Articles | Volume 15, issue 12
08 Dec 2021
Research article | 08 Dec 2021
Perspectives on future sea ice and navigability in the Arctic
Jinlei Chen et al.
No articles found.
Xiufeng Yin, Dipesh Rupakheti, Guoshuai Zhang, Jiali Luo, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Junhua Yang, Zhenming Ji, Zhiyuan Cong, Maheswar Rupakheti, Ping Li, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The monthly mean surface ozone concentrations peaked earlier in the south in April and later in the north in July over the High-Mountain Asia. The migration of monthly surface ozone peaks was coupled with the synchronous movement of tropopause folding and westerly jet that created a conducive conditions for stratospheric ozone intrusion. Stratospheric ozone intrusion contributed ~65 % of surface ozone across the High-Mountain Asia.
Jizu Chen, Wentao Du, Shichang Kang, Xiang Qin, Weijun Sun, Yang Li, Yushuo Liu, Lihui Luo, and Youyan Jiang
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
This study developed a dynamic deposition model of light absorbing particles (LAPs), which coupled with a surface energy and mass balance model. Based on the coupled model, we assessed atmospheric deposited BC effect on glacier melting, and quantified global warming and increment of emitted black carbon respective contributions to current accelerated glacier melting.
Chaman Gul, Shichang Kang, Siva Praveen Puppala, Xiaokang Wu, Cenlin He, Yangyang Xu, Inka Koch, Sher Muhammad, Rajesh Kumar, and Getachew Dubache
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8725–8737,Short summary
This work aims to understand concentrations, spatial variability, and potential source regions of light-absorbing impurities (black carbon aerosols, dust particles, and organic carbon) in the surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers and their impact on snow albedo and radiative forcing.
Xinghua Zhang, Wenhui Zhao, Lixiang Zhai, Miao Zhong, Jinsen Shi, Junying Sun, Yanmei Liu, Conghui Xie, Yulong Tan, Kemei Li, Xinlei Ge, Qi Zhang, Shichang Kang, and Jianzhong Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
A comprehensive aerosol observation project was carried out in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in recent years to investigate the properties and sources of atmospheric aerosols as well as their regional differences by performing multiple short-term intensive field observations. The real-time online high-time-resolution (hourly) data of aerosol properties in the different TP region are integrated in a new dataset and can provide supporting for related studies in in the TP.
Shaoyong Wang, Xiaobo He, Shichang Kang, Hui Fu, and Xiaofeng Hong
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
This study used the sine-wave exponential model and long-term water stable isotopic data to estimate water MRT and its influencing factors in a high-altitude permafrost catchmen (5,300 m a.s.l.) in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP). We conclude that global warming might retard the rate of water cycle in permafrost regions. Our study will deepen the understanding of hydrological processes in high-altitude permafrost catchments.
Yongqin Liu, Pengcheng Fang, Bixi Guo, Mukan Ji, Pengfei Liu, Guannan Mao, Baiqing Xu, Shichang Kang, and Junzhi Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2303–2314,Short summary
Glaciers are an important pool of microorganisms, organic carbon, and nitrogen. This study constructed the first dataset of microbial abundance and total nitrogen in Tibetan Plateau (TP) glaciers and the first dataset of dissolved organic carbon in ice cores on the TP. These new data could provide valuable information for research on the glacier carbon and nitrogen cycle and help in assessing the potential impacts of glacier retreat due to global warming on downstream ecosystems.
Mukesh Rai, Shichang Kang, Junhua Yang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Dipesh Rupakheti, Lekhendra Tripathee, Yuling Hu, and Xintong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Our study revealed distinctive seasonality with the maximum and minimum aerosol concentrations during the winter and summer seasons respectively. However, interestingly summer high (AOD > 0.8) was observed over South Asia. The highest aerosols are laden over South Asia and East China within 1–2 km, however, aerosol overshooting found up to 10 km due to the deep convection process. Whereas, integrated aerosol transport for OC during spring was found to be 5 times higher than the annual mean.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Chenghao Yu, Long Chen, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Lun Luo, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2651–2668,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is known as
The Third Poleand is generally considered to be a clean area owing to its high altitude. However, it may receive be impacted by air pollutants transported from the Indian subcontinent. Pollutants generally enter the Tibetan Plateau in several ways. Among them is the Yarlung Zangbu–Brahmaputra Grand Canyon. In this study, we identified the influence of the Indian summer monsoon on the origin, transport, and behavior of mercury in this area.
Shichang Kang, Yulan Zhang, Pengfei Chen, Junming Guo, Qianggong Zhang, Zhiyuan Cong, Susan Kaspari, Lekhendra Tripathee, Tanguang Gao, Hewen Niu, Xinyue Zhong, Xintong Chen, Zhaofu Hu, Xiaofei Li, Yang Li, Bigyan Neupane, Fangping Yan, Dipesh Rupakheti, Chaman Gul, Wei Zhang, Guangming Wu, Ling Yang, Zhaoqing Wang, and Chaoliu Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 683–707,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is important to the Earth’s climate. However, systematically observed data here are scarce. To perform more integrated and in-depth investigations of the origins and distributions of atmospheric pollutants and their impacts on cryospheric change, systematic data of black carbon and organic carbon from the atmosphere, glaciers, snow cover, precipitation, and lake sediment cores over the plateau based on the Atmospheric Pollution and Cryospheric Change program are provided.
Yongkang Xue, Tandong Yao, Aaron A. Boone, Ismaila Diallo, Ye Liu, Xubin Zeng, William K. M. Lau, Shiori Sugimoto, Qi Tang, Xiaoduo Pan, Peter J. van Oevelen, Daniel Klocke, Myung-Seo Koo, Tomonori Sato, Zhaohui Lin, Yuhei Takaya, Constantin Ardilouze, Stefano Materia, Subodh K. Saha, Retish Senan, Tetsu Nakamura, Hailan Wang, Jing Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Mei Zhao, Xin-Zhong Liang, J. David Neelin, Frederic Vitart, Xin Li, Ping Zhao, Chunxiang Shi, Weidong Guo, Jianping Tang, Miao Yu, Yun Qian, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yang Zhang, Kun Yang, Ruby Leung, Yuan Qiu, Daniele Peano, Xin Qi, Yanling Zhan, Michael A. Brunke, Sin Chan Chou, Michael Ek, Tianyi Fan, Hong Guan, Hai Lin, Shunlin Liang, Helin Wei, Shaocheng Xie, Haoran Xu, Weiping Li, Xueli Shi, Paulo Nobre, Yan Pan, Yi Qin, Jeff Dozier, Craig R. Ferguson, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Qing Bao, Jinming Feng, Jinkyu Hong, Songyou Hong, Huilin Huang, Duoying Ji, Zhenming Ji, Shichang Kang, Yanluan Lin, Weiguang Liu, Ryan Muncaster, Patricia de Rosnay, Hiroshi G. Takahashi, Guiling Wang, Shuyu Wang, Weicai Wang, Xu Zhou, and Yuejian Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4465–4494,Short summary
The subseasonal prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts/floods has remained stubbornly low for years. This paper presents a new international initiative which, for the first time, introduces spring land surface temperature anomalies over high mountains to improve precipitation prediction through remote effects of land–atmosphere interactions. More than 40 institutions worldwide are participating in this effort. The experimental protocol and preliminary results are presented.
