Articles | Volume 7, issue 6
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
An upper-bound estimate for the accuracy of glacier volume–area scaling
German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology (VAW), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Department of Geosciences, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
No articles found.
Livia Piermattei, Michael Zemp, Christian Sommer, Fanny Brun, Matthias H. Braun, Liss M. Andreassen, Joaquín M. C. Belart, Etienne Berthier, Atanu Bhattacharya, Laura Boehm Vock, Tobias Bolch, Amaury Dehecq, Inés Dussaillant, Daniel Falaschi, Caitlyn Florentine, Dana Floricioiu, Christian Ginzler, Gregoire Guillet, Romain Hugonnet, Matthias Huss, Andreas Kääb, Owen King, Christoph Klug, Friedrich Knuth, Lukas Krieger, Jeff La Frenierre, Robert McNabb, Christopher McNeil, Rainer Prinz, Louis Sass, Thorsten Seehaus, David Shean, Désirée Treichler, Anja Wendt, and Ruitang Yang
Satellites have made it possible to observe glacier elevation changes from all around the world. In the present study, we compared the results produced from two different types of satellite data between different research groups and against validation measurements from aeroplanes. We found a large spread between individual results but showed that the group ensemble can be used to reliably estimate glacier elevation changes and related errors from satellite data.
Jérôme Lopez-Saez, Christophe Corona, Lenka Slamova, Matthias Huss, Valérie Daux, Kurt Nicolussi, and Markus Stoffel
Glaciers in the European Alps have been retreating since the 1850s. Monitoring glacier mass balance is vital for understanding global changes, but only a few glaciers have long-term data. This study aims to reconstruct the mass balance of Silvrettagletscher in the Swiss Alps using stable isotopes and tree-ring proxies. Results indicate increased glacier mass until the 19th century, followed by a sharp decline after the Little Ice Age with accelerated losses due to anthropogenic warming.
Lander Van Tricht, Harry Zekollari, Matthias Huss, Daniel Farinotti, and Philippe Huybrechts
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Detailed 3D models can be applied for well-studied glaciers, whereas simplified approaches are used for regional/global assessments. We conducted a comparison of six Tien Shan glaciers employing different models and investigated the impact of in-situ measurements. Our results reveal that the choice of mass balance and ice flow model as well as calibration have minimal impact on the projected volume. The initial ice thickness exerts the greatest influence on the future remaining ice volume.
Christian Sommer, Johannes J. Fürst, Matthias Huss, and Matthias H. Braun
The Cryosphere, 17, 2285–2303,Short summary
Knowledge on the volume of glaciers is important to project future runoff. Here, we present a novel approach to reconstruct the regional ice thickness distribution from easily available remote-sensing data. We show that past ice thickness, derived from spaceborne glacier area and elevation datasets, can constrain the estimated ice thickness. Based on the unique glaciological database of the European Alps, the approach will be most beneficial in regions without direct thickness measurements.
Aaron Cremona, Matthias Huss, Johannes Marian Landmann, Joël Borner, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 17, 1895–1912,Short summary
Summer heat waves have a substantial impact on glacier melt as emphasized by the extreme summer of 2022. This study presents a novel approach for detecting extreme glacier melt events at the regional scale based on the combination of automatically retrieved point mass balance observations and modelling approaches. The in-depth analysis of summer 2022 evidences the strong correspondence between heat waves and extreme melt events and demonstrates their significance for seasonal melt.
Matteo Guidicelli, Matthias Huss, Marco Gabella, and Nadine Salzmann
The Cryosphere, 17, 977–1002,Short summary
Spatio-temporal reconstruction of winter glacier mass balance is important for assessing long-term impacts of climate change. However, high-altitude regions significantly lack reliable observations, which is limiting the calibration of glaciological and hydrological models. We aim at improving knowledge on the spatio-temporal variations in winter glacier mass balance by exploring the combination of data from reanalyses and direct snow accumulation observations on glaciers with machine learning.
Pau Wiersma, Jerom Aerts, Harry Zekollari, Markus Hrachowitz, Niels Drost, Matthias Huss, Edwin H. Sutanudjaja, and Rolf Hut
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5971–5986,Short summary
We test whether coupling a global glacier model (GloGEM) with a global hydrological model (PCR-GLOBWB 2) leads to a more realistic glacier representation and to improved basin runoff simulations across 25 large-scale basins. The coupling does lead to improved glacier representation, mainly by accounting for glacier flow and net glacier mass loss, and to improved basin runoff simulations, mostly in strongly glacier-influenced basins, which is where the coupling has the most impact.
Erik Schytt Mannerfelt, Amaury Dehecq, Romain Hugonnet, Elias Hodel, Matthias Huss, Andreas Bauder, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 16, 3249–3268,Short summary
How glaciers have responded to climate change over the last 20 years is well-known, but earlier data are much more scarce. We change this in Switzerland by using 22 000 photographs taken from mountain tops between the world wars and find a halving of Swiss glacier volume since 1931. This was done through new automated processing techniques that we created. The data are interesting for more than just glaciers, such as mapping forest changes, landslides, and human impacts on the terrain.
Lea Geibel, Matthias Huss, Claudia Kurzböck, Elias Hodel, Andreas Bauder, and Daniel Farinotti
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3293–3312,Short summary
Glacier monitoring in Switzerland started in the 19th century, providing exceptional data series documenting snow accumulation and ice melt. Raw point observations of surface mass balance have, however, never been systematically compiled so far, including complete metadata. Here, we present an extensive dataset with more than 60 000 point observations of surface mass balance covering 60 Swiss glaciers and almost 140 years, promoting a better understanding of the drivers of recent glacier change.
Tim Steffen, Matthias Huss, Rebekka Estermann, Elias Hodel, and Daniel Farinotti
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 723–741,Short summary
Climate change is rapidly altering high-alpine landscapes. The formation of new lakes in areas becoming ice free due to glacier retreat is one of the many consequences of this process. Here, we provide an estimate for the number, size, time of emergence, and sediment infill of future glacier lakes that will emerge in the Swiss Alps. We estimate that up to ~ 680 potential lakes could form over the course of the 21st century, with the potential to hold a total water volume of up to ~ 1.16 km3.
