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The Cryosphere An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 10, issue 5
The Cryosphere, 10, 2057–2068, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-2057-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The Cryosphere, 10, 2057–2068, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-2057-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 14 Sep 2016

Research article | 14 Sep 2016

Direct visualization of solute locations in laboratory ice samples

Ted Hullar and Cort Anastasio

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Cited articles

Barnes, P. R. F., Wolff, E. W., Mallard, D. C., and Mader, H. M.: SEM studies of the morphology and chemistry of polar ice, Microsc. Res. Techniq., 62, 62–69, https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.10385, 2003.
Barret, M., Domine, F., Houdier, S., Gallet, J. C., Weibring, P., Walega, J., Fried, A., and Richter, D.: Formaldehyde in the Alaskan Arctic snowpack: Partitioning and physical processes involved in air-snow exchanges, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D00R03, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd016038, 2011.
Beine, H., Anastasio, C., Esposito, G., Patten, K., Wilkening, E., Domine, F., Voisin, D., Barret, M., Houdier, S., and Hall, S.: Soluble, light-absorbing species in snow at Barrow, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D00R05, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd016181, 2011.
Beine, H. J., Domine, F., Simpson, W., Honrath, R. E., Sparapani, R., Zhou, X. L., and King, M.: Snow-pile and chamber experiments during the Polar Sunrise Experiment “Alert 2000”: exploration of nitrogen chemistry, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2707–2719, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1352-2310(02)00120-6, 2002.
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Short summary
We study chemical reactions in snow and ice by freezing solutions in the laboratory. Although it is important to know where these chemicals are in the frozen sample (at the surface or buried in the ice), we do not understand this well. In this paper, we used X-rays to look at the chemical location in frozen samples. We found chemical location is sensitive to freezing method, sample container, and chemical characteristics, requiring careful experimental design and interpretation of results.
We study chemical reactions in snow and ice by freezing solutions in the laboratory. Although it...
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