Kun Wang, Shohei Hattori, Mang Lin, Sakiko Ishino, Becky Alexander, Kazuki Kamezaki, Naohiro Yoshida, and Shichang Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8357–8376,Short summary
Sulfate aerosols play an important climatic role and exert adverse effects on the ecological environment and human health. In this study, we present the triple oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate from the Mt. Everest region, southern Tibetan Plateau, and decipher the formation mechanisms of atmospheric sulfate in this pristine environment. The results indicate the important role of the S(IV) + O3 pathway in atmospheric sulfate formation promoted by conditions of high cloud water pH.
Shuang Yi, Chunqiao Song, Kosuke Heki, Shichang Kang, Qiuyu Wang, and Le Chang
The Cryosphere, 14, 2267–2281,Short summary
High-Asia glaciers have been observed to be retreating the fastest in the southeastern Tibeten Plateau, where vast amounts of glacier and snow feed the streamflow of the Brahmaputra. Here, we provide the first monthly glacier and snow mass balance during 2002–2017 based on satellite gravimetry. The results confirm previous long-term decreases but reveal strong seasonal variations. This work helps resolve previous divergent model estimates and underlines the importance of meltwater.
Meixin Zhang, Chun Zhao, Zhiyuan Cong, Qiuyan Du, Mingyue Xu, Yu Chen, Ming Chen, Rui Li, Yunfei Fu, Lei Zhong, Shichang Kang, Delong Zhao, and Yan Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5923–5943,Short summary
Analysis of multiple numerical experiments over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP) shows that the complex topography results in 50 % stronger overall cross-Himalayan transport during the pre-monsoon season primarily due to the strengthened efficiency of near-surface meridional transport towards the TP, enhanced wind speed in some valleys and deeper valley channels associated with larger transported BC mass volume, which leads to 30–50 % stronger BC radiative heating over the TP.
Xiongxin Xiao, Tingjun Zhang, Xinyue Zhong, Xiaodong Li, and Yuxing Li
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Seasonal snow cover is an important component of the climate system and global water cycle that stores large amounts of freshwater. Our research attempts to develop a long-term Northern Hemisphere daily snow depth and snow water equivalent product data using a new algorithm applying in historical passive microwave dataset from 1992 to 2016. Our further analysis showed that snow cover has a significant declining trend across the Northern Hemisphere, especially beginning in the new century.
Tingfeng Dou, Zhiheng Du, Shutong Li, Yulan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Mingju Hao, Chuanjin Li, Biao Tian, Minghu Ding, and Cunde Xiao
The Cryosphere, 13, 3309–3316,Short summary
The meltwater scavenging coefficient (MSC) determines the BC enrichment in the surface layer of melting snow and therefore modulates the BC-snow-albedo feedbacks. This study presents a new method for MSC estimation over the sea-ice area in Arctic. Using this new method, we analyze the spatial variability of MSC in the western Arctic and demonstrate that the value in Canada Basin (23.6 % ± 2.1 %) ≈ that in Greenland (23.0 % ± 12.5 %) > that in Chukchi Sea (17.9 % ± 5.0 %) > that in Elson Lagoon (14.5 % ± 2.6 %).
Y. K. Xiao, Z. M. Ji, C. S. Fu, W. T. Du, J. H. Yang, and W. J. Dong
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W9, 187–194,
Xinghua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Qi Zhang, and Junying Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7897–7911,Short summary
Highly time resolved chemistry and sources of PM1 were measured by an Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS at Waliguan Baseline Observatory, a high-altitude background station at the northeastern edge of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP), during summer 2017. Relatively higher mass concentration of PM1 and dominant sulfate contribution were observed in this site compared to those at other high-elevation sites in the southern or central QTP, indicating the different aerosol sources between them.
Xiongxin Xiao, Tingjun Zhang, Xinyue Zhong, Xiaodong Li, and Yuxing Li
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Seasonal snow cover is an important component of the climate system and global water cycle that stores large amounts of freshwater. Our research attempts to develop a long-term Northern Hemisphere daily snow depth and snow water equivalent products using a new algorithm applying in historical passive microwave data sets from 1992 to 2016. Our further analysis showed the snow cover has a significant declining trend across the Northern Hemisphere, especially beginning at the new century.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Lekhendra Tripathee, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Mark G. Lawrence, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2725–2747,Short summary
The sources of primary and secondary aerosols in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau region are not well known. Organic molecular tracers are useful for aerosol source apportionment. The characterization of molecular tracers were first systemically investigated and the contribution from primary and secondary sources to carbonaceous aerosols was estimated in the Kathmandu Valley. Our results demonstrate that biomass burning contributed a significant fraction to OC in the Kathmandu Valley.
Yanqing An, Jianzhong Xu, Lin Feng, Xinghua Zhang, Yanmei Liu, Shichang Kang, Bin Jiang, and Yuhong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1115–1128,Short summary
Detailed molecular chemical composition of water-soluble organic matter in the Himalayas was characterized by positive electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for the first time. Many products formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds and biomass-burning-emitted compounds were found in the organic compounds, suggesting the important contribution of these two sources in the Himalayas.
Zhiwen Dong, Shichang Kang, Dahe Qin, Yaping Shao, Sven Ulbrich, and Xiang Qin
The Cryosphere, 12, 3877–3890,Short summary
This study aimed to provide a first and unique record of physicochemical properties and mixing states of LAPs at the glacier and atmosphere interface over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau to determine the individual LAPs' structure aging and mixing state changes through the atmospheric deposition process from atmosphere to glacier–snowpack surface, thereby helping to characterize the LAPs' radiative forcing and climate effects in the cryosphere region.
Zhiyuan Cong, Shaopeng Gao, Wancang Zhao, Xin Wang, Guangming Wu, Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Yongqin Liu, and Junfeng Ji
The Cryosphere, 12, 3177–3186,Short summary
Cryoconites from glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding area were studied for iron oxides. We found that goethite is the predominant iron oxide form. Using the abundance, speciation and optical properties of iron oxides, the total light absorption was quantitatively attributed to goethite, hematite, black carbon and organic matter. Such findings are essential to understand the relative significance of anthropogenic and natural impacts.
