Articles | Volume 16, issue 5
The Cryosphere, 16, 1631–1652, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-1631-2022
The Cryosphere, 16, 1631–1652, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-1631-2022
Research article
05 May 2022
Research article | 05 May 2022

Understanding monsoon controls on the energy and mass balance of glaciers in the Central and Eastern Himalaya

Stefan Fugger et al.

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Cited articles

Aizen, V., Aizen, E., and Nikitin, S.: Glacier regime on the northern slope of the Himalaya (Xixibangma glaciers), Quatern. Int., 97, 27–39, 2002. a
Anderson, B. and Mackintosh, A.: Controls on mass balance sensitivity of maritime glaciers in the Southern Alps, New Zealand: the role of debris cover, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 117, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JF002064, 2012. a
Azam, M. F., Wagnon, P., Vincent, C., Ramanathan, AL., Favier, V., Mandal, A., and Pottakkal, J. G.: Processes governing the mass balance of Chhota Shigri Glacier (western Himalaya, India) assessed by point-scale surface energy balance measurements, The Cryosphere, 8, 2195–2217, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-8-2195-2014, 2014. a
Bélair, S., Crevier, L.-P., Mailhot, J., Bilodeau, B., and Delage, Y.: Operational implementation of the ISBA land surface scheme in the Canadian regional weather forecast model. Part I: Warm season results, J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 352–370, 2003. a, b
Bonekamp, P. N., de Kok, R. J., Collier, E., and Immerzeel, W. W.: Contrasting meteorological drivers of the glacier mass balance between the Karakoram and central Himalaya, Front. Earth Sci., 7, https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2019.00107, 2019. a, b, c, d, e
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Short summary
The monsoon is important for the shrinking and growing of glaciers in the Himalaya during summer. We calculate the melt of seven glaciers in the region using a complex glacier melt model and weather data. We find that monsoonal weather affects glaciers that are covered with a layer of rocky debris and glaciers without such a layer in different ways. It is important to take so-called turbulent fluxes into account. This knowledge is vital for predicting the future of the Himalayan glaciers.