Loris Compagno, Matthias Huss, Evan Stewart Miles, Michael James McCarthy, Harry Zekollari, Amaury Dehecq, Francesca Pellicciotti, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 16, 1697–1718,Short summary
We present a new approach for modelling debris area and thickness evolution. We implement the module into a combined mass-balance ice-flow model, and we apply it using different climate scenarios to project the future evolution of all glaciers in High Mountain Asia. We show that glacier geometry, volume, and flow velocity evolve differently when modelling explicitly debris cover compared to glacier evolution without the debris-cover module, demonstrating the importance of accounting for debris.
Christophe Ogier, Mauro A. Werder, Matthias Huss, Isabelle Kull, David Hodel, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 15, 5133–5150,Short summary
Glacier-dammed lakes are prone to draining rapidly when the ice dam breaks and constitute a serious threat to populations downstream. Such a lake drainage can proceed through an open-air channel at the glacier surface. In this study, we present what we believe to be the most complete dataset to date of an ice-dammed lake drainage through such an open-air channel. We provide new insights for future glacier-dammed lake drainage modelling studies and hazard assessments.
Johannes Marian Landmann, Hans Rudolf Künsch, Matthias Huss, Christophe Ogier, Markus Kalisch, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 15, 5017–5040,Short summary
In this study, we (1) acquire real-time information on point glacier mass balance with autonomous real-time cameras and (2) assimilate these observations into a mass balance model ensemble driven by meteorological input. For doing so, we use a customized particle filter that we designed for the specific purposes of our study. We find melt rates of up to 0.12 m water equivalent per day and show that our assimilation method has a higher performance than reference mass balance models.
Hannah R. Field, William H. Armstrong, and Matthias Huss
The Cryosphere, 15, 3255–3278,Short summary
The growth of a glacier lake alters the hydrology, ecology, and glaciology of its surrounding region. We investigate modern glacier lake area change across northwestern North America using repeat satellite imagery. Broadly, we find that lakes downstream from glaciers grew, while lakes dammed by glaciers shrunk. Our results suggest that the shape of the landscape surrounding a glacier lake plays a larger role in determining how quickly a lake changes than climatic or glaciologic factors.
Loris Compagno, Sarah Eggs, Matthias Huss, Harry Zekollari, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 15, 2593–2599,Short summary
Recently, discussions have focused on the difference in limiting the increase in global average temperatures to below 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 °C compared to preindustrial levels. Here, we assess the impacts that such different scenarios would have on both the future evolution of glaciers in the European Alps and the water resources they provide. Our results show that the different temperature targets have important implications for the changes predicted until 2100.
Rebecca Gugerli, Matteo Guidicelli, Marco Gabella, Matthias Huss, and Nadine Salzmann
Adv. Sci. Res., 18, 7–20,Short summary
To obtain reliable snowfall estimates in high mountain remains a challenge. This study uses daily snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates by a cosmic ray sensor on two Swiss glaciers to assess three readily-available high-quality precipitation products. We find a large bias between in situ SWE and snowfall, which differs among the precipitation products, the two sites, the winter seasons and in situ meteorological conditions. All products have great potential for various applications in the Alps.
Ethan Welty, Michael Zemp, Francisco Navarro, Matthias Huss, Johannes J. Fürst, Isabelle Gärtner-Roer, Johannes Landmann, Horst Machguth, Kathrin Naegeli, Liss M. Andreassen, Daniel Farinotti, Huilin Li, and GlaThiDa Contributors
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3039–3055,Short summary
Knowing the thickness of glacier ice is critical for predicting the rate of glacier loss and the myriad downstream impacts. To facilitate forecasts of future change, we have added 3 million measurements to our worldwide database of glacier thickness: 14 % of global glacier area is now within 1 km of a thickness measurement (up from 6 %). To make it easier to update and monitor the quality of our database, we have used automated tools to check and track changes to the data over time.
Álvaro Ayala, David Farías-Barahona, Matthias Huss, Francesca Pellicciotti, James McPhee, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 14, 2005–2027,Short summary
We reconstruct past glacier changes (1955–2016) and estimate the committed ice loss in the Maipo River basin (semi-arid Andes of Chile), with a focus on glacier runoff. We found that glacier volume has decreased by one-fifth since 1955 and that glacier runoff shows a sequence of decreasing maxima starting in a severe drought in 1968. As meltwater originating from the Andes plays a key role in this dry region, our results can be useful for developing adaptation or mitigation strategies.
Michael Zemp, Matthias Huss, Nicolas Eckert, Emmanuel Thibert, Frank Paul, Samuel U. Nussbaumer, and Isabelle Gärtner-Roer
The Cryosphere, 14, 1043–1050,Short summary
Comprehensive assessments of global glacier mass changes have been published at multi-annual intervals, typically in IPCC reports. For the years in between, we present an approach to infer timely but preliminary estimates of global-scale glacier mass changes from glaciological observations. These ad hoc estimates for 2017/18 indicate that annual glacier contributions to sea-level rise exceeded 1 mm sea-level equivalent, which corresponds to more than a quarter of the currently observed rise.
Rebecca Gugerli, Nadine Salzmann, Matthias Huss, and Darin Desilets
The Cryosphere, 13, 3413–3434,Short summary
The snow water equivalent (SWE) in high mountain regions is crucial for many applications. Yet its quantification remains difficult. We present autonomous daily SWE observations by a cosmic ray sensor (CRS) deployed on a Swiss glacier for two winter seasons. Combined with snow depth observations, we derive the daily bulk snow density. The validation with manual field observations and its measurement reliability show that the CRS is a promising device for high alpine cryospheric environments.
Manuela I. Brunner, Daniel Farinotti, Harry Zekollari, Matthias Huss, and Massimiliano Zappa
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4471–4489,Short summary
River flow regimes are expected to change and so are extreme flow regimes. We propose two methods for estimating extreme flow regimes and show on a data set from Switzerland how these extreme regimes are expected to change. Our results show that changes in low- and high-flow regimes are distinct for rainfall- and melt-dominated regions. Our findings provide guidance in water resource planning and management.