Xintong Chen, Shichang Kang, Zhiyuan Cong, Junhua Yang, and Yaoming Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12859–12875,Short summary
To understand the impact of transboundary atmospheric black carbon on the Mt. Everest region and depict the transport pathways in different spatiotemporal scales, we first investigated the concentration level, temporal variation, and sources of black carbon based on high-resolution (2-year) measurements at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station (4276 m a.s.l.). Next, the WRF-Chem simulations were used to reveal the transport mechanisms of black carbon from southern Asia to the Mt. Everest region.
Cenlin He, Mark G. Flanner, Fei Chen, Michael Barlage, Kuo-Nan Liou, Shichang Kang, Jing Ming, and Yun Qian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11507–11527,Short summary
Snow albedo plays a key role in the Earth and climate system. It can be affected by impurities and snow properties. This study implements new parameterizations into a widely used snow model to account for effects of snow shape and black carbon–snow mixing state on snow albedo reduction in the Tibetan Plateau. This study points toward an imperative need for extensive measurements and improved model characterization of snow grain shape and aerosol–snow mixing state in Tibet and elsewhere.
Xiufeng Yin, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Yaoming Ma, Yindong Tong, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Wang, Guoshuai Zhang, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10557–10574,Short summary
Total gaseous mercury concentrations were measured at Nam Co Station on the inland Tibetan Plateau for ~ 3 years. The mean concentration of TGM during the entire monitoring period was 1.33 ± 0.24 ngm-3, ranking it the lowest in China and indicating the pristine atmospheric environment of the inland Tibetan Plateau. Variation of TGM at Nam Co was affected by regional surface reemission, vertical mixing and long-range transported atmospheric mercury, which was associated with the Indian monsoon.
Hewen Niu, Shichang Kang, Hailong Wang, Rudong Zhang, Xixi Lu, Yun Qian, Rukumesh Paudyal, Shijin Wang, Xiaofei Shi, and Xingguo Yan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6441–6460,Short summary
Deposition of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on the surface of glaciers can greatly alter the energy fluxes of glaciers. Two years of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in a glacierized region are analyzed. We mainly studied the light absorption properties of carbonaceous aerosol and have employed a global aerosol–climate model to estimate source attributions of atmospheric black carbon.
D. Rupakheti, S. Kang, Z. Cong, M. Rupakheti, L. Tripathee, A. K. Panday, and B. Holben
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 1493–1497,
Chaman Gul, Siva Praveen Puppala, Shichang Kang, Bhupesh Adhikary, Yulan Zhang, Shaukat Ali, Yang Li, and Xiaofei Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4981–5000,Short summary
Snow and ice samples were collected from six glaciers and multiple mountain valleys from northern Pakistan. Samples were analyzed for black carbon and water-insoluble organic carbon. Relatively high concentrations of black carbon, organic carbon, and dust were reported. Snow albedo and radiative forcing were estimated for the snow samples. Possible source regions of pollutants were identified through various techniques.
Xinghua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Yanmei Liu, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4617–4638,Short summary
Highly time and chemically resolved submicron aerosol properties were characterized online for the first time in a high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas by using the Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Biomass burning plumes were frequently observed and the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical processing) were characterized. The source and chemical composition of organic aerosol were further elucidated using positive matrix factorization analysis.
Haipeng Wang, Jianhui Chen, Shengda Zhang, David D. Zhang, Zongli Wang, Qinghai Xu, Shengqian Chen, Shijin Wang, Shichang Kang, and Fahu Chen
Clim. Past, 14, 383–396,Short summary
The chironomid-inferred temperature record from Gonghai Lake exhibits a stepwise decreasing trend since 4 ka. A cold event in the Era of Disunity, the Sui-Tang Warm Period, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age can all be recognized in our record, as well as in many other temperature reconstructions in China. Local wars in Shanxi Province, documented in the historical literature during the past 2700 years, are statistically significantly correlated with changes in temperature.
Yuzhe Wang, Tong Zhang, Jiawen Ren, Xiang Qin, Yushuo Liu, Weijun Sun, Jizu Chen, Minghu Ding, Wentao Du, and Dahe Qin
The Cryosphere, 12, 851–866,Short summary
We combine in situ measurements and an ice flow model to study the thermomechanical features of Laohugou Glacier No. 12, the largest valley glacier on Qilian Shan. We reveal that this glacier, once considered to be extremely continental or cold, is actually polythermal with a lower temperate ice layer over a large region of the ablation area. Strain heating and latent heat due to meltwater refreezing in the firn zone play critical roles in controlling the thermal regime of this glacier.
Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Michael Sprenger, Zhiyuan Cong, Tanguang Gao, Chaoliu Li, Shu Tao, Xiaofei Li, Xinyue Zhong, Min Xu, Wenjun Meng, Bigyan Neupane, Xiang Qin, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 12, 413–431,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities deposited on snow can reduce surface albedo and contribute to the near-worldwide melting of snowpack and ice. This study focused on the black carbon and mineral dust in snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau. We discussed their concentrations, distributions, possible sources, and albedo reduction and radiative forcing. Findings indicated that the impacts of black carbon and mineral dust need to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections.
Xinyue Zhong, Tingjun Zhang, Shichang Kang, Kang Wang, Lei Zheng, Yuantao Hu, and Huijuan Wang
The Cryosphere, 12, 227–245,
Jianzhong Xu, Qi Zhang, Jinsen Shi, Xinlei Ge, Conghui Xie, Junfeng Wang, Shichang Kang, Ruixiong Zhang, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 427–443,Short summary
This manuscript presents results from a comprehensive field study using an HR-AMS coupled with a suite of other instruments in central Tibetan Plateau. The study discusses the chemical composition, sources, and processes of submicron aerosol during the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon. Organic aerosol was overall highly oxidized during the entire study with higher O / C ratios during the pre-monsoon period. Sensitivity of air pollution transport with synoptic process was also evaluated.
Lin Feng, Yanqing An, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Xiaofei Li, Yongqiang Zhou, Yunlin Zhang, Bin Jiang, and Yuhong Liao
Revised manuscript not accepted
Chaoliu Li, Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Pengfei Chen, Xiaowen Han, Zhaofu Hu, Guoshuai Zhang, Ye Hong, Shaopeng Gao, Bin Qu, Zhejing Zhu, Jiwei Li, Bing Chen, and Mika Sillanpää
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11899–11912,Short summary
In this study, we found, due to contribution of carbonates, previously reported BC concentration in atmosphere of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP) were overestimated by around 39–52 %. Meanwhile, we found BC deposition of lake cores overestimated the atmospheric deposition of BC in the HTP; BC depositions of glacier region reflected actual values of 17.9 ± 5.3 mg m−2 a−1. The above results are critical for studying atmospheric distribution and chemical transport of BC in and around the HTP.
