Articles | Volume 18, issue 2
Research article
12 Feb 2024
Research article |  | 12 Feb 2024

Recent warming trends of the Greenland ice sheet documented by historical firn and ice temperature observations and machine learning

Baptiste Vandecrux, Robert S. Fausto, Jason E. Box, Federico Covi, Regine Hock, Åsa K. Rennermalm, Achim Heilig, Jakob Abermann, Dirk van As, Elisa Bjerre, Xavier Fettweis, Paul C. J. P. Smeets, Peter Kuipers Munneke, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Max Brils, Peter L. Langen, Ruth Mottram, and Andreas P. Ahlstrøm

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Mapping the vertical heterogeneity of Greenland's firn from 2011–2019 using airborne radar and laser altimetry
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Cited articles

Abermann, J., Vandecrux, B., Scher, S., Löffler, K., Schalamon, F., Trügler, A., Fausto, R. S., and Schöner, W.: Learning from Alfred Wegener's pioneering field observations in West Greenland after a century of climate change, Sci. Rep., 13, 7583,, 2023. 
Albert, M. R. and Shultz, E. F.: Snow and firn properties and air–snow transport processes at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2789–2797,, 2002. 
Ambach, W.: Zum Wärmehaushalt des Grönländischen Inlandeises: Vergleichende Studie im Akkumulations- und Ablationsgebiet, Polarforschung, 49, 44–54, 1979. 
An, G.: The Effects of Adding Noise During Backpropagation Training on a Generalization Performance, in: Neural Computation, 8, 643–674,, April 1996. 
Arthern, R. J., Vaughan, D. G., Rankin, A. M., Mulvaney, R., and Thomas, E. R.: In situ measurements of Antarctic snow compaction compared with predictions of models, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf., 115, 1–12,, 2010. 
Short summary
How fast is the Greenland ice sheet warming? In this study, we compiled 4500+ temperature measurements at 10 m below the ice sheet surface (T10m) from 1912 to 2022. We trained a machine learning model on these data and reconstructed T10m for the ice sheet during 1950–2022. After a slight cooling during 1950–1985, the ice sheet warmed at a rate of 0.7 °C per decade until 2022. Climate models showed mixed results compared to our observations and underestimated the warming in key regions.