Harry Zekollari, Matthias Huss, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 13, 1125–1146,Short summary
Glaciers in the European Alps play an important role in the hydrological cycle, act as a source for hydroelectricity and have a large touristic importance. We model the future evolution of all glaciers in the Alps with a novel model that combines both ice flow and melt processes. We find that under a limited warming scenario about one-third of the present-day ice volume will still be present by the end of the century, while under strong warming more than 90 % of the volume will be lost by 2100.
Kathrin Naegeli, Matthias Huss, and Martin Hoelzle
The Cryosphere, 13, 397–412,Short summary
The paper investigates the temporal changes of bare-ice glacier surface albedo in the Swiss Alps between 1999 and 2016 from a regional to local scale using satellite data. Significant negative trends were found in the lowermost elevations and margins of the ablation zones. Although significant changes of glacier ice albedo are only present over a limited area, we emphasize that albedo feedback will considerably enhance the rate of glacier mass loss in the Swiss Alps in the near future.
Sarah Shannon, Robin Smith, Andy Wiltshire, Tony Payne, Matthias Huss, Richard Betts, John Caesar, Aris Koutroulis, Darren Jones, and Stephan Harrison
The Cryosphere, 13, 325–350,Short summary
We present global glacier volume projections for the end of this century, under a range of high-end climate change scenarios, defined as exceeding 2 °C global average warming. The ice loss contribution to sea level rise for all glaciers excluding those on the peripheral of the Antarctic ice sheet is 215.2 ± 21.3 mm. Such large ice losses will have consequences for sea level rise and for water supply in glacier-fed river systems.
Julien Seguinot, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Guillaume Jouvet, Matthias Huss, Martin Funk, and Frank Preusser
The Cryosphere, 12, 3265–3285,Short summary
About 25 000 years ago, Alpine glaciers filled most of the valleys and even extended onto the plains. In this study, with help from traces left by glaciers on the landscape, we use a computer model that contains knowledge of glacier physics based on modern observations of Greenland and Antarctica and laboratory experiments on ice, and one of the fastest computers in the world, to attempt a reconstruction of the evolution of Alpine glaciers through time from 120 000 years ago to today.
Martina Barandun, Matthias Huss, Ryskul Usubaliev, Erlan Azisov, Etienne Berthier, Andreas Kääb, Tobias Bolch, and Martin Hoelzle
The Cryosphere, 12, 1899–1919,Short summary
In this study, we used three independent methods (in situ measurements, comparison of digital elevation models and modelling) to reconstruct the mass change from 2000 to 2016 for three glaciers in the Tien Shan and Pamir. Snow lines observed on remote sensing images were used to improve conventional modelling by constraining a mass balance model. As a result, glacier mass changes for unmeasured years and glaciers can be better assessed. Substantial mass loss was confirmed for the three glaciers.
Martin Beniston, Daniel Farinotti, Markus Stoffel, Liss M. Andreassen, Erika Coppola, Nicolas Eckert, Adriano Fantini, Florie Giacona, Christian Hauck, Matthias Huss, Hendrik Huwald, Michael Lehning, Juan-Ignacio López-Moreno, Jan Magnusson, Christoph Marty, Enrique Morán-Tejéda, Samuel Morin, Mohamed Naaim, Antonello Provenzale, Antoine Rabatel, Delphine Six, Johann Stötter, Ulrich Strasser, Silvia Terzago, and Christian Vincent
The Cryosphere, 12, 759–794,Short summary
This paper makes a rather exhaustive overview of current knowledge of past, current, and future aspects of cryospheric issues in continental Europe and makes a number of reflections of areas of uncertainty requiring more attention in both scientific and policy terms. The review paper is completed by a bibliography containing 350 recent references that will certainly be of value to scholars engaged in the fields of glacier, snow, and permafrost research.
Nadine Feiger, Matthias Huss, Silvan Leinss, Leo Sold, and Daniel Farinotti
Geogr. Helv., 73, 1–9,Short summary
This contribution presents two updated bedrock topographies and ice thickness distributions with a new uncertainty assessment for Gries- and Findelengletscher, Switzerland. The results are based on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements and the
ice thickness estimation method (ITEM). The results show a total glacier volume of 0.28 ± 0.06 and 1.00 ± 0.34 km3 for Gries- and Findelengletscher, respectively, with corresponding average ice thicknesses of 56.8 ± 12.7 and 56.3 ± 19.6 m.
Martin Hoelzle, Erlan Azisov, Martina Barandun, Matthias Huss, Daniel Farinotti, Abror Gafurov, Wilfried Hagg, Ruslan Kenzhebaev, Marlene Kronenberg, Horst Machguth, Alexandr Merkushkin, Bolot Moldobekov, Maxim Petrov, Tomas Saks, Nadine Salzmann, Tilo Schöne, Yuri Tarasov, Ryskul Usubaliev, Sergiy Vorogushyn, Andrey Yakovlev, and Michael Zemp
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 397–418,
Daniel Farinotti, Douglas J. Brinkerhoff, Garry K. C. Clarke, Johannes J. Fürst, Holger Frey, Prateek Gantayat, Fabien Gillet-Chaulet, Claire Girard, Matthias Huss, Paul W. Leclercq, Andreas Linsbauer, Horst Machguth, Carlos Martin, Fabien Maussion, Mathieu Morlighem, Cyrille Mosbeux, Ankur Pandit, Andrea Portmann, Antoine Rabatel, RAAJ Ramsankaran, Thomas J. Reerink, Olivier Sanchez, Peter A. Stentoft, Sangita Singh Kumari, Ward J. J. van Pelt, Brian Anderson, Toby Benham, Daniel Binder, Julian A. Dowdeswell, Andrea Fischer, Kay Helfricht, Stanislav Kutuzov, Ivan Lavrentiev, Robert McNabb, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Huilin Li, and Liss M. Andreassen
The Cryosphere, 11, 949–970,Short summary
ITMIX – the Ice Thickness Models Intercomparison eXperiment – was the first coordinated performance assessment for models inferring glacier ice thickness from surface characteristics. Considering 17 different models and 21 different test cases, we show that although solutions of individual models can differ considerably, an ensemble average can yield uncertainties in the order of 10 ± 24 % the mean ice thickness. Ways forward for improving such estimates are sketched.
Vanessa Round, Silvan Leinss, Matthias Huss, Christoph Haemmig, and Irena Hajnsek
The Cryosphere, 11, 723–739,Short summary
Recent surging of Kyagar Glacier (Karakoram) caused a hazardous ice-dammed lake to form and burst in 2015 and 2016. We use remotely sensed glacier surface velocities and surface elevation to observe dramatic changes in speed and mass distribution during the surge. The surge was hydrologically controlled with rapid summer onset and dramatic termination following lake outburst. Since the surge, the potential outburst hazard has remained high, and continued remote monitoring is crucial.
Mauro Fischer, Matthias Huss, Mario Kummert, and Martin Hoelzle
The Cryosphere, 10, 1279–1295,Short summary
This study provides the first thorough validation of geodetic glacier mass changes derived from close-range high-resolution remote sensing techniques, and highlights the potential of terrestrial laser scanning for repeated mass balance monitoring of very small alpine glaciers. The presented methodology is promising, as laborious and potentially dangerous in situ measurements as well as the spatial inter- and extrapolation of point measurements over the entire glacier can be circumvented.
James S. Douglas, Matthias Huss, Darrel A. Swift, Julie M. Jones, and Franco Salerno
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Glacier behaviour in high-mountain Asia is different from other regions due to debris cover and ice stagnation. This study incorporates these factors into a glacio-hydrological model for the first time at the Khumbu Glacier, Nepal. We show that including debris provides a more realistic representation of the Khumbu Glacier than in previous runoff models, and that changes to the debris surface significantly influence glacier and runoff evolution, with impacts on downstream water resources.
J. Gabbi, M. Huss, A. Bauder, F. Cao, and M. Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1385–1400,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities in snow and ice increase the absorption of solar radiation and thus enhance melting. We investigated the effect of Saharan dust and black carbon on the mass balance of an Alpine glacier over 1914-2014. Snow impurities increased melt by 15-19% depending on the location on the glacier. From the accumulation area towards the equilibrium line, the effect of impurities increased as more frequent years with negative mass balance led to a re-exposure of dust-enriched layers.
L. Sold, M. Huss, A. Eichler, M. Schwikowski, and M. Hoelzle
The Cryosphere, 9, 1075–1087,Short summary
This study presents a method for estimating annual accumulation rates on a temperate Alpine glacier based on the interpretation of internal reflection horizons in helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. In combination with a simple model for firn densification and refreezing of meltwater, GPR can be used not only to complement existing mass balance monitoring programmes but also to retrospectively extend newly initiated time series.
M. Fischer, M. Huss, and M. Hoelzle
The Cryosphere, 9, 525–540,
H. Frey, H. Machguth, M. Huss, C. Huggel, S. Bajracharya, T. Bolch, A. Kulkarni, A. Linsbauer, N. Salzmann, and M. Stoffel
The Cryosphere, 8, 2313–2333,Short summary
Existing methods (area–volume relations, a slope-dependent volume estimation method, and two ice-thickness distribution models) are used to estimate the ice reserves stored in Himalayan–Karakoram glaciers. Resulting volumes range from 2955–4737km³. Results from the ice-thickness distribution models agree well with local measurements; volume estimates from area-related relations exceed the estimates from the other approaches. Evidence on the effect of the selected method on results is provided.
H. Machguth and M. Huss
The Cryosphere, 8, 1741–1755,
M. Huss and D. Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 8, 1261–1273,
M. Huss, A. Voinesco, and M. Hoelzle
Geogr. Helv., 68, 227–237,
D. Finger, A. Hugentobler, M. Huss, A. Voinesco, H. Wernli, D. Fischer, E. Weber, P.-Y. Jeannin, M. Kauzlaric, A. Wirz, T. Vennemann, F. Hüsler, B. Schädler, and R. Weingartner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3261–3277,
M. Zemp, E. Thibert, M. Huss, D. Stumm, C. Rolstad Denby, C. Nuth, S. U. Nussbaumer, G. Moholdt, A. Mercer, C. Mayer, P. C. Joerg, P. Jansson, B. Hynek, A. Fischer, H. Escher-Vetter, H. Elvehøy, and L. M. Andreassen
The Cryosphere, 7, 1227–1245,
The Cryosphere, 7, 877–887,
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Lander Van Tricht and Philippe Huybrechts
The Cryosphere, 17, 4463–4485,Short summary
We modelled the historical and future evolution of six ice masses in the Tien Shan, Central Asia, with a 3D ice-flow model under the newest climate scenarios. We show that in all scenarios the ice masses retreat significantly but with large differences. It is highlighted that, because the main precipitation occurs in spring and summer, the ice masses respond to climate change with an accelerating retreat. In all scenarios, the total runoff peaks before 2050, with a (drastic) decrease afterwards.
Chuanxi Zhao, Wei Yang, Evan Miles, Matthew Westoby, Marin Kneib, Yongjie Wang, Zhen He, and Francesca Pellicciotti
The Cryosphere, 17, 3895–3913,Short summary
This paper quantifies the thinning and surface mass balance of two neighbouring debris-covered glaciers in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau during different seasons, based on high spatio-temporal resolution UAV-derived (unpiloted aerial vehicle) data and in situ observations. Through a comparison approach and high-precision results, we identify that the glacier dynamic and debris thickness are strongly related to the future fate of the debris-covered glaciers in this region.
Fanny Brun, Owen King, Marion Réveillet, Charles Amory, Anton Planchot, Etienne Berthier, Amaury Dehecq, Tobias Bolch, Kévin Fourteau, Julien Brondex, Marie Dumont, Christoph Mayer, Silvan Leinss, Romain Hugonnet, and Patrick Wagnon
The Cryosphere, 17, 3251–3268,Short summary
The South Col Glacier is a small body of ice and snow located on the southern ridge of Mt. Everest. A recent study proposed that South Col Glacier is rapidly losing mass. In this study, we examined the glacier thickness change for the period 1984–2017 and found no thickness change. To reconcile these results, we investigate wind erosion and surface energy and mass balance and find that melt is unlikely a dominant process, contrary to previous findings.
Louise Steffensen Schmidt, Thomas Vikhamar Schuler, Erin Emily Thomas, and Sebastian Westermann
The Cryosphere, 17, 2941–2963,Short summary
Here, we present high-resolution simulations of glacier mass balance (the gain and loss of ice over a year) and runoff on Svalbard from 1991–2022, one of the fastest warming regions in the Arctic. The simulations are created using the CryoGrid community model. We find a small overall loss of mass over the simulation period of −0.08 m yr−1 but with no statistically significant trend. The average runoff was found to be 41 Gt yr−1, with a significant increasing trend of 6.3 Gt per decade.
Felicity A. Holmes, Eef van Dongen, Riko Noormets, Michał Pętlicki, and Nina Kirchner
The Cryosphere, 17, 1853–1872,Short summary
Glaciers which end in bodies of water can lose mass through melting below the waterline, as well as by the breaking off of icebergs. We use a numerical model to simulate the breaking off of icebergs at Kronebreen, a glacier in Svalbard, and find that both melting below the waterline and tides are important for iceberg production. In addition, we compare the modelled glacier front to observations and show that melting below the waterline can lead to undercuts of up to around 25 m.
Sajid Ghuffar, Owen King, Grégoire Guillet, Ewelina Rupnik, and Tobias Bolch
The Cryosphere, 17, 1299–1306,Short summary
The panoramic cameras (PCs) on board Hexagon KH-9 satellite missions from 1971–1984 captured very high-resolution stereo imagery with up to 60 cm spatial resolution. This study explores the potential of this imagery for glacier mapping and change estimation. The high resolution of KH-9PC leads to higher-quality DEMs which better resolve the accumulation region of glaciers in comparison to the KH-9 mapping camera, and KH-9PC imagery can be useful in several Earth observation applications.
Ann-Sofie Priergaard Zinck and Aslak Grinsted
The Cryosphere, 16, 1399–1407,Short summary
The Müller Ice Cap will soon set the scene for a new drilling project. To obtain an ice core with stratified layers and a good time resolution, thickness estimates are necessary for the planning. Here we present a new and fast method of estimating ice thicknesses from sparse data and compare it to an existing ice flow model. We find that the new semi-empirical method is insensitive to mass balance, is computationally fast, and provides good fits when compared to radar measurements.
The Cryosphere, 16, 1431–1445,Short summary
A glacier can speed up when surface water reaches the glacier's bottom via crevasses and reduces sliding friction. This paper builds up a physical model and finds that thick and fast-flowing glaciers are sensitive to this friction disruption. The data from Greenland and Austfonna (Svalbard) glaciers over 20 years support the model prediction. To estimate the projected sea-level rise better, these sensitive glaciers should be frequently monitored for potential future instabilities.
Gregoire Guillet, Owen King, Mingyang Lv, Sajid Ghuffar, Douglas Benn, Duncan Quincey, and Tobias Bolch
The Cryosphere, 16, 603–623,Short summary
Surging glaciers show cyclical changes in flow behavior – between slow and fast flow – and can have drastic impacts on settlements in their vicinity. One of the clusters of surging glaciers worldwide is High Mountain Asia (HMA). We present an inventory of surging glaciers in HMA, identified from satellite imagery. We show that the number of surging glaciers was underestimated and that they represent 20 % of the area covered by glaciers in HMA, before discussing new physics for glacier surges.
Thomas Frank, Henning Åkesson, Basile de Fleurian, Mathieu Morlighem, and Kerim H. Nisancioglu
The Cryosphere, 16, 581–601,Short summary
The shape of a fjord can promote or inhibit glacier retreat in response to climate change. We conduct experiments with a synthetic setup under idealized conditions in a numerical model to study and quantify the processes involved. We find that friction between ice and fjord is the most important factor and that it is possible to directly link ice discharge and grounding line retreat to fjord topography in a quantitative way.
Wenfeng Chen, Tandong Yao, Guoqing Zhang, Fei Li, Guoxiong Zheng, Yushan Zhou, and Fenglin Xu
The Cryosphere, 16, 197–218,Short summary
A digital elevation model (DEM) is a prerequisite for estimating regional glacier thickness. Our study first compared six widely used global DEMs over the glacierized Tibetan Plateau by using ICESat-2 (Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry data. Our results show that NASADEM had the best accuracy. We conclude that NASADEM would be the best choice for ice-thickness estimation over the Tibetan Plateau through an intercomparison of four ice-thickness inversion models.
Aurel Perşoiu, Nenad Buzjak, Alexandru Onaca, Christos Pennos, Yorgos Sotiriadis, Monica Ionita, Stavros Zachariadis, Michael Styllas, Jure Kosutnik, Alexandru Hegyi, and Valerija Butorac
The Cryosphere, 15, 2383–2399,Short summary
Extreme precipitation events in summer 2019 led to catastrophic loss of cave and surface ice in SE Europe at levels unprecedented during the last century. The projected continuous warming and increase in precipitation extremes could pose an additional threat to glaciers in southern Europe, resulting in a potentially ice-free SE Europe by the middle of the next decade (2035 CE).
Naomi E. Ochwat, Shawn J. Marshall, Brian J. Moorman, Alison S. Criscitiello, and Luke Copland
The Cryosphere, 15, 2021–2040,Short summary
In May 2018 we drilled into Kaskawulsh Glacier to study how it is being affected by climate warming and used models to investigate the evolution of the firn since the 1960s. We found that the accumulation zone has experienced increased melting that has refrozen as ice layers and has formed a perennial firn aquifer. These results better inform climate-induced changes on northern glaciers and variables to take into account when estimating glacier mass change using remote-sensing methods.
Tanja Schlemm and Anders Levermann
The Cryosphere, 15, 531–545,Short summary
Ice loss from Greenland and Antarctica is often cloaked by a mélange of icebergs and sea ice. Here we provide a simple method to parametrize the resulting back stress on the ice flow for large-scale projection models.
Morgan E. Monz, Peter J. Hudleston, David J. Prior, Zachary Michels, Sheng Fan, Marianne Negrini, Pat J. Langhorne, and Chao Qi
The Cryosphere, 15, 303–324,Short summary
We present full crystallographic orientations of warm, coarse-grained ice deformed in a shear setting, enabling better characterization of how crystals in glacial ice preferentially align as ice flows. A commonly noted c-axis pattern, with several favored orientations, may result from bias due to overcounting large crystals with complex 3D shapes. A new sample preparation method effectively increases the sample size and reduces bias, resulting in a simpler pattern consistent with the ice flow.
Ian Joughin, David E. Shean, Benjamin E. Smith, and Dana Floricioiu
The Cryosphere, 14, 211–227,Short summary
Jakobshavn Isbræ, considered to be Greenland's fastest glacier, has varied its speed and thinned dramatically since the 1990s. Here we examine the glacier's behaviour over the last decade to better understand this behaviour. We find that when the floating ice (mélange) in front of the glacier freezes in place during the winter, it can control the glacier's speed and thinning rate. A recently colder ocean has strengthened this mélange, allowing the glacier to recoup some of its previous losses.
Andreas Köhler, Michał Pętlicki, Pierre-Marie Lefeuvre, Giuseppa Buscaino, Christopher Nuth, and Christian Weidle
The Cryosphere, 13, 3117–3137,Short summary
Ice loss at the front of glaciers can be observed with high temporal resolution using seismometers. We combine seismic and underwater sound measurements of iceberg calving at Kronebreen, a glacier in Svalbard, with laser scanning of the glacier front. We develop a method to determine calving ice loss directly from seismic and underwater calving signals. This allowed us to quantify the contribution of calving to the total ice loss at the glacier front, which also includes underwater melting.
The Cryosphere, 13, 2043–2049,Short summary
The Glacier Area Mapping for Discharge from the Asian Mountains (GAMDAM) glacier inventory was updated to revise the underestimated glacier area in the first version. The total number and area of glaciers are 134 770 and 100 693 ± 11 790 km2 from 453 Landsat images, which were carefully selected for the period from 1990 to 2010, to avoid mountain shadow, cloud cover, and seasonal snow cover.
Fanny Brun, Patrick Wagnon, Etienne Berthier, Joseph M. Shea, Walter W. Immerzeel, Philip D. A. Kraaijenbrink, Christian Vincent, Camille Reverchon, Dibas Shrestha, and Yves Arnaud
The Cryosphere, 12, 3439–3457,Short summary
On debris-covered glaciers, steep ice cliffs experience dramatically enhanced melt compared with the surrounding debris-covered ice. Using field measurements, UAV data and submetre satellite imagery, we estimate the cliff contribution to 2 years of ablation on a debris-covered tongue in Nepal, carefully taking into account ice dynamics. While they occupy only 7 to 8 % of the tongue surface, ice cliffs contributed to 23 to 24 % of the total tongue ablation.
Dorothée Vallot, Jan Åström, Thomas Zwinger, Rickard Pettersson, Alistair Everett, Douglas I. Benn, Adrian Luckman, Ward J. J. van Pelt, Faezeh Nick, and Jack Kohler
The Cryosphere, 12, 609–625,Short summary
This paper presents a new perspective on the role of ice dynamics and ocean interaction in glacier calving processes applied to Kronebreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard. A global modelling approach includes ice flow modelling, undercutting estimation by a combination of glacier energy balance and plume modelling as well as calving by a discrete particle model. We show that modelling undercutting is necessary and calving is influenced by basal friction velocity and geometry.
Damodar Lamsal, Koji Fujita, and Akiko Sakai
The Cryosphere, 11, 2815–2827,Short summary
This study presents the geodetic mass balance of Kanchenjunga Glacier, a heavily debris-covered glacier in the easternmost Nepal Himalaya, between 1975 and 2010 using high-resolution DEMs. The rate of elevation change positively correlates with elevation and glacier velocity, and significant surface lowering is observed at supraglacial ponds. A difference in pond density would strongly affect the different geodetic mass balances of the Kanchenjunga and Khumbu glaciers.
Guillaume Jouvet, Yvo Weidmann, Julien Seguinot, Martin Funk, Takahiro Abe, Daiki Sakakibara, Hakime Seddik, and Shin Sugiyama
The Cryosphere, 11, 911–921,Short summary
In this study, we combine UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles) images taken over the Bowdoin Glacier, north-western Greenland, and a model describing the viscous motion of ice to track the propagation of crevasses responsible for the collapse of large icebergs at the glacier-ocean front (calving). This new technique allows us to explain the systematic calving pattern observed in spring and summer of 2015 and anticipate a possible rapid retreat in the future.
M. Jeffrey Mei, David M. Holland, Sridhar Anandakrishnan, and Tiantian Zheng
The Cryosphere, 11, 609–618,Short summary
We determine a method to locate calving at Helheim Glacier. By using local seismometers, we are able to find the calving location at a much higher precision than previous studies. The signal–onset time differences at four local seismic stations are used to determine possible seismic-wave origins. We present a catalogue of 12 calving events from 2014 to 2015, which shows that calving preferentially happens at the northern end of Helheim Glacier, which will help to constrain models of calving.
Tazio Strozzi, Andreas Kääb, and Thomas Schellenberger
The Cryosphere, 11, 553–566,Short summary
The strong atmospheric warming observed since the 1990s in polar regions requires quantifying the contribution to sea level rise of glaciers and ice caps, but for large areas we do not have much information on ice dynamic fluctuations. The recent increase in satellite data opens up new possibilities to monitor ice flow. We observed over Stonebreen on Edgeøya (Svalbard) a strong increase since 2012 in ice surface velocity along with a decrease in volume and an advance in frontal extension.
Owen King, Duncan J. Quincey, Jonathan L. Carrivick, and Ann V. Rowan
The Cryosphere, 11, 407–426,Short summary
We used multiple digital elevation models to quantify melt on 32 glaciers in the Everest region of the Himalayas. We examined whether patterns of melt differed depending on whether the glacier terminated on land or in water. We found that glaciers terminating in large lakes had the highest melt rates, but that those terminating in small lakes had comparable melt rates to those terminating on land. We carried out this research because Himalayan people are highly dependent on glacier meltwater.
Torbjørn Ims Østby, Thomas Vikhamar Schuler, Jon Ove Hagen, Regine Hock, Jack Kohler, and Carleen H. Reijmer
The Cryosphere, 11, 191–215,Short summary
We present modelled climatic mass balance for all glaciers in Svalbard for the period 1957–2014 at 1 km resolution using a coupled surface energy balance and snowpack model, thereby closing temporal and spatial gaps in direct and geodetic mass balance estimates. Supporting previous studies, our results indicate increased mass loss over the period. A detailed analysis of the involved energy fluxes reveals that increased mass loss is caused by atmospheric warming further amplified by feedbacks.