Xiufeng Yin, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Zhiyuan Cong, Jiali Luo, Lang Zhang, Yaoming Ma, Guoshuai Zhang, Dipesh Rupakheti, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11293–11311,Short summary
We presented 5-year surface ozone measurements at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau and made a synthesis comparison of diurnal and seasonal patterns on regional and hemispheric scales. Surface ozone at Nam Co is mainly dominated by natural processes and is less influenced by stratospheric intrusions and human activities than on the rim of the Tibetan Plateau. Ozone at Nam Co is representative of background that is valuable for studying ozone-related effects on large scales.
Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhupesh Adhikary, Puppala Siva Praveen, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shichang Kang, Khadak Singh Mahata, Manish Naja, Qianggong Zhang, Arnico Kumar Panday, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11041–11063,Short summary
For the first time, atmospheric composition was monitored during pre-monsoon season of 2013 at Lumbini (UNESCO world heritage site as birthplace of the Buddha). PM and O3 frequently exceeded WHO guidelines. Pollution concentration, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini were investigated. Potential source regions were also identified. Results show that air pollution at this site is of a great concern, requiring prompt attention for mitigation.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Quanlian Li, Dipesh Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Lekhendra Tripathee, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Wu Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Shaopeng Gao, Guangming Wu, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8867–8885,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) tracers in the aerosols in Lumbini, northern IGP, were studied for the first time. The levoglucosan was the predominant tracer and BB significantly contributed to the air quality in Lumbini. Mixed crop residues and hardwood were main burning materials. BB emissions constituted large fraction of OC, especially during the post-monsoon season. The sources of BB aerosols in Lumbini varies seasonally due to the influence of local emissions and long-range transport.
Xiaoqing Peng, Tingjun Zhang, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Kang Wang, Bin Cao, Xinyue Zhong, Hang Su, and Cuicui Mu
The Cryosphere, 11, 1059–1073,Short summary
Previous research has paid significant attention to permafrost, e.g. active layer thickness, soil temperature, area extent, and associated degradation leading to other changes. However, less focus has been given to seasonally frozen ground and vast area extent. We combined data from more than 800 observation stations, as well as gridded data, to investigate soil freeze depth across China. The results indicate that soil freeze depth decreases with climate warming.
Bin Liu, Zhiyuan Cong, Yuesi Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Xin Wan, Yuepeng Pan, Zirui Liu, Yonghong Wang, Guoshuai Zhang, Zhongyan Wang, Yongjie Wang, and Shichang Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 449–463,Short summary
The first observation net of background atmospheric aerosols of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau were conducted in 2011–2013, and the aerosol mass loadings were especially illustrated in this paper. Consequently, these terrestrial aerosol masses were strongly ecosystem-dependent, with various seasonality and diurnal cycles at these sites. These findings implicate that regional characteristics and fine-particle emissions need to be treated sensitively when assessing their climatic effects.
Jianzhong Xu, Jinsen Shi, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Matthias Vonwiller, Sönke Szidat, Jinming Ge, Jianmin Ma, Yanqing An, Shichang Kang, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14937–14957,Short summary
This study deployed an AMS field study in Lanzhou, a city in northwestern China, evaluating the chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during wintertime. In comparison with the results during summer in Lanzhou, the air pollution during winter was more severe and the sources were more complex. In addition, this paper estimates the contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon to primary and secondary organic carbon using the carbon isotopic method.
Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Yulan Zhang, Xiang Qin, Yang Li, Xiaopeng Zhang, Zhaofu Hu, Pengfei Chen, Xiaofei Li, Bin Qu, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 10, 2611–2621,Short summary
DOC release of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 was 192 kg km−2 yr−1, of which 43.2 % could be decomposed and return to atmosphere as CO2 within 28 days, producing positive feedback in the warming process and influencing downstream ecosystems. Radiative forcing of snow pit DOC was calculated to be 0.43 W m−2, accounting for about 10 % of the radiative forcing caused by BC. Therefore, DOC is also a light-absorbing agent in glacierized regions, influencing the albedo of glacier surface and glacier melting.
Shengyun Chen, Wenjie Liu, Qian Zhao, Lin Zhao, Qingbai Wu, Xingjie Lu, Shichang Kang, Xiang Qin, Shilong Chen, Jiawen Ren, and Dahe Qin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Experimental warming was manipulated using open top chambers in alpine grassland ecosystem in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results revealed variations of earlier thawing, later freezing and longer freezing-thawing periods in shallow soil. Further, the estimated permafrost table declined under the warming scenarios. The work will be helpful to evaluate the stability of Qinghai-Tibet Railway/Highway and estimate the release of carbon under the future climate warming.
Yang Li, Jizu Chen, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Bin Qu, Lekhendra Tripathee, Fangping Yan, Yulan Zhang, Junmin Guo, Chaman Gul, and Xiang Qin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first quantitative dataset of the impacts of light absorbing particles (LAPs) on glacier ablation estimated directly from the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau (TP).The average concentrations of black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD) in surface snow and ice at Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (LHG) were much higher than those detected in snow pits and ice cores in TP and Tien Shan mountains.
S. Song, N. E. Selin, A. L. Soerensen, H. Angot, R. Artz, S. Brooks, E.-G. Brunke, G. Conley, A. Dommergue, R. Ebinghaus, T. M. Holsen, D. A. Jaffe, S. Kang, P. Kelley, W. T. Luke, O. Magand, K. Marumoto, K. A. Pfaffhuber, X. Ren, G.-R. Sheu, F. Slemr, T. Warneke, A. Weigelt, P. Weiss-Penzias, D. C. Wip, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7103–7125,Short summary
A better knowledge of mercury (Hg) emission fluxes into the global atmosphere is important for assessing its human health impacts and evaluating the effectiveness of corresponding policy actions. We for the first time apply a top-down approach at a global scale to quantitatively estimate present-day mercury emission sources as well as key parameters in a chemical transport model, in order to better constrain the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury.
