Articles | Volume 15, issue 9
The Cryosphere, 15, 4281–4313, 2021
The Cryosphere, 15, 4281–4313, 2021

Research article 07 Sep 2021

Research article | 07 Sep 2021

Southern Ocean polynyas in CMIP6 models

Martin Mohrmann et al.

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Cited articles

Adcroft, A., Anderson, W., Balaji, V., Blanton, C., Bushuk, M., Dufour, C. O., Dunne, J. P., Griffies, S. M., Hallberg, R., Harrison, M. J., Held, I. M., Jansen, M. F., John, J. G., Krasting, J. P., Langenhorst, A. R., Legg, S., Liang, Z., McHugh, C., Radhakrishnan, A., Reichl, B. G., Rosati, T., Samuels, B. L., Shao, A., Stouffer, R., Winton, M., Wittenberg, A. T., Xiang, B., Zadeh, N., and Zhang, R.: The GFDL global ocean and sea ice model OM4.0: Model description and simulation features, J. Adv. Model. Earth Sy., 11, 3167–3211, 2019. a, b
Aguiar, W., Mata, M. M., and Kerr, R.: On deep convection events and Antarctic Bottom Water formation in ocean reanalysis products, Ocean Sci., 13, 851–872,, 2017. a
Andreas, E. L. and Ackley, S. F.: On the differences in ablation seasons of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 440–447, 1982. a
Arbetter, T. E., Lynch, A. H., and Bailey, D. A.: Relationship between synoptic forcing and polynya formation in the Cosmonaut Sea: 1. Polynya climatology, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 109, C04022,, 2004. a
Arrigo, K. R. and Van Dijken, G. L.: Phytoplankton dynamics within 37 Antarctic coastal polynya systems, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 108, 3271,, 2003. a
Short summary
Polynyas are large open-water areas within the sea ice. We developed a method to estimate their area, distribution and frequency for the Southern Ocean in climate models and observations. All models have polynyas along the coast but few do so in the open ocean, in contrast to observations. We examine potential atmospheric and oceanic drivers of open-water polynyas and discuss recently implemented schemes that may have improved some models' polynya representation.