Articles | Volume 18, issue 2
Research article
12 Feb 2024
Research article |  | 12 Feb 2024

Recent warming trends of the Greenland ice sheet documented by historical firn and ice temperature observations and machine learning

Baptiste Vandecrux, Robert S. Fausto, Jason E. Box, Federico Covi, Regine Hock, Åsa K. Rennermalm, Achim Heilig, Jakob Abermann, Dirk van As, Elisa Bjerre, Xavier Fettweis, Paul C. J. P. Smeets, Peter Kuipers Munneke, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Max Brils, Peter L. Langen, Ruth Mottram, and Andreas P. Ahlstrøm

Data sets

Greenland ice sheet 10 m subsurface temperature compilation 1912-2022 Baptiste Vandecrux

Greenland ice sheet ice and firn temperature reconstruction at 10 m depth, 1950-2022 Baptiste Vandecrux

Model code and software

Greenland ice sheet subsurface temperature compilation scripts Baptiste Vandecrux

Short summary
How fast is the Greenland ice sheet warming? In this study, we compiled 4500+ temperature measurements at 10 m below the ice sheet surface (T10m) from 1912 to 2022. We trained a machine learning model on these data and reconstructed T10m for the ice sheet during 1950–2022. After a slight cooling during 1950–1985, the ice sheet warmed at a rate of 0.7 °C per decade until 2022. Climate models showed mixed results compared to our observations and underestimated the warming in key regions.