K. Wang, T. Zhang, and X. Zhong
The Cryosphere, 9, 1321–1331,
S. Kang, F. Wang, U. Morgenstern, Y. Zhang, B. Grigholm, S. Kaspari, M. Schwikowski, J. Ren, T. Yao, D. Qin, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1213–1222,
X. Zhong, T. Zhang, and K. Wang
The Cryosphere, 8, 785–799,
Related subject area
Discipline: Sea ice | Subject: Arctic (e.g. Greenland)Sea ice breakup and freeze-up indicators for users of the Arctic coastal environmentImproving model-satellite comparisons of sea ice melt onset with a satellite simulatorKara and Barents sea ice thickness estimation based on CryoSat-2 radar altimeter and Sentinel-1 dual-polarized synthetic aperture radarContribution of warm and moist atmospheric flow to a record minimum July sea ice extent of the Arctic in 2020Winter Arctic sea ice thickness from ICESat-2: upgrades to freeboard and snow loading estimates and an assessment of the first three winters of data collectionLasting impact of winds on Arctic sea ice through the ocean's memoryCauses and Evolution of Winter Polynyas over North of GreenlandHolocene sea-ice dynamics in Petermann Fjord in relation to ice tongue stability and Nares Strait ice arch formationPresentation and evaluation of the Arctic sea ice forecasting system neXtSIM-FCombined influence of oceanic and atmospheric circulations on Greenland sea ice concentrationSeasonal changes in sea ice kinematics and deformation in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean in 2018/19Year-round impact of winter sea ice thickness observations on seasonal forecastsEnsemble-based estimation of sea-ice volume variations in the Baffin BaySea ice drift and arch evolution in the Robeson Channel using the daily coverage of Sentinel-1 SAR data for the 2016–2017 freezing seasonBrief communication: Arctic sea ice thickness internal variability and its changes under historical and anthropogenic forcingSeasonal transition dates can reveal biases in Arctic sea ice simulationsThe Copernicus Polar Ice and Snow Topography Altimeter (CRISTAL) high-priority candidate missionThe MOSAiC ice floe: sediment-laden survivor from the Siberian shelfSpectral attenuation of ocean waves in pack ice and its application in calibrating viscoelastic wave-in-ice modelsNew observations of the distribution, morphology and dissolution dynamics of cryogenic gypsum in the Arctic OceanEvaluation of Arctic sea ice drift and its dependency on near-surface wind and sea ice conditions in the coupled regional climate model HIRHAM–NAOSIMMultidecadal Arctic sea ice thickness and volume derived from ice ageGoing with the floe: tracking CESM Large Ensemble sea ice in the Arctic provides context for ship-based observationsThe Arctic sea ice extent change connected to Pacific decadal variabilityImpact of sea ice floe size distribution on seasonal fragmentation and melt of Arctic sea iceInduced surface fluxes: a new framework for attributing Arctic sea ice volume balance biases to specific model errorsComparison of ERA5 and ERA-Interim near-surface air temperature, snowfall and precipitation over Arctic sea ice: effects on sea ice thermodynamics and evolutionBenchmark seasonal prediction skill estimates based on regional indicesOn the timescales and length scales of the Arctic sea ice thickness anomalies: a study based on 14 reanalysesPast and future interannual variability in Arctic sea ice in coupled climate modelsArctic sea-ice-free season projected to extend into autumnDefinition differences and internal variability affect the simulated Arctic sea ice melt seasonThe potential of sea ice leads as a predictor for summer Arctic sea ice extentArctic climate: changes in sea ice extent outweigh changes in snow coverArctic Mission Benefit Analysis: impact of sea ice thickness, freeboard, and snow depth products on sea ice forecast performanceThin Arctic sea ice in L-band observations and an ocean reanalysisSnow depth on Arctic sea ice from historical in situ dataImpacts of a lengthening open water season on Alaskan coastal communities: deriving locally relevant indices from large-scale datasets and community observationsThermodynamic and dynamic ice thickness contributions in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in NEMO-LIM2 numerical simulations
John E. Walsh, Hajo Eicken, Kyle Redilla, and Mark Johnson
The Cryosphere, 16, 4617–4635,Short summary
Indicators for the start and end of annual breakup and freeze-up of sea ice at various coastal locations around the Arctic are developed. Relative to broader offshore areas, some of the coastal indicators show an earlier freeze-up and later breakup, especially at locations where landfast ice is prominent. However, the trends towards earlier breakup and later freeze-up are unmistakable over the post-1979 period in synthesized metrics of the coastal breakup/freeze-up indicators.
Abigail Smith, Alexandra Jahn, Clara Burgard, and Dirk Notz
The Cryosphere, 16, 3235–3248,Short summary
The timing of Arctic sea ice melt each year is an important metric for assessing how sea ice in climate models compares to satellite observations. Here, we utilize a new tool for creating more direct comparisons between climate model projections and satellite observations of Arctic sea ice, such that the melt onset dates are defined the same way. This tool allows us to identify climate model biases more clearly and gain more information about what the satellites are observing.
Juha Karvonen, Eero Rinne, Heidi Sallila, Petteri Uotila, and Marko Mäkynen
The Cryosphere, 16, 1821–1844,Short summary
We propose a method to provide sea ice thickness (SIT) estimates over a test area in the Arctic utilizing radar altimeter (RA) measurement lines and C-band SAR imagery. The RA data are from CryoSat-2, and SAR imagery is from Sentinel-1. By combining them we get a SIT grid covering the whole test area instead of only narrow measurement lines from RA. This kind of SIT estimation can be extended to cover the whole Arctic (and Antarctic) for operational SIT monitoring.
Yu Liang, Haibo Bi, Haijun Huang, Ruibo Lei, Xi Liang, Bin Cheng, and Yunhe Wang
The Cryosphere, 16, 1107–1123,Short summary
A record minimum July sea ice extent, since 1979, was observed in 2020. Our results reveal that an anomalously high advection of energy and water vapor prevailed during spring (April to June) 2020 over regions with noticeable sea ice retreat. The large-scale atmospheric circulation and cyclones act in concert to trigger the exceptionally warm and moist flow. The convergence of the transport changed the atmospheric characteristics and the surface energy budget, thus causing a severe sea ice melt.
Alek Aaron Petty, Nicole Keeney, Alex Cabaj, Paul Kushner, and Marco Bagnardi
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
Here we show recent upgrades to freeboard measurements from NASA's ICESat-2 laser altimeter, snow depth and density from a snow reconstruction and their collective impact on estimates of total winter Arctic sea ice thickness. Our new results show better agreement with estimates obtained by ESA's CryoSat-2. We present three winters of thickness estimates across the Arctic and explore the various factors influencing the observed differences, including thinning of the older, multi-year ice.
Qiang Wang, Sergey Danilov, Longjiang Mu, Dmitry Sidorenko, and Claudia Wekerle
The Cryosphere, 15, 4703–4725,Short summary
Using simulations, we found that changes in ocean freshwater content induced by wind perturbations can significantly affect the Arctic sea ice drift, thickness, concentration and deformation rates years after the wind perturbations. The impact is through changes in sea surface height and surface geostrophic currents and the most pronounced in warm seasons. Such a lasting impact might become stronger in a warming climate and implies the importance of ocean initialization in sea ice prediction.