Nicholas E. Barrand, Robert G. Way, Trevor Bell, and Martin J. Sharp
The Cryosphere, 11, 157–168,Short summary
This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of small glaciers in the Canadian province of Labrador. These glaciers, the last in continental northeast North America, exist in heavily shaded locations within the remote Torngat Mountains National Park. Fieldwork, and airborne and spaceborne remote-sensing analyses were used to measure regional glacier area changes and individual glacier thinning rates. These results were then linked to trends in prevailing climatic conditions.
The Cryosphere, 11, 133–138,Short summary
Measurements of debris-covered and debris-free glaciers in the Himalaya-Karakoram show similar decadal scale thinning, despite a suppression of melt under the debris. Using physical arguments, supported by simulations of 1-D idealised glaciers, we analyse the evolution of thinning rates on both glacier types under a warming climate. The dynamics of the emergence velocity profile control the thinning rate evolution in general and lead to the observed trends in the thinning rate data.
Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Yulan Zhang, Xiang Qin, Yang Li, Xiaopeng Zhang, Zhaofu Hu, Pengfei Chen, Xiaofei Li, Bin Qu, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 10, 2611–2621,Short summary
DOC release of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 was 192 kg km−2 yr−1, of which 43.2 % could be decomposed and return to atmosphere as CO2 within 28 days, producing positive feedback in the warming process and influencing downstream ecosystems. Radiative forcing of snow pit DOC was calculated to be 0.43 W m−2, accounting for about 10 % of the radiative forcing caused by BC. Therefore, DOC is also a light-absorbing agent in glacierized regions, influencing the albedo of glacier surface and glacier melting.
Lindsey I. Nicholson, Michał Pętlicki, Ben Partan, and Shelley MacDonell
The Cryosphere, 10, 1897–1913,Short summary
An Xbox Kinect sensor was used as a close-range surface scanner to produce the first accurate 3D surface models of spikes of snow and ice (known as penitentes) that develop in cold, dry, sunny conditions. The data collected show how penitentes develop over time and how they affect the surface roughness of a glacier. These surface models are useful inputs to modelling studies of how penitentes alter energy exchanges between the atmosphere and the surface and how this affects meltwater production.
Colleen M. Lynch, Iestyn D. Barr, Donal Mullan, and Alastair Ruffell
The Cryosphere, 10, 1809–1821,Short summary
Early 21st century changes in the extent of glaciers on Kamchatka were manually mapped from satellite imagery. This revealed 673 glaciers, with a total surface area of 775.7 ± 27.9 km2 in 2000, and 738 glaciers, with a total area of 592.9 ± 20.4 km2 in 2014. This ~24 % decline in glacier surface area is considered to reflect variations in climate (particularly rising summer temperatures), though the response of individual glaciers was likely modulated by other (non-climatic) factors.
Christian Vincent, Patrick Wagnon, Joseph M. Shea, Walter W. Immerzeel, Philip Kraaijenbrink, Dibas Shrestha, Alvaro Soruco, Yves Arnaud, Fanny Brun, Etienne Berthier, and Sonam Futi Sherpa
The Cryosphere, 10, 1845–1858,Short summary
Approximately 25 % of the glacierized area in the Everest region is covered by debris, yet the surface mass balance of these glaciers has not been measured directly. From terrestrial photogrammetry and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) methods, this study shows that the ablation is strongly reduced by the debris cover. The insulating effect of the debris cover has a larger effect on total mass loss than the enhanced ice ablation due to supraglacial ponds and exposed ice cliffs.
C. J. van der Veen
The Cryosphere, 10, 1331–1337,Short summary
This paper evaluates the geometric force balance, with application to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica. It is concluded that this approach does not yield physically reasonable results.
Kjetil S. Aas, Thorben Dunse, Emily Collier, Thomas V. Schuler, Terje K. Berntsen, Jack Kohler, and Bartłomiej Luks
The Cryosphere, 10, 1089–1104,Short summary
A high-resolution, coupled atmosphere--climatic mass balance (CMB) model is applied to Svalbard for the period 2003 to 2013. The mean CMB during this period is negative but displays large spatial and temporal variations. Comparison with observations on different scales shows a good overall model performance except for one particular glacier, where wind strongly affects the spatial patterns of CMB. The model also shows considerable sensitivity to model resolution, especially on local scales.
Ursula Weiser, Marc Olefs, Wolfgang Schöner, Gernot Weyss, and Bernhard Hynek
The Cryosphere, 10, 775–790,Short summary
Geometric effects induced by tilt errors lead to erroneous measurement of snow albedo. These errors are corrected where tilts of sensors and slopes are unknown. Atmospheric parameters are taken from a nearby reference measurement or a radiation model. The developed model is fitted to the measured data to determine tilts and directions which vary daily due to changing atmospheric conditions and snow cover. The results show an obvious under- or overestimation of albedo depending on the slope direction.
M. Chernos, M. Koppes, and R. D. Moore
The Cryosphere, 10, 87–102,Short summary
Ice loss from calving and surface melt is estimated at lake-terminating Bridge Glacier, British Columbia, Canada, from 1984 to 2013. Since the glacier's terminus began to float in 1991, calving has accounted for 10-25% of the glacier's total ice loss below the ELA. Overall, calving is a relatively small component of ice loss and is expected to decrease in importance in the future as the glacier retreats onto dry land. Hence, projections of future retreat remain dependent on climatic conditions.
B. Marzeion, P. W. Leclercq, J. G. Cogley, and A. H. Jarosch
The Cryosphere, 9, 2399–2404,Short summary
We show that estimates of global glacier mass change during the 20th century, obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other and also with an estimate for the years 2003-2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist on regional scales.
T. Schellenberger, T. Dunse, A. Kääb, J. Kohler, and C. H. Reijmer
The Cryosphere, 9, 2339–2355,Short summary
Kronebreen and Kongsbreen are among the fastest flowing glaciers on Svalbard, and surface speeds reached up to 3.2m d-1 at Kronebreen in summer 2013 and 2.7m d-1 at Kongsbreen in late autumn 2012 as retrieved from SAR satellite data. Both glaciers retreated significantly during the observation period, Kongsbreen up to 1800m or 2.5km2 and Kronebreen up to 850m or 2.8km2. Both glaciers are important contributors to the total dynamic mass loss from the Svalbard archipelago.
