Articