriel Sommer, Nander Wever, Charles Fierz, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere, 12, 2923–2939,Short summary
Wind packing is how wind produces hard crusts at the surface of the snowpack. This is relevant for the local mass balance in polar regions. However, not much is known about this process and it is difficult to capture its high spatial and temporal variability. A wind-packing event was measured in Antarctica. It could be quantified how drifting snow leads to wind packing and generates barchan dunes. The documentation of these deposition dynamics is an important step in understanding polar snow.
Mathieu Casado, Amaelle Landais, Ghislain Picard, Thomas Münch, Thomas Laepple, Barbara Stenni, Giuliano Dreossi, Alexey Ekaykin, Laurent Arnaud, Christophe Genthon, Alexandra Touzeau, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, and Jean Jouzel
The Cryosphere, 12, 1745–1766,Short summary
Ice core isotopic records rely on the knowledge of the processes involved in the archival processes of the snow. In the East Antarctic Plateau, post-deposition processes strongly affect the signal found in the surface and buried snow compared to the initial climatic signal. We evaluate the different contributions to the surface snow isotopic composition between the precipitation and the exchanges with the atmosphere and the variability of the isotopic signal found in profiles from snow pits.
Agosta, C., Amory, C., Kittel, C., Orsi, A., Favier, V., Gallée, H., van den Broeke, M. R., Lenaerts, J. T. M., van Wessem, J. M., van de Berg, W. J., and Fettweis, X.: Estimation of the Antarctic surface mass balance using the regional climate model MAR (1979–2015) and identification of dominant processes, The Cryosphere, 13, 281–296, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-13-281-2019, 2019.
Alexander, P. M., Tedesco, M., Koenig, L., and Fettweis, X.: Evaluating a Regional Climate Model Simulation of Greenland Ice Sheet Snow and Firn Density for Improved Surface Mass Balance Estimates, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 12073–12082, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019gl084101, 2019.
Anschütz, H., Muller, K., Isaksson, E., McConnell, J. R., Fischer, H., Miller, H., Albert, M., and Winther, J. G.: Revisiting sites of the South Pole Queen Maud Land Traverses in East Antarctica: Accumulation data from shallow firn cores, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D24106, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jd012204, 2009.
Anschütz, H., Sinisalo, A., Isaksson, E., McConnell, J. R., Hamran, S. E., Bisiaux, M. M., Pasteris, D., Neumann, T. A., and Winther, J. G.: Variation of accumulation rates over the last eight centuries on the East Antarctic Plateau derived from volcanic signals in ice cores, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D20103, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd015753, 2011.
Arthern, R. J., Winebrenner, D. P., and Vaughan, D. G.: Antarctic snow accumulation mapped using polarization of 4.3-cm wavelength microwave emission, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 111, D06107, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jd005667, 2006.
Birnbaum, G., Brauner, R., and Ries, H.: Synoptic situations causing high precipitation rates on the Antarctic plateau: observations from Kohnen Station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctic Science, 18, 279–288, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954102006000320, 2006.
Birnbaum, G., Freitag, J., Brauner, R., Konig-Langlo, G., Schulz, E., Kipfstuhl, S., Oerter, H., Reijmer, C. H., Schlosser, E., Faria, S. H., Ries, H., Loose, B., Herber, A., Duda, M. G., Powers, J. G., Manning, K. W., and van den Broeke, M. R.: Strong-wind events and their influence on the formation of snow dunes: observations from Kohnen station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, J. Glaciology, 56, 891–902, https://doi.org/10.3189/002214310794457272, 2010.
Conger, S. M. and McClung, D. M.: Comparison of density cutters for snow profile observations, J. Glaciol., 55, 163–169, https://doi.org/10.3189/002214309788609038, 2009.
Cunde, X., Yuansheng, L., Allison, I., Shugui, H., Dreyfus, G., Barnola, J.-M., Jiawen, R., Lingen, B., Shenkai, Z., and Kameda, T.: Surface characteristics at Dome A, Antarctica: first measurements and a guide to future ice-coring sites, Ann. Glaciol., 48, 82–87, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756408784700653, 2008.
Davis, C. H. and Zwally, H. J.: Geographic and seasonal variations in the surface properties of the ice sheets by satellite-radar altimetry, J. Glaciol., 39, 687–697, https://doi.org/10.3189/s0022143000016580, 1993.
Eisen, O., Rack, W., Nixdorf, U., and Wilhelms, F.: Characteristics of accumulation around the EPICA deep-drilling site in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 41, 41–46, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756405781813276, 2005.
Fisher, D. A., Reeh, N., and Clausen, H. B.: Stratigraphic noise in time series derived from ice cores, Ann. Glaciol., 7, 76–83, https://doi.org/10.3189/S0260305500005942, 1985.
Freitag, J., Kipfstuhl, S., and Laepple, T.: Core-scale radioscopic imaging: a new method reveals density–calcium link in Antarctic firn, J. Glaciol., 59, 1009–1014, https://doi.org/10.3189/2013JoG13J028, 2013.
Frezzotti, M., Gandolfi, S., La Marca, F., and Urbini, S.: Snow dunes and glazed surfaces in Antarctica: new field and remote-sensing data, Annals of Glaciology, 34, 81–88, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756402781817851, 2002.
Frieler, K., Clark, P. U., He, F., Buizert, C., Reese, R., Ligtenberg, S. R. M., van den Broeke, M. R., Winkelmann, R., and Levermann, A.: Consistent evidence of increasing Antarctic accumulation with warming, Nat. Clim. Change, 5, 348–352, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2574, 2015.
Fujita, S., Holmlund, P., Andersson, I., Brown, I., Enomoto, H., Fujii, Y., Fujita, K., Fukui, K., Furukawa, T., Hansson, M., Hara, K., Hoshina, Y., Igarashi, M., Iizuka, Y., Imura, S., Ingvander, S., Karlin, T., Motoyama, H., Nakazawa, F., Oerter, H., Sjöberg, L. E., Sugiyama, S., Surdyk, S., Ström, J., Uemura, R., and Wilhelms, F.: Spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation rate on the East Antarctic ice divide between Dome Fuji and EPICA DML, The Cryosphere, 5, 1057–1081, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-5-1057-2011, 2011.
Furukawa, T., Kamiyama, K., and Maeno, H.: Snow surface features along the traverse route from the coast to Dome Fuji Station, Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, Proceedings of the NIPR Symposium on Polar Meteorology and Glaciology, 10, 13–24, 1996.
Helsen, M. M., van den Broeke, M. R., van de Wal, R. S. W., van de Berg, W. J., van Meijgaard, E., Davis, C. H., Li, Y. H., and Goodwin, I.: Elevation changes in Antarctica mainly determined by accumulation variability, Science, 320, 1626–1629, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1153894, 2008.
Herron, M. M. and Langway, C. C.: Firn Densification – an Empirical-Model, J. Glaciol., 25, 373–385, https://doi.org/10.3189/S0022143000015239, 1980.
Hoshina, Y., Fujita, K., Iizuka, Y., and Motoyama, H.: Inconsistent relationships between major ions and water stable isotopes in Antarctic snow under different accumulation environments, Polar Science, 10, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polar.2015.12.003, 2016.
Hoshina, Y., Fujita, K., Nakazawa, F., Iizuka, Y., Miyake, T., Hirabayashi, M., Kuramoto, T., Fujita, S., and Motoyama, H.: Effect of accumulation rate on water stable isotopes of near-surface snow in inland Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 274–283, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jd020771, 2014.
Huybrechts, P., Rybak, O., Pattyn, F., Ruth, U., and Steinhage, D.: Ice thinning, upstream advection, and non-climatic biases for the upper 89 % of the EDML ice core from a nested model of the Antarctic ice sheet, Clim. Past, 3, 577–589, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-3-577-2007, 2007.
IPCC: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, edited by: Pörtner, H.-O., Roberts, D. C., Masson-Delmotte, V., Zhai, P., Tignor, M., Poloczanska, E., Mintenbeck, K., Alegría, A., Nicolai, M., Okem, A., Petzold, J., Rama, B., and Weyer, N. M., IPCC, in press, 2019.
Kane, H. S.: A study of 10 m firn temperatures in central East Antarctica, IAHS, 86, 165–174, 1970.
Karlof, L., Isaksson, E., Winther, J. G., Gundestrup, N., Meijer, H. A. J., Mulvaney, R., Pourchet, M., Hofstede, C., Lappegard, G., Pettersson, R., Van den Broeke, M., and Van De Wal, R. S. W.: Accumulation variability over a small area in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, as determined from shallow firn cores and snow pits: some implications for ice-core records, J. Glaciol., 51, 343–352, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756505781829232, 2005.
Karlöf, L., Winebrenner, D. P., and Percival, D. B.: How representative is a time series derived from a firn core? A study at a low-accumulation site on the Antarctic plateau, J. Geophys. Res., 111, F04001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jf000552, 2006.
Karlsson, N. B., Binder, T., Eagles, G., Helm, V., Pattyn, F., Van Liefferinge, B., and Eisen, O.: Glaciological characteristics in the Dome Fuji region and new assessment for “Oldest Ice”, The Cryosphere, 12, 2413–2424, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-2413-2018, 2018.
Kaspers, K. A., van de Wal, R. S. W., van den Broeke, M. R., Schwander, J., van Lipzig, N. P. M., and Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.: Model calculations of the age of firn air across the Antarctic continent, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1365–1380, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-4-1365-2004, 2004.
Laepple, T., Hörhold, M., Münch, T., Freitag, J., Wegner, A., and Kipfstuhl, S.: Layering of surface snow and firn at Kohnen Station, Antarctica: Noise or seasonal signal?, J. Geophys. Res.-Ea. Surf., 121, 1849–1860, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016jf003919, 2016.
Lenaerts, J. T. M. and van den Broeke, M. R.: Modeling drifting snow in Antarctica with a regional climate model: 2. Results, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D05109, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jd015419, 2012.
Lenaerts, J. T. M., Medley, B., van den Broeke, M. R., and Wouters, B.: Observing and Modeling Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance, Rev. Geophys., 57, 376–420, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018rg000622, 2019.
Ligtenberg, S. R. M., Helsen, M. M., and van den Broeke, M. R.: An improved semi-empirical model for the densification of Antarctic firn, The Cryosphere, 5, 809–819, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-5-809-2011, 2011.
Mätzler, C.: Microwave permittivity of dry snow, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote, 34, 573–581, https://doi.org/10.1109/36.485133, 1996.
McMillan, M., Shepherd, A., Sundal, A., Briggs, K., Muir, A., Ridout, A., Hogg, A., and Wingham, D.: Increased ice losses from Antarctica detected by CryoSat-2, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 3899–3905, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl060111, 2014.
Medley, B., McConnell, J. R., Neumann, T. A., Reijmer, C. H., Chellman, N., Sigl, M., and Kipfstuhl, S.: Temperature and Snowfall in Western Queen Maud Land Increasing Faster Than Climate Model Projections, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 1472–1480, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017gl075992, 2018.
Medley, B. and Thomas, E. R.: Increased snowfall over the Antarctic Ice Sheet mitigated twentieth-century sea-level rise, Nat. Clim. Change, 9, 34–39, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0356-x, 2019.
Münch, T., Kipfstuhl, S., Freitag, J., Meyer, H., and Laepple, T.: Regional climate signal vs. local noise: a two-dimensional view of water isotopes in Antarctic firn at Kohnen Station, Dronning Maud Land, Clim. Past, 12, 1565–1581, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-1565-2016, 2016.
Nghiem, S. V., Hall, D. K., Mote, T. L., Tedesco, M., Albert, M. R., Keegan, K., Shuman, C. A., DiGirolamo, N. E., and Neumann, G.: The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20502, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl053611, 2012.
Oerter, H.: High resolution density and d18O of snow pits DML76S05_11 to DML90S05_25, Pangaea, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.708082, 2008.
Oerter, H., Graf, W., Meyer, H., and Wilhelms, F.: The EPICA ice core from Dronning Maud Land: first results from stable-isotope measurements, Ann. Glaciol., 39, 307–312, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756404781814032, 2004.
Oerter, H., Graf, W., Wilhelms, F., Minikin, A., and Miller, H.: Accumulation studies on Amundsenisen, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, by means of tritium, dielectric profiling and stable-isotope measurements: first results from the 1995–96 and 1996–97 field seasons, Ann. Glaciol., 29, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756499781820914, 1999.
Oerter, H., Wilhelms, F., Jung-Rothenhausler, F., Goktas, F., Miller, H., Graf, W., and Sommer, S.: Accumulation rates in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, as revealed by dielectric-profiling measurements of shallow firn cores, Ann, Glaciol., 30, 27–34, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756400781820705, 2000.
Parish, T. R.: Surface winds over the Antarctic continent – a review, Rev, Geophys, 26, 169–180, https://doi.org/10.1029/RG026i001p00169, 1988.
Picciotto, E., Crozaz, G., and De Breuck, W.: Accumulation on the South Pole-Queen Maud Land Traverse, 1964–1968, in: Antarctic Snow and Ice Studies II, edited by: Crary, A. P., Antarctic Research Series, Washington, DC, 1971.
Proksch, M., Lowe, H., and Schneebeli, M.: Density, specific surface area, and correlation length of snow measured by high-resolution penetrometry, J. Geophys. Res.-Ea. Surf., 120, 346–362, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jf003266, 2015.
Reijmer, C. H. and van den Broeke, M. R.: Temporal and spatial variability of the surface mass balance in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, as derived from automatic weather stations, J. Glaciol., 49, 512–520, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756503781830494, 2003.
Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., and Scheuchl, B.: Ice flow of the Antarctic ice sheet, Science, 333, 1427–1430, 2011.
Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., Scheuchl, B., van den Broeke, M., van Wessem, M. J., and Morlighem, M.: Four decades of Antarctic Ice Sheet mass balance from 1979–2017, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 116, 1095–1103, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1812883116, 2019.
Rotschky, G., Eisen, O., Wilhelms, F., Nixdorf, U., and Oerter, H.: Spatial distribution of surface mass balance on Amundsenisen plateau, Antarctica, derived from ice-penetrating radar studies, Ann. Glaciol., 39, 265–270, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756404781814618, 2004.
Sanz Rodrigo, J., Buchlin, J.-M., van Beeck, J., Lenaerts, J. T. M., and van den Broeke, M. R.: Evaluation of the antarctic surface wind climate from ERA reanalyses and RACMO2/ANT simulations based on automatic weather stations, Clim. Dynam., 40, 353–376, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1396-y, 2012.
Schaller, C. F.: Towards understanding the signal formation in polar snow, firn and ice using X-ray computed tomography, PhD Thesis, Department of Geosciences, University Bremen, Bremen, 2018.
Schaller, C. F., Freitag, J., Kipfstuhl, S., Laepple, T., Steen-Larsen, H. C., and Eisen, O.: A representative density profile of the North Greenland snowpack, The Cryosphere, 10, 1991–2002, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-1991-2016, 2016.
Schröder, L., Horwath, M., Dietrich, R., Helm, V., van den Broeke, M. R., and Ligtenberg, S. R. M.: Four decades of Antarctic surface elevation changes from multi-mission satellite altimetry, The Cryosphere, 13, 427–449, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-13-427-2019, 2019.
Schwerdtfeger, W.: Ice Crystal Precipitation on the Antarctic Plateau, Antarctic Journal of the United States, 4, 221–222, 1969.
Shepherd, A., Gilbert, L., Muir, A. S., Konrad, H., McMillan, M., Slater, T., Briggs, K. H., Sundal, A. V., Hogg, A. E., and Engdahl, M. E.: Trends in Antarctic Ice Sheet Elevation and Mass, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 8174–8183, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019gl082182, 2019.
Shepherd, A., Ivins, E., Rignot, E., Smith, B., van den Broeke, M., Velicogna, I., Whitehouse, P., Briggs, K., Joughin, I., Krinner, G., Nowicki, S., Payne, T., Scambos, T., Schlegel, N., Geruo, A., Agosta, C., Ahlstrom, A., Babonis, G., Barletta, V., Blazquez, A., Bonin, J., Csatho, B., Cullather, R., Felikson, D., Fettweis, X., Forsberg, R., Gallee, H., Gardner, A., Gilbert, L., Groh, A., Gunter, B., Hanna, E., Harig, C., Helm, V., Horvath, A., Horwath, M., Khan, S., Kjeldsen, K. K., Konrad, H., Langen, P., Lecavalier, B., Loomis, B., Luthcke, S., McMillan, M., Melini, D., Mernild, S., Mohajerani, Y., Moore, P., Mouginot, J., Moyano, G., Muir, A., Nagler, T., Nield, G., Nilsson, J., Noel, B., Otosaka, I., Pattle, M. E., Peltier, W. R., Pie, N., Rietbroek, R., Rott, H., Sandberg-Sorensen, L., Sasgen, I., Save, H., Scheuchl, B., Schrama, E., Schroder, L., Seo, K. W., Simonsen, S., Slater, T., Spada, G., Sutterley, T., Talpe, M., Tarasov, L., van de Berg, W. J., van der Wal, W., van Wessem, M., Vishwakarma, B. D., Wiese, D., Wouters, B., and Team, I.: Mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017, Nature, 558, 219–222, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0179-y, 2018.
Shepherd, A., Ivins, E. R., A, G., Barletta, V. R., Bentley, M. J., Bettadpur, S., Briggs, K. H., Bromwich, D. H., Forsberg, R., Galin, N., Horwath, M., Jacobs, S., Joughin, I., King, M. A., Lenaerts, J. T., Li, J., Ligtenberg, S. R., Luckman, A., Luthcke, S. B., McMillan, M., Meister, R., Milne, G., Mouginot, J., Muir, A., Nicolas, J. P., Paden, J., Payne, A. J., Pritchard, H., Rignot, E., Rott, H., Sorensen, L. S., Scambos, T. A., Scheuchl, B., Schrama, E. J., Smith, B., Sundal, A. V., van Angelen, J. H., van de Berg, W. J., van den Broeke, M. R., Vaughan, D. G., Velicogna, I., Wahr, J., Whitehouse, P. L., Wingham, D. J., Yi, D., Young, D., and Zwally, H. J.: A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance, Science, 338, 1183–1189, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1228102, 2012.
Sihvola, A. and Tiuri, M.: Snow fork for field determination of the density and wetness profiles of a snow pack, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote, 24, 717–721, https://doi.org/10.1109/tgrs.1986.289619, 1986.
Slater, T., Shepherd, A., McMillan, M., Armitage, T. W. K., Otosaka, I., and Arthern, R. J.: Compensating Changes in the Penetration Depth of Pulse-Limited Radar Altimetry Over the Greenland Ice Sheet, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote, 57, 9633–9642, https://doi.org/10.1109/tgrs.2019.2928232, 2019.
Sommer, C. G., Wever, N., Fierz, C., and Lehning, M.: Investigation of a wind-packing event in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 12, 2923–2939, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-2923-2018, 2018.
Sorensen, L. S., Simonsen, S. B., Langley, K., Gray, L., Helm, V., Nilsson, J., Stenseng, L., Skourup, H., Forsberg, R., and Davidson, M. W. J.: Validation of CryoSat-2 SARIn Data over Austfonna Ice Cap Using Airborne Laser Scanner Measurements, Remote Sens., 10, 1354, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10091354, 2018.
Stenni, B., Curran, M. A. J., Abram, N. J., Orsi, A., Goursaud, S., Masson-Delmotte, V., Neukom, R., Goosse, H., Divine, D., van Ommen, T., Steig, E. J., Dixon, D. A., Thomas, E. R., Bertler, N. A. N., Isaksson, E., Ekaykin, A., Werner, M., and Frezzotti, M.: Antarctic climate variability on regional and continental scales over the last 2000 years, Clim. Past, 13, 1609–1634, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-13-1609-2017, 2017.
Sugiyama, S., Enomoto, H., Fujita, S., Fukui, K., Nakazawa, F., Holmlund, P., and Surdyk, S.: Snow density along the route traversed by the Japanese-Swedish Antarctic Expedition 2007/08, J. Glaciol., 58, 529–539, https://doi.org/10.3189/2012JoG11J201, 2012.
Thomas, R., Davis, C., Frederick, E., Krabill, W., Li, Y., Manizade, S., and Martin, C.: A comparison of Greenland ice-sheet volume changes derived from altimetry measurements, J. Glaciol., 54, 203–212, https://doi.org/10.3189/002214308784886225, 2008.
Tian, Y., Zhang, S., Du, W., Chen, J., Xie, H., Tong, X., and Li, R.: Surface snow density of east antarctica derived from in-situ observations, Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 1657–1660, https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-3-1657-2018, 2018.
Van Liefferinge, B., Pattyn, F., Cavitte, M. G. P., Karlsson, N. B., Young, D. A., Sutter, J., and Eisen, O.: Promising Oldest Ice sites in East Antarctica based on thermodynamical modelling, The Cryosphere, 12, 2773–2787, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-2773-2018, 2018.
van Lipzig, N. P. M., Turner, J., Colwell, S. R., and van Den Broeke, M. R.: The near-surface wind field over the Antarctic continent, Int. J. Climatol., 24, 1973–1982, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1090, 2004.
From 1 m snow profiles along a traverse on the East Antarctic Plateau, we calculated a representative surface snow density of 355 kg m−3 for this region with an error less than 1.5 %. This density is 10 % higher and density fluctuations seem to happen on smaller scales than climate model outputs suggest. Our study can help improve the parameterization of surface snow density in climate models to reduce the error in future sea level predictions.
From 1 m snow profiles along a traverse on the East Antarctic Plateau, we calculated a...