Articles | Volume 16, issue 1
The Cryosphere, 16, 43–59, 2022
The Cryosphere, 16, 43–59, 2022
Research article
06 Jan 2022
Research article | 06 Jan 2022

Mapping liquid water content in snow at the millimeter scale: an intercomparison of mixed-phase optical property models using hyperspectral imaging and in situ measurements

Christopher Donahue et al.

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Cited articles

A2 Photonic Sensors: WISe – Snow liquid water content sensor – User Manual, A2 Photonics Sensors, Grenoble, France, 2019. 
Avanzi, F., Hirashima, H., Yamaguchi, S., Katsushima, T., and De Michele, C.: Observations of capillary barriers and preferential flow in layered snow during cold laboratory experiments, The Cryosphere, 10, 2013–2026,, 2016. 
Bohren, C. F. and Huffman, D. R.: Absorption and scattering of light by small particles, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN-13: 978-0-471-29340-8, 2008. 
Colbeck, S.: Grain clusters in wet snow, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 72, 371–384, 1979. 
Colbeck, S. C.: An overview of seasonal snow metamorphism, Rev. Geophys., 20, 45–61, 1982. 
Short summary
The amount of water within a snowpack is important information for predicting snowmelt and wet-snow avalanches. From within a controlled laboratory, the optimal method for measuring liquid water content (LWC) at the snow surface or along a snow pit profile using near-infrared imagery was determined. As snow samples melted, multiple models to represent wet-snow reflectance were assessed against a more established LWC instrument. The best model represents snow as separate spheres of ice and water.