Articles | Volume 14, issue 7
Research article
23 Jul 2020
Research article |  | 23 Jul 2020

The Arctic Ocean Observation Operator for 6.9 GHz (ARC3O) – Part 1: How to obtain sea ice brightness temperatures at 6.9 GHz from climate model output

Clara Burgard, Dirk Notz, Leif T. Pedersen, and Rasmus T. Tonboe

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Cited articles

Barber, D., Fung, A., Grenfell, T., Nghiem, S., Onstott, R., Lytle, V., Perovich, D., and Gow, A.: The role of snow on microwave emission and scattering over first-year sea ice, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 36, 1750–1763,, 1998. a, b
Bunzel, F., Notz, D., Baehr, J., Müller, W., and Fröhlich, K.: Seasonal climate forecasts significantly affected by observational uncertainty of Arctic sea ice concentration, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 852–859,, 2016. a
Burgard, C., Notz, D., Pedersen, L. T., and Tonboe, R. T.: The Arctic Ocean Observation Operator for 6.9 GHz (ARC3O) – Part 2: Development and evaluation, The Cryosphere, 14, 2387–2407,, 2020. a, b, c
Dee, D., Uppala, S., Simmons, A., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M., Balsamo, G., Bauer, P., Bechtold, P., Beljaars, A., van de Berg, L., Bidlot, J., Bormann, N., Delsol, C., Dragani, R., Fuentes, M., Geer, A., Haimberger, L., Healy, S., Hersbach, H., Holm, E., Isaksen, L., Kållberg, P., Köhler, M., Matricardi, M., McNally, A., Monge-Sanz, B., Morcrette, J.-J., Park, B.-K., Peubey, C., de Rosnay, P., Tavolato, C., Thébaut, J.-N., and Vitart, F.: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553–597,, 2011. a
Short summary
The high disagreement between observations of Arctic sea ice makes it difficult to evaluate climate models with observations. We investigate the possibility of translating the model state into what a satellite could observe. We find that we do not need complex information about the vertical distribution of temperature and salinity inside the ice but instead are able to assume simplified distributions to reasonably translate the simulated sea ice into satellite language.