T. Smith, B. Bookhagen, and F. Cannon
The Cryosphere, 9, 1747–1759,Short summary
We describe and apply a newly developed glacial mapping algorithm which uses spectral, topographic, velocity, and spatial data to quickly and accurately map glacial extents over a wide area. This method maps both clean glacier ice and debris-covered glacier tongues across diverse topographic, land cover, and spectral settings using primarily open-source tools.
C. Papasodoro, E. Berthier, A. Royer, C. Zdanowicz, and A. Langlois
The Cryosphere, 9, 1535–1550,Short summary
Located at the far south (~62.5° N) of the Canadian Arctic, Grinnell and Terra Nivea Ice Caps are good climate proxies in this scarce data region. Multiple data sets (in situ, airborne and spaceborne) reveal changes in area, elevation and mass over the past 62 years. Ice wastage sharply accelerated during the last decade for both ice caps, as illustrated by the strongly negative mass balance of Terra Nivea over 2007-2014 (-1.77 ± 0.36 m a-1 w.e.). Possible climatic drivers are also discussed.
M. Trachsel and A. Nesje
The Cryosphere, 9, 1401–1414,Short summary
We employ statistical models to model annual glacier mass balances of eight Scandinavian glaciers as function of summer temperature and winter precipitation. Relative importances of winter precipitation and summer temperature vary in time. Relative importances are influenced by AMO and NAO.
T. Abe and M. Furuya
The Cryosphere, 9, 1183–1190,Short summary
Whereas glacier surge is known to often initiate in winter, we show significant winter speed-up signals in the upstream region even at quiescent surge-type glaciers in Yukon, Canada. Moreover, the winter speed-up region expanded from upstream to downstream. Given the absence of surface meltwater input in winter, we speculate the presence of englacial water storage that does not directly connect to the surface, yet can promote basal sliding through increased water pressure.
J. M. Shea, W. W. Immerzeel, P. Wagnon, C. Vincent, and S. Bajracharya
The Cryosphere, 9, 1105–1128,Short summary
A glacier mass balance and redistribution model that integrates field observations and downscaled climate fields is developed to examine glacier sensitivity to future climate in the Everest region of Nepal. The modelled sensitivity of glaciers to future climate change is high, and glacier mass loss is sustained through the 21st century for both middle- and high-emission scenarios. Projected temperature increases will expose large glacier areas to melt and reduce snow accumulations.
T. Nuimura, A. Sakai, K. Taniguchi, H. Nagai, D. Lamsal, S. Tsutaki, A. Kozawa, Y. Hoshina, S. Takenaka, S. Omiya, K. Tsunematsu, P. Tshering, and K. Fujita
The Cryosphere, 9, 849–864,Short summary
We present a new glacier inventory for high-mountain Asia named “Glacier Area Mapping for Discharge from the Asian Mountains” (GAMDAM). Glacier outlines were delineated manually using 356 Landsat ETM+ scenes in 226 path-row sets from the period 1999–2003, in conjunction with a digital elevation model and high-resolution Google EarthTM imagery. Our GAMDAM Glacier Inventory includes 87,084 glaciers covering a total area of 91,263 ± 13,689 km2 throughout high-mountain Asia.
A. Sakai, T. Nuimura, K. Fujita, S. Takenaka, H. Nagai, and D. Lamsal
The Cryosphere, 9, 865–880,Short summary
Among meteorological elements, precipitation has a large spatial variability and less observation, particularly in high-mountain Asia, although precipitation in mountains is an important parameter for hydrological circulation. Based on the GAMDAM glacier inventory, we estimated precipitation contributing to glacier mass at the median elevation of glaciers, which is presumed to be at equilibrium-line altitude, by tuning adjustment parameters of precipitation.
J. Oerlemans and W. J. J. van Pelt
The Cryosphere, 9, 767–779,Short summary
Many glaciers on Svalbard are surging glaciers. A surge is a rapid advance of the glacier snout during a few years, followed by a long period of quiescence. During the surge ice flows to lower terrain and experiences higher melt rates in summer. Here we investigate the impact of surging on the long-term effects of climate warming. We have modelled Abrahamsenbreen in northern Spitsbergen as a typical case. We show that surges tend to accelerate glacier retreat when temperature increases.
D. H. Shangguan, T. Bolch, Y. J. Ding, M. Kröhnert, T. Pieczonka, H. U. Wetzel, and S. Y. Liu
The Cryosphere, 9, 703–717,Short summary
Glacier velocity, glacier area, surface elevation and mass changes of the Southern and Northern Inylchek Glacier were investigated by using multi-temporal space-borne data sets. The mass balance of both SIG and NIG was negative(-0.43 ± 0.10 m w.e. a-1 and -0.25 ± 0.10 m w.e. a-1) from ~1975 to 2007. The thinning at the lake dam was higher, likely caused by calving into Lake Merzbacher. Thus, glacier thinning and glacier flow are significantly influenced by the lake.
H. Hannesdóttir, H. Björnsson, F. Pálsson, G. Aðalgeirsdóttir, and Sv. Guðmundsson
The Cryosphere, 9, 565–585,
A. E. Racoviteanu, Y. Arnaud, M. W. Williams, and W. F. Manley
The Cryosphere, 9, 505–523,Short summary
An overall negative glacier surface area change of 0.5±0.2% yr-1 was observed for the eastern Himalaya since 1962 based on remote sensing data. There were higher rates of area loss for clean glaciers (-34%, or -0.7% yr-1) compared to debris-covered glaciers (-14.3% or -0.3 yr-1) on a glacier-by-glacier basis. Patterns of area change are heterogenous and depend on topographic and climatic factors, glacier altitude (maximum, median, altitudinal range), glacier size, slope and aspect.
F. Brun, M. Dumont, P. Wagnon, E. Berthier, M. F. Azam, J. M. Shea, P. Sirguey, A. Rabatel, and Al. Ramanathan
The Cryosphere, 9, 341–355,
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