Younjoo J. Lee, Wieslaw Maslowski, John J. Cassano, Jaclyn Clement Kinney, Anthony P. Craig, Samy Kamal, Robert Osinski, Mark W. Seefeldt, Julienne Stroeve, and Hailong Wang
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
During 1979–2020, three winter polynyas occurred in February of 2011, 2017 and 2018 north of Greenland. The anomalous warm air intrusion had no impact on melting of ice. Instead, the extreme wind forcing resulted in greater ice transport offshore. Based on the two ensemble simulations, representing a 1980s thicker ice vs a 2010s thinner ice, a dominant cause of these winter polynyas stems from internal variability of atmospheric forcing rather than from the forced response to warming climate.
Henrieka Detlef, Brendan Reilly, Anne Jennings, Mads Mørk Jensen, Matt O'Regan, Marianne Glasius, Jesper Olsen, Martin Jakobsson, and Christof Pearce
The Cryosphere, 15, 4357–4380,Short summary
Here we examine the Nares Strait sea ice dynamics over the last 7000 years and their implications for the late Holocene readvance of the floating part of Petermann Glacier. We propose that the historically observed sea ice dynamics are a relatively recent feature, while most of the mid-Holocene was marked by variable sea ice conditions in Nares Strait. Nonetheless, major advances of the Petermann ice tongue were preceded by a shift towards harsher sea ice conditions in Nares Strait.
Timothy Williams, Anton Korosov, Pierre Rampal, and Einar Ólason
The Cryosphere, 15, 3207–3227,Short summary
neXtSIM (neXt-generation Sea Ice Model) includes a novel and extremely realistic way of modelling sea ice dynamics – i.e. how the sea ice moves and deforms in response to the drag from winds and ocean currents. It has been developed over the last few years for a variety of applications, but this paper represents its first demonstration in a forecast context. We present results for the time period from November 2018 to June 2020 and show that it agrees well with satellite observations.
Sourav Chatterjee, Roshin P. Raj, Laurent Bertino, Sebastian H. Mernild, Meethale Puthukkottu Subeesh, Nuncio Murukesh, and Muthalagu Ravichandran
The Cryosphere, 15, 1307–1319,Short summary
Sea ice in the Greenland Sea (GS) is important for its climatic (fresh water), economical (shipping), and ecological contribution (light availability). The study proposes a mechanism through which sea ice concentration in GS is partly governed by the atmospheric and ocean circulation in the region. The mechanism proposed in this study can be useful for assessing the sea ice variability and its future projection in the GS.
Ruibo Lei, Mario Hoppmann, Bin Cheng, Guangyu Zuo, Dawei Gui, Qiongqiong Cai, H. Jakob Belter, and Wangxiao Yang
The Cryosphere, 15, 1321–1341,Short summary
Quantification of ice deformation is useful for understanding of the role of ice dynamics in climate change. Using data of 32 buoys, we characterized spatiotemporal variations in ice kinematics and deformation in the Pacific sector of Arctic Ocean for autumn–winter 2018/19. Sea ice in the south and west has stronger mobility than in the east and north, which weakens from autumn to winter. An enhanced Arctic dipole and weakened Beaufort Gyre in winter lead to an obvious turning of ice drifting.
Beena Balan-Sarojini, Steffen Tietsche, Michael Mayer, Magdalena Balmaseda, Hao Zuo, Patricia de Rosnay, Tim Stockdale, and Frederic Vitart
The Cryosphere, 15, 325–344,Short summary
Our study for the first time shows the impact of measured sea ice thickness (SIT) on seasonal forecasts of all the seasons. We prove that the long-term memory present in the Arctic winter SIT is helpful to improve summer sea ice forecasts. Our findings show that realistic SIT initial conditions to start a forecast are useful in (1) improving seasonal forecasts, (2) understanding errors in the forecast model, and (3) recognizing the need for continuous monitoring of world's ice-covered oceans.
Chao Min, Qinghua Yang, Longjiang Mu, Frank Kauker, and Robert Ricker
The Cryosphere, 15, 169–181,Short summary
An ensemble of four estimates of the sea-ice volume (SIV) variations in Baffin Bay from 2011 to 2016 is generated from the locally merged satellite observations, three modeled sea ice thickness sources (CMST, NAOSIM, and PIOMAS) and NSIDC ice drift data (V4). Results show that the net increase of the ensemble mean SIV occurs from October to April with the largest SIV increase in December, and the reduction occurs from May to September with the largest SIV decline in July.
Mohammed E. Shokr, Zihan Wang, and Tingting Liu
The Cryosphere, 14, 3611–3627,Short summary
This paper uses sequential daily SAR images covering the Robeson Channel to quantitatively study kinematics of individual ice floes with exploration of wind influence and the evolution of the ice arch at the entry of the channel. Results show that drift of ice floes within the Robeson Channel and the arch are both significantly influenced by wind. The study highlights the advantage of using the high-resolution daily SAR coverage in monitoring sea ice cover in narrow water passages.
Guillian Van Achter, Leandro Ponsoni, François Massonnet, Thierry Fichefet, and Vincent Legat
The Cryosphere, 14, 3479–3486,Short summary
We document the spatio-temporal internal variability of Arctic sea ice thickness and its changes under anthropogenic forcing, which is key to understanding, and eventually predicting, the evolution of sea ice in response to climate change. The patterns of sea ice thickness variability remain more or less stable during pre-industrial, historical and future periods, despite non-stationarity on short timescales. These patterns start to change once Arctic summer ice-free events occur, after 2050.
Abigail Smith, Alexandra Jahn, and Muyin Wang
The Cryosphere, 14, 2977–2997,Short summary
The annual cycle of Arctic sea ice can be used to gain more information about how climate model simulations of sea ice compare to observations. In some models, the September sea ice area agrees with observations for the wrong reasons because biases in the timing of seasonal transitions compensate for other unrealistic sea ice characteristics. This research was done to provide new process-based metrics of Arctic sea ice using satellite observations, the CESM Large Ensemble, and CMIP6 models.
Michael Kern, Robert Cullen, Bruno Berruti, Jerome Bouffard, Tania Casal, Mark R. Drinkwater, Antonio Gabriele, Arnaud Lecuyot, Michael Ludwig, Rolv Midthassel, Ignacio Navas Traver, Tommaso Parrinello, Gerhard Ressler, Erik Andersson, Cristina Martin-Puig, Ole Andersen, Annett Bartsch, Sinead Farrell, Sara Fleury, Simon Gascoin, Amandine Guillot, Angelika Humbert, Eero Rinne, Andrew Shepherd, Michiel R. van den Broeke, and John Yackel
The Cryosphere, 14, 2235–2251,Short summary
The Copernicus Polar Ice and Snow Topography Altimeter will provide high-resolution sea ice thickness and land ice elevation measurements and the capability to determine the properties of snow cover on ice to serve operational products and services of direct relevance to the polar regions. This paper describes the mission objectives, identifies the key contributions the CRISTAL mission will make, and presents a concept – as far as it is already defined – for the mission payload.
Thomas Krumpen, Florent Birrien, Frank Kauker, Thomas Rackow, Luisa von Albedyll, Michael Angelopoulos, H. Jakob Belter, Vladimir Bessonov, Ellen Damm, Klaus Dethloff, Jari Haapala, Christian Haas, Carolynn Harris, Stefan Hendricks, Jens Hoelemann, Mario Hoppmann, Lars Kaleschke, Michael Karcher, Nikolai Kolabutin, Ruibo Lei, Josefine Lenz, Anne Morgenstern, Marcel Nicolaus, Uwe Nixdorf, Tomash Petrovsky, Benjamin Rabe, Lasse Rabenstein, Markus Rex, Robert Ricker, Jan Rohde, Egor Shimanchuk, Suman Singha, Vasily Smolyanitsky, Vladimir Sokolov, Tim Stanton, Anna Timofeeva, Michel Tsamados, and Daniel Watkins
The Cryosphere, 14, 2173–2187,Short summary
In October 2019 the research vessel Polarstern was moored to an ice floe in order to travel with it on the 1-year-long MOSAiC journey through the Arctic. Here we provide historical context of the floe's evolution and initial state for upcoming studies. We show that the ice encountered on site was exceptionally thin and was formed on the shallow Siberian shelf. The analyses presented provide the initial state for the analysis and interpretation of upcoming biogeochemical and ecological studies.
Sukun Cheng, Justin Stopa, Fabrice Ardhuin, and Hayley H. Shen
The Cryosphere, 14, 2053–2069,Short summary
Wave states in ice in polar oceans are mostly studied near the ice edge. However, observations in the internal ice field, where ice morphology is very different from the ice edge, are rare. Recently derived wave data from satellite imagery are easier and cheaper than field studies and provide large coverage. This work presents a way of using these data to have a close view of some key features in the wave propagation over hundreds of kilometers and calibrate models for predicting wave decay.
Jutta E. Wollenburg, Morten Iversen, Christian Katlein, Thomas Krumpen, Marcel Nicolaus, Giulia Castellani, Ilka Peeken, and Hauke Flores
The Cryosphere, 14, 1795–1808,Short summary
Based on an observed omnipresence of gypsum crystals, we concluded that their release from melting sea ice is a general feature in the Arctic Ocean. Individual gypsum crystals sank at more than 7000 m d−1, suggesting that they are an important ballast mineral. Previous observations found gypsum inside phytoplankton aggregates at 2000 m depth, supporting gypsum as an important driver for pelagic-benthic coupling in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean.
Xiaoyong Yu, Annette Rinke, Wolfgang Dorn, Gunnar Spreen, Christof Lüpkes, Hiroshi Sumata, and Vladimir M. Gryanik
The Cryosphere, 14, 1727–1746,Short summary
This study presents an evaluation of Arctic sea ice drift speed for the period 2003–2014 in a state-of-the-art coupled regional model for the Arctic, called HIRHAM–NAOSIM. In particular, the dependency of the drift speed on the near-surface wind speed and sea ice conditions is presented. Effects of sea ice form drag included by an improved parameterization of the transfer coefficients for momentum and heat over sea ice are discussed.
Yinghui Liu, Jeffrey R. Key, Xuanji Wang, and Mark Tschudi
The Cryosphere, 14, 1325–1345,Short summary
This study provides a consistent and accurate multi-decadal product of ice thickness and ice volume from 1984 to 2018 based on satellite-derived ice age. Sea ice volume trends from this dataset are stronger than the trends from other datasets. Changes in sea ice thickness contribute more to overall sea ice volume trends than changes in sea ice area do in all months.
Alice K. DuVivier, Patricia DeRepentigny, Marika M. Holland, Melinda Webster, Jennifer E. Kay, and Donald Perovich
The Cryosphere, 14, 1259–1271,Short summary
In autumn 2019, a ship will be frozen into the Arctic sea ice for a year to study system changes. We analyze climate model data from a group of experiments and follow virtual sea ice floes throughout a year. The modeled sea ice conditions along possible tracks are highly variable. Observations that sample a wide range of sea ice conditions and represent the variety and diversity in possible conditions are necessary for improving climate model parameterizations over all types of sea ice.
Xiao-Yi Yang, Guihua Wang, and Noel Keenlyside
The Cryosphere, 14, 693–708,Short summary
The post-2007 Arctic sea ice cover is characterized by a remarkable increase in annual cycle amplitude, which is attributed to multiyear variability in spring Bering sea ice extent. We demonstrated that changes of NPGO mode, by anomalous wind stress curl and Ekman pumping, trigger subsurface variability in the Bering basin. This accounts for the significant decadal oscillation of spring Bering sea ice after 2007. The study helps us to better understand the recent Arctic climate regime shift.
Adam W. Bateson, Daniel L. Feltham, David Schröder, Lucia Hosekova, Jeff K. Ridley, and Yevgeny Aksenov
The Cryosphere, 14, 403–428,Short summary
The Arctic sea ice cover has been observed to be decreasing, particularly in summer. We use numerical models to gain insight into processes controlling its seasonal and decadal evolution. Sea ice is made of pieces of ice called floes. Previous models have set these floes to be the same size, which is not supported by observations. In this study we show that accounting for variable floe size reveals the importance of sea ice regions close to the open ocean in driving seasonal retreat of sea ice.
Alex West, Mat Collins, Ed Blockley, Jeff Ridley, and Alejandro Bodas-Salcedo
The Cryosphere, 13, 2001–2022,Short summary
This study presents a framework for examining the causes of model errors in Arctic sea ice volume, using HadGEM2-ES as a case study. Simple models are used to estimate how much of the error in energy arriving at the ice surface is due to error in key Arctic climate variables. The method quantifies how each variable affects sea ice volume balance and shows that for HadGEM2-ES an annual mean low bias in ice thickness is likely due to errors in surface melt onset.
Caixin Wang, Robert M. Graham, Keguang Wang, Sebastian Gerland, and Mats A. Granskog
The Cryosphere, 13, 1661–1679,Short summary
A warm bias and higher total precipitation and snowfall were found in ERA5 compared with ERA-Interim (ERA-I) over Arctic sea ice. The warm bias in ERA5 was larger in the cold season when 2 m air temperature was < −25 °C and smaller in the warm season than in ERA-I. Substantial anomalous Arctic rainfall in ERA-I was reduced in ERA5, particularly in summer and autumn. When using ERA5 and ERA-I to force a 1-D sea ice model, the effects on ice growth are very small (cm) during the freezing period.
John E. Walsh, J. Scott Stewart, and Florence Fetterer
The Cryosphere, 13, 1073–1088,Short summary
Persistence-based statistical forecasts of a Beaufort Sea ice severity index as well as September pan-Arctic ice extent show significant statistical skill out to several seasons when the data include the trend. However, this apparent skill largely vanishes when the trends are removed from the data. This finding is consistent with the notion of a springtime “predictability barrier” that has been found in sea ice forecasts based on more sophisticated methods.
Leandro Ponsoni, François Massonnet, Thierry Fichefet, Matthieu Chevallier, and David Docquier
The Cryosphere, 13, 521–543,Short summary
The Arctic is a main component of the Earth's climate system. It is fundamental to understand the behavior of Arctic sea ice coverage over time and in space due to many factors, e.g., shipping lanes, the travel and tourism industry, hunting and fishing activities, mineral resource extraction, and the potential impact on the weather in midlatitude regions. In this work we use observations and results from models to understand how variations in the sea ice thickness change over time and in space.
John R. Mioduszewski, Stephen Vavrus, Muyin Wang, Marika Holland, and Laura Landrum
The Cryosphere, 13, 113–124,Short summary
Arctic sea ice is projected to thin substantially in every season by the end of the 21st century with a corresponding increase in its interannual variability as the rate of ice loss peaks. This typically occurs when the mean ice thickness falls between 0.2 and 0.6 m. The high variability in both growth and melt processes is the primary factor resulting in increased ice variability. This study emphasizes the importance of short-term variations in ice cover within the mean downward trend.
Marion Lebrun, Martin Vancoppenolle, Gurvan Madec, and François Massonnet
The Cryosphere, 13, 79–96,Short summary
The present analysis shows that the increase in the Arctic ice-free season duration will be asymmetrical, with later autumn freeze-up contributing about twice as much as earlier spring retreat. This feature is robustly found in a hierarchy of climate models and is consistent with a simple mechanism: solar energy is absorbed more efficiently than it can be released in non-solar form and should emerge out of variability within the next few decades.
Abigail Smith and Alexandra Jahn
The Cryosphere, 13, 1–20,Short summary
Here we assessed how natural climate variations and different definitions impact the diagnosed and projected Arctic sea ice melt season length using model simulations. Irrespective of the definition or natural variability, the sea ice melt season is projected to lengthen, potentially by as much as 4–5 months by 2100 under the business as usual scenario. We also find that different definitions have a bigger impact on melt onset, while natural variations have a bigger impact on freeze onset.
Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiao Cheng, Jiping Liu, and Fengming Hui
The Cryosphere, 12, 3747–3757,
Aaron Letterly, Jeffrey Key, and Yinghui Liu
The Cryosphere, 12, 3373–3382,Short summary
Significant reductions in Arctic sea ice and snow cover on Arctic land have led to increases in absorbed solar energy by the surface. Does one play a more important role in Arctic climate change? Using 34 years of satellite data we found that solar energy absorption increased by 10 % over the ocean, which was 3 times greater than over land. Therefore, the decreasing sea ice cover, not changes in terrestrial snow cover, has been the dominant feedback mechanism over the last few decades.
Thomas Kaminski, Frank Kauker, Leif Toudal Pedersen, Michael Voßbeck, Helmuth Haak, Laura Niederdrenk, Stefan Hendricks, Robert Ricker, Michael Karcher, Hajo Eicken, and Ola Gråbak
The Cryosphere, 12, 2569–2594,Short summary
We present mathematically rigorous assessments of the observation impact (added value) of remote-sensing products and in terms of the uncertainty reduction in a 4-week forecast of sea ice volume and snow volume for three regions along the Northern Sea Route by a coupled model of the sea-ice–ocean system. We quantify the difference in impact between rawer (freeboard) and higher-level (sea ice thickness) products, and the impact of adding a snow depth product.
Steffen Tietsche, Magdalena Alonso-Balmaseda, Patricia Rosnay, Hao Zuo, Xiangshan Tian-Kunze, and Lars Kaleschke
The Cryosphere, 12, 2051–2072,Short summary
We compare Arctic sea-ice thickness from L-band microwave satellite observations and an ocean–sea ice reanalysis. There is good agreement for some regions and times but systematic discrepancy in others. Errors in both the reanalysis and observational products contribute to these discrepancies. Thus, we recommend proceeding with caution when using these observations for model validation or data assimilation. At the same time we emphasise their unique value for improving sea-ice forecast models.
Elena V. Shalina and Stein Sandven
The Cryosphere, 12, 1867–1886,Short summary
In this paper we analyze snow data from Soviet airborne expeditions, Sever, which operated in late winter 1959-1986, in the Arctic and made snow measurements on the ice around plane landing sites. The snow measurements were made on the multiyear ice in the central Arctic and on the first-year ice in the Eurasian seas in the areas for which snow characteristics are poorly described in the literature. The main goal of this study is to produce an improved data set of snow depth on the sea ice.
Rebecca J. Rolph, Andrew R. Mahoney, John Walsh, and Philip A. Loring
The Cryosphere, 12, 1779–1790,Short summary
Using thresholds of physical climate variables developed from community observations, together with two large-scale datasets, we have produced local indices directly relevant to the impacts of a reduced sea ice cover on Alaska coastal communities. We demonstrate how community observations can inform use of large-scale datasets to derive these locally relevant indices.
Xianmin Hu, Jingfan Sun, Ting On Chan, and Paul G. Myers
The Cryosphere, 12, 1233–1247,Short summary
We evaluated the sea ice thickness simulation in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago region using 1/4 and 1/12 degree NEMO LIM2 configurations. Model resolution dose not play a significant role. Relatively smaller thermodynamic contribution in the winter season is found in the thick ice covered areas, with larger contributions in the thin ice covered regions. No significant trend in winter maximum ice volume is found in the northern CAA and Baffin Bay but a decline is simulated within Parry Channel.
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Sea ice is retreating with rapid warming in the Arctic. It will continue and approach the worst predicted pathway released by the IPCC. The irreversible tipping point might show around 2060 when the oldest ice will have completely disappeared. It has a huge impact on human production. Ordinary merchant ships will be able to pass the Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage by the midcentury, and the opening time will advance to the next 10 years for icebreakers with moderate ice strengthening.
Sea ice is retreating with rapid warming in the Arctic. It will continue and approach the worst...