Articles | Volume 6, issue 1
Research article 13 Feb 2012
Research article | 13 Feb 2012
Large surface meltwater discharge from the Kangerlussuaq sector of the Greenland ice sheet during the record-warm year 2010 explained by detailed energy balance observations
D. van As et al.
Related subject area
Energy Balance Obs/ModellingNew insights into radiative transfer within sea ice derived from autonomous optical propagation measurementsLong-term surface energy balance of the western Greenland Ice Sheet and the role of large-scale circulation variabilitySeasonal and interannual variability of melt-season albedo at Haig Glacier, Canadian Rocky MountainsSurface energy fluxes on Chilean glaciers: measurements and modelsEffect of small-scale snow surface roughness on snow albedo and reflectanceUsing 3D turbulence-resolving simulations to understand the impact of surface properties on the energy balance of a debris-covered glacierIncorporating moisture content in surface energy balance modeling of a debris-covered glacierSurface melt and the importance of water flow – an analysis based on high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data for an Arctic glacierOn the statistical properties of sea ice lead fraction and heat fluxes in the ArcticImpact of forcing on sublimation simulations for a high mountain catchment in the semiarid AndesIntercomparison and improvement of two-stream shortwave radiative transfer schemes in Earth system models for a unified treatment of cryospheric surfacesWater tracks intensify surface energy and mass exchange in the Antarctic McMurdo Dry ValleysQuantifying the snowmelt–albedo feedback at Neumayer Station, East AntarcticaA key factor initiating surface ablation of Arctic sea ice: earlier and increasing liquid precipitationBrief communication: An ice surface melt scheme including the diurnal cycle of solar radiationGlacio-hydrological melt and run-off modelling: application of a limits of acceptability framework for model comparison and selectionSunlight, clouds, sea ice, albedo, and the radiative budget: the umbrella versus the blanketForcing the SURFEX/Crocus snow model with combined hourly meteorological forecasts and gridded observations in southern NorwayObservations and simulations of the seasonal evolution of snowpack cold content and its relation to snowmelt and the snowpack energy budgetEffects of short-term variability of meteorological variables on soil temperature in permafrost regionsShifted energy fluxes, increased Bowen ratios, and reduced thaw depths linked with drainage-induced changes in permafrost ecosystem structureEvaluation of different methods to model near-surface turbulent fluxes for a mountain glacier in the Cariboo Mountains, BC, CanadaQuantifying bioalbedo: a new physically based model and discussion of empirical methods for characterising biological influence on ice and snow albedoThe importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observationsSEMIC: an efficient surface energy and mass balance model applied to the Greenland ice sheetSurface-layer turbulence, energy balance and links to atmospheric circulations over a mountain glacier in the French AlpsEvaposublimation from the snow in the Mediterranean mountains of Sierra Nevada (Spain)Surface energy balance sensitivity to meteorological variability on Haig Glacier, Canadian Rocky MountainsImproving satellite-retrieved surface radiative fluxes in polar regions using a smart sampling approachA Retrospective, Iterative, Geometry-Based (RIGB) tilt-correction method for radiation observed by automatic weather stations on snow-covered surfaces: application to GreenlandCloud effects on surface energy and mass balance in the ablation area of Brewster Glacier, New ZealandChanging surface–atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West GreenlandThe global land shortwave cryosphere radiative effect during the MODIS eraProcesses governing the mass balance of Chhota Shigri Glacier (western Himalaya, India) assessed by point-scale surface energy balance measurementsRepresenting moisture fluxes and phase changes in glacier debris cover using a reservoir approachUpdated cloud physics in a regional atmospheric climate model improves the modelled surface energy balance of AntarcticaModeling energy and mass balance of Shallap Glacier, PeruMeteorological drivers of ablation processes on a cold glacier in the semi-arid Andes of ChileMicrometeorological conditions and surface mass and energy fluxes on Lewis Glacier, Mt Kenya, in relation to other tropical glaciersSnow spectral albedo at Summit, Greenland: measurements and numerical simulations based on physical and chemical properties of the snowpackHigh-resolution interactive modelling of the mountain glacier–atmosphere interface: an application over the KarakoramBorehole temperatures reveal a changed energy budget at Mill Island, East Antarctica, over recent decadesAnalysis of the snow-atmosphere energy balance during wet-snow instabilities and implications for avalanche predictionA minimal, statistical model for the surface albedo of Vestfonna ice cap, SvalbardRefreezing on the Greenland ice sheet: a comparison of parameterizationsSimulating melt, runoff and refreezing on Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard, using a coupled snow and energy balance modelNear-surface climate and surface energy budget of Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctic PeninsulaThe surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia – Part 2: WinterThe seasonal cycle and interannual variability of surface energy balance and melt in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheetThe surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia – Part 1: Spring to fall
Christian Katlein, Lovro Valcic, Simon Lambert-Girard, and Mario Hoppmann
The Cryosphere, 15, 183–198,Short summary
To improve autonomous investigations of sea ice optical properties, we designed a chain of multispectral light sensors, providing autonomous in-ice light measurements. Here we describe the system and the data acquired from a first prototype deployment. We show that sideward-looking planar irradiance sensors basically measure scalar irradiance and demonstrate the use of this sensor chain to derive light transmittance and inherent optical properties of sea ice.
Baojuan Huai, Michiel R. van den Broeke, and Carleen H. Reijmer
The Cryosphere, 14, 4181–4199,Short summary
This study presents the surface energy balance (SEB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) using a SEB model forced with observations from automatic weather stations (AWSs). We correlate ERA5 with AWSs to show a signiﬁcant positive correlation of GrIS summer surface temperature and melt with the Greenland Blocking Index and weaker and opposite correlations with the North Atlantic Oscillation. This analysis may help explain melting patterns in the GrIS with respect to circulation anomalies.
Shawn J. Marshall and Kristina Miller
The Cryosphere, 14, 3249–3267,Short summary
Surface-albedo measurements from 2002 to 2017 from Haig Glacier in the Canadian Rockies provide no evidence of long-term trends (i.e., the glacier does not appear to be darkening), but there are large variations in albedo over the melt season and from year to year. The glacier ice is exceptionally dark in association with forest fire fallout but is effectively cleansed by meltwater or rainfall. Summer snowfall plays an important role in refreshing the glacier surface and reducing summer melt.
Marius Schaefer, Duilio Fonseca-Gallardo, David Farías-Barahona, and Gino Casassa
The Cryosphere, 14, 2545–2565,Short summary
Chile hosts glaciers in a large range of latitudes and climates. To project future ice extent, a sound quantification of the energy exchange between atmosphere and glaciers is needed. We present new data for six Chilean glaciers belonging to three glaciological zones. In the Central Andes, the main energy source for glacier melt is the incoming solar radiation, while in southern Patagonia heat provided by the mild and humid air is also important. Total melt rates are higher in Patagonia.
Terhikki Manninen, Kati Anttila, Emmihenna Jääskeläinen, Aku Riihelä, Jouni Peltoniemi, Petri Räisänen, Panu Lahtinen, Niilo Siljamo, Laura Thölix, Outi Meinander, Anna Kontu, Hanne Suokanerva, Roberta Pirazzini, Juha Suomalainen, Teemu Hakala, Sanna Kaasalainen, Harri Kaartinen, Antero Kukko, Olivier Hautecoeur, and Jean-Louis Roujean
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
The primary goal of this paper is to present a model of snow surface albedo (brightness) accounting for small-scale surface roughness effects. It can be combined with any volume scattering model. The results indicate that surface roughness may decrease the albedo by about 1–3 % in midwinter and even more than 10 % during late melting season. The effect is largest for low solar zenith angle values and lower bulk snow albedo values.
Pleun N. J. Bonekamp, Chiel C. van Heerwaarden, Jakob F. Steiner, and Walter W. Immerzeel
The Cryosphere, 14, 1611–1632,Short summary
Drivers controlling melt of debris-covered glaciers are largely unknown. With a 3D turbulence-resolving model the impact of surface properties of debris on micrometeorological variables and the conductive heat flux is shown. Also, we show ice cliffs are local melt hot spots and that turbulent fluxes and local heat advection amplify spatial heterogeneity on the surface.This work is important for glacier mass balance modelling and for the understanding of the evolution of debris-covered glaciers.
Alexandra Giese, Aaron Boone, Patrick Wagnon, and Robert Hawley
The Cryosphere, 14, 1555–1577,Short summary
Rocky debris on glacier surfaces is known to affect the melt of mountain glaciers. Debris can be dry or filled to varying extents with liquid water and ice; whether debris is dry, wet, and/or icy affects how efficiently heat is conducted through debris from its surface to the ice interface. Our paper presents a new energy balance model that simulates moisture phase, evolution, and location in debris. ISBA-DEB is applied to West Changri Nup glacier in Nepal to reveal important physical processes.
Eleanor A. Bash and Brian J. Moorman
The Cryosphere, 14, 549–563,Short summary
High-resolution measurements from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery allowed for examination of glacier melt model performance in detail at Fountain Glacier. This work capitalized on distributed measurements at 10 cm resolution to look at the spatial distribution of model errors in the ablation zone. Although the model agreed with measurements on average, strong correlation was found with surface water. The results highlight the contribution of surface water flow to melt at this location.
Einar Örn Ólason, Pierre Rampal, and Véronique Dansereau
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
We analyse the fractal properties observed in the pattern of the long, narrow openings that form in Arctic sea ice known as leads. We use statistical tools to explore the fractal properties of lead fraction observed in satellite data and show that our sea-ice model, neXtSIM, displays the same behaviour. Building on this result we then show that the pattern of heat loss from ocean to atmosphere in the model displays similar fractal properties, stemming from the fractal properties of the leads.
Marion Réveillet, Shelley MacDonell, Simon Gascoin, Christophe Kinnard, Stef Lhermitte, and Nicole Schaffer
The Cryosphere, 14, 147–163,
Cheng Dang, Charles S. Zender, and Mark G. Flanner
The Cryosphere, 13, 2325–2343,
Tobias Linhardt, Joseph S. Levy, and Christoph K. Thomas
The Cryosphere, 13, 2203–2219,Short summary
This study presents surface energy fluxes in an Antarctic polar desert in the summer season, comparing wetted soil at a water track with dominating dry soils. Elevated energy uptake, evaporation, and soil heat fluxes at the water track highlight the importance of wetted soils for water and energy cycling in polar deserts. This connection will grow more relevant, as wetted soils are expected to expand due to climate warming, with implications for landscape-scale hydrology and soil ecosystems.
Constantijn L. Jakobs, Carleen H. Reijmer, Peter Kuipers Munneke, Gert König-Langlo, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
The Cryosphere, 13, 1473–1485,Short summary
We use 24 years of observations at Neumayer Station, East Antarctica, to calculate the surface energy balance and the associated surface melt, which we find to be mainly driven by the absorption of solar radiation. Meltwater can refreeze in the subsurface snow layers, thereby decreasing the surface albedo and hence allowing for more absorption of solar radiation. By implementing an albedo parameterisation, we show that this feedback accounts for a threefold increase in surface melt at Neumayer.
Tingfeng Dou, Cunde Xiao, Jiping Liu, Wei Han, Zhiheng Du, Andrew R. Mahoney, Joshua Jones, and Hajo Eicken
The Cryosphere, 13, 1233–1246,Short summary
The variability and potential trends of rain-on-snow events over Arctic sea ice and their role in sea-ice losses are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that rain-on-snow events are a critical factor in initiating the onset of surface melt over Arctic sea ice, and onset of spring rainfall over sea ice has shifted to earlier dates since the 1970s, which may have profound impacts on ice melt through feedbacks involving earlier onset of surface melt.
Uta Krebs-Kanzow, Paul Gierz, and Gerrit Lohmann
The Cryosphere, 12, 3923–3930,Short summary
We present a new surface melt scheme for land ice. Derived from the energy balance of melting surfaces, the scheme may be particularly suitable for long ice-sheet simulations of past and future climates. It is computationally inexpensive and can be adapted to changes in the Earth's orbit and atmospheric composition. The scheme yields a better spatial representation of surface melt than common empirical schemes when applied to the Greenland Ice Sheet under present-day climate conditions.
Jonathan D. Mackay, Nicholas E. Barrand, David M. Hannah, Stefan Krause, Christopher R. Jackson, Jez Everest, and Guðfinna Aðalgeirsdóttir
The Cryosphere, 12, 2175–2210,Short summary
We apply a framework to compare and objectively accept or reject competing melt and run-off process models. We found no acceptable models. Furthermore, increasing model complexity does not guarantee better predictions. The results highlight model selection uncertainty and the need for rigorous frameworks to identify deficiencies in competing models. The application of this approach in the future will help to better quantify model prediction uncertainty and develop improved process models.
Donald K. Perovich
The Cryosphere, 12, 2159–2165,Short summary
The balance of longwave and shortwave radiation plays a central role in the summer melt of Arctic sea ice. It is governed by clouds and surface albedo. The basic question is what causes more melting, sunny skies or cloudy skies. It depends on the albedo of the ice surface. For snow-covered or bare ice, sunny skies always result in less radiative heat input. In contrast, the open ocean always has, and melt ponds usually have, more radiative input under sunny skies than cloudy skies.
Hanneke Luijting, Dagrun Vikhamar-Schuler, Trygve Aspelien, Åsmund Bakketun, and Mariken Homleid
The Cryosphere, 12, 2123–2145,Short summary
Knowledge of the snow reservoir is important for energy production and water resource management. In this study, a detailed snow model is run over southern Norway with two different sets of forcing data. The results show that forcing data consisting of post-processed data from a numerical weather model (observations assimilated into the raw weather predictions) are most promising for snow simulations when larger regions are evaluated.
Keith S. Jennings, Timothy G. F. Kittel, and Noah P. Molotch
The Cryosphere, 12, 1595–1614,Short summary
We show through observations and simulations that cold content, a key part of the snowpack energy budget, develops primarily through new snowfall. We also note that cold content damps snowmelt rate and timing at sub-seasonal timescales, while seasonal melt onset is controlled by the timing of peak cold content and total spring precipitation. This work has implications for how cold content is represented in snow models and improves our understanding of its effect on snowmelt processes.
Christian Beer, Philipp Porada, Altug Ekici, and Matthias Brakebusch
The Cryosphere, 12, 741–757,Short summary
Idealized model experiments demonstrate that, in addition to a gradual climate change, changing daily to weekly variability of meteorological variables and extreme events will also have an impact on mean annual ground temperature in high-latitude permafrost areas. In fact, results of the land surface model experiments show that the projected increase of variability of meteorological variables leads to cooler permafrost soil in contrast to an otherwise soil warming in response to climate change.
Mathias Göckede, Fanny Kittler, Min Jung Kwon, Ina Burjack, Martin Heimann, Olaf Kolle, Nikita Zimov, and Sergey Zimov
The Cryosphere, 11, 2975–2996,Short summary
Shifts in hydrologic conditions will be a key factor for the sustainability of Arctic ecosystems under future climate change. Using a long-term manipulation experiment, we analyzed how energy exchange processes within a permafrost ecosystem react to sustained dry conditions. Changes in several important ecosystem characteristics lead to reduced evapotranspiration and increased sensible heat fluxes. Heat transfer into the soil was strongly reduced, keeping the permafrost colder.
Valentina Radić, Brian Menounos, Joseph Shea, Noel Fitzpatrick, Mekdes A. Tessema, and Stephen J. Déry
The Cryosphere, 11, 2897–2918,Short summary
Our overall goal is to improve the numerical modeling of glacier melt in order to better predict the future of glaciers in Western Canada and worldwide. Most commonly used models rely on simplifications of processes that dictate melting at a glacier surface, in particular turbulent processes of heat exchange. We compared modeled against directly measured turbulent heat fluxes at a valley glacier in British Columbia, Canada, and found that more improvements are needed in all the tested models.
Joseph M. Cook, Andrew J. Hodson, Alex S. Gardner, Mark Flanner, Andrew J. Tedstone, Christopher Williamson, Tristram D. L. Irvine-Fynn, Johan Nilsson, Robert Bryant, and Martyn Tranter
The Cryosphere, 11, 2611–2632,Short summary
Biological growth darkens snow and ice, causing it to melt faster. This is often referred to as
bioalbedo. Quantifying bioalbedo has not been achieved because of difficulties in isolating the biological contribution from the optical properties of ice and snow, and from inorganic impurities in field studies. In this paper, we provide a physical model that enables bioalbedo to be quantified from first principles and we use it to guide future field studies.
Louise Steffensen Schmidt, Guðfinna Aðalgeirsdóttir, Sverrir Guðmundsson, Peter L. Langen, Finnur Pálsson, Ruth Mottram, Simon Gascoin, and Helgi Björnsson
The Cryosphere, 11, 1665–1684,Short summary
The regional climate model HIRHAM5 is evaluated over Vatnajökull, Iceland, using automatic weather stations and mass balance observations from 1995 to 2014. From this we asses whether the model can be used to reconstruct the mass balance of the glacier. We find that the simulated energy balance is underestimated overall, but it has been improved by using a new albedo scheme. The specific mass balance is reconstructed back to 1980, thus expanding on the observational records of the mass balance.
Mario Krapp, Alexander Robinson, and Andrey Ganopolski
The Cryosphere, 11, 1519–1535,Short summary
We present the snowpack model SEMIC. It calculates snow height, surface temperature, surface albedo, and the surface mass balance of snow- and ice-covered surfaces while using meteorological data as input. In this paper we describe how SEMIC works and how well it compares with snowpack data of a more sophisticated regional climate model applied to the Greenland ice sheet. Because of its simplicity and efficiency, SEMIC can be used as a coupling interface between atmospheric and ice sheet models.
Maxime Litt, Jean-Emmanuel Sicart, Delphine Six, Patrick Wagnon, and Warren D. Helgason
The Cryosphere, 11, 971–987,Short summary
Climate variations might change the frequency of typical weather conditions. We present a weather pattern classification as an useful tool for identifying changing glacier wind regimes. We show the intensity of turbulent heat exchanges between ice and air changes with these regimes, as well as the importance of discrepancies between bulk-aerodynamic and eddy-covariance fluxes. The results suggest these discrepancies influence melt estimates from surface energy balance calculations.
Javier Herrero and María José Polo
The Cryosphere, 10, 2981–2998,Short summary
We present 7 years of field work and modelling to assess the importance of the loss of water from the snow by means of evaposublimation in the Mediterranean mountains of Sierra Nevada. The actual evaposublimation rates were detected through detailed measurement of the mass fluxes from the snow. These data have led to some improvements in the modelling of the snow dynamics in this kind of mountainous semiarid regions. Evaposublimation is estimated to range 24–33% of total annual snowfall.
Samaneh Ebrahimi and Shawn J. Marshall
The Cryosphere, 10, 2799–2819,Short summary
Atmospheric–glacier surface interactions govern melt, where each variable has a different impact depending on the region and time of year. To understand these impacts and their year-to-year variability on summer melt extent, we examine melt sensitivity to different meteorological variables at a glacier in the Canadian Rockies. Cloud conditions, surface albedo, temperature, and humidity are all important to melt extent and should be considered in models of glacier response to climate change.
Kristof Van Tricht, Stef Lhermitte, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, and Nicole P. M. van Lipzig
The Cryosphere, 10, 2379–2397,Short summary
Despite the crucial role of polar regions in the global climate system, the limited availability of observations on the ground hampers a detailed understanding of their energy budget. Here we develop a method to use satellites to fill these observational gaps. We show that by sampling satellite observations in a smart way, coverage is greatly enhanced. We conclude that this method might help improve our understanding of the polar energy budget, and ultimately its effects on the global climate.
Wenshan Wang, Charles S. Zender, Dirk van As, Paul C. J. P. Smeets, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
The Cryosphere, 10, 727–741,Short summary
We identify and correct station-tilt-induced biases in insolation observed by automatic weather stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Without tilt correction, only 40 % of clear days have the correct solar noon time (±0.5 h). The largest hourly bias exceeds 20 %. We estimate the tilt angles based on solar geometric relationship between insolation observed on horizontal surfaces and that on tilted surfaces, and produce shortwave radiation and albedo that agree better with independent data sets.
J. P. Conway and N. J. Cullen
The Cryosphere, 10, 313–328,Short summary
Clouds are shown to force fundamental changes in the surface energy and mass balance of Brewster Glacier, New Zealand. Cloudy periods exhibit greater melt due to increased incoming long-wave radiation and higher atmospheric vapour pressure rather than through minimal changes in mean air temperature and wind speed. Surface mass-balance sensitivity to air temperature is enhanced in overcast compared to clear-sky periods due to more frequent melt and a strong precipitation phase to albedo feedback.
C. Charalampidis, D. van As, J. E. Box, M. R. van den Broeke, W. T. Colgan, S. H. Doyle, A. L. Hubbard, M. MacFerrin, H. Machguth, and C. J. P. P. Smeets
The Cryosphere, 9, 2163–2181,
D. Singh, M. G. Flanner, and J. Perket
The Cryosphere, 9, 2057–2070,Short summary
Our work quantifies the effect of snow/ice cover on Earth's top-of-atmosphere solar energy budget. We used higher resolution MODIS data, combined with microwave retrievals of snow presence and radiative kernels produced from 4 different models for Cryosphere Radiative Effect (CrRE) estimation. We have estimated a global land-based CrRE of about -2.6Wm-2 during 2001-2013, with about 59% of the effect originating from Antarctica. We were also be able to resolve contribution from mountain glaciers.
M. F. Azam, P. Wagnon, C. Vincent, AL. Ramanathan, V. Favier, A. Mandal, and J. G. Pottakkal
The Cryosphere, 8, 2195–2217,Short summary
This paper presents point-scale surface energy balance on Chhota Shigri Glacier, Western Himalaya, India. Energy is available for melting only in summer-monsoon. Net all-wave radiation is the main heat flux towards the glacier surface accounting for 80% of the total melting energy followed by sensible (13%), latent (5%) turbulent and conductive (2%) heat fluxes. The intensity of summer-monsoon snowfalls is found among the most important drivers controlling the mass balance of this glacier.
E. Collier, L. I. Nicholson, B. W. Brock, F. Maussion, R. Essery, and A. B. G. Bush
The Cryosphere, 8, 1429–1444,
J. M. van Wessem, C. H. Reijmer, J. T. M. Lenaerts, W. J. van de Berg, M. R. van den Broeke, and E. van Meijgaard
The Cryosphere, 8, 125–135,
W. Gurgiser, B. Marzeion, L. Nicholson, M. Ortner, and G. Kaser
The Cryosphere, 7, 1787–1802,
S. MacDonell, C. Kinnard, T. Mölg, L. Nicholson, and J. Abermann
The Cryosphere, 7, 1513–1526,
L. I. Nicholson, R. Prinz, T. Mölg, and G. Kaser
The Cryosphere, 7, 1205–1225,
C. M. Carmagnola, F. Domine, M. Dumont, P. Wright, B. Strellis, M. Bergin, J. Dibb, G. Picard, Q. Libois, L. Arnaud, and S. Morin
The Cryosphere, 7, 1139–1160,
E. Collier, T. Mölg, F. Maussion, D. Scherer, C. Mayer, and A. B. G. Bush
The Cryosphere, 7, 779–795,
J. L. Roberts, A. D. Moy, T. D. van Ommen, M. A. J. Curran, A. P. Worby, I. D. Goodwin, and M. Inoue
The Cryosphere, 7, 263–273,
C. Mitterer and J. Schweizer
The Cryosphere, 7, 205–216,
The Cryosphere, 6, 1049–1061,
C. H. Reijmer, M. R. van den Broeke, X. Fettweis, J. Ettema, and L. B. Stap
The Cryosphere, 6, 743–762,
W. J. J. van Pelt, J. Oerlemans, C. H. Reijmer, V. A. Pohjola, R. Pettersson, and J. H. van Angelen
The Cryosphere, 6, 641–659,
P. Kuipers Munneke, M. R. van den Broeke, J. C. King, T. Gray, and C. H. Reijmer
The Cryosphere, 6, 353–363,
M. Langer, S. Westermann, S. Muster, K. Piel, and J. Boike
The Cryosphere, 5, 509–524,
M. R. van den Broeke, C. J. P. P. Smeets, and R. S. W. van de Wal
The Cryosphere, 5, 377–390,
M. Langer, S. Westermann, S. Muster, K. Piel, and J. Boike
The Cryosphere, 5, 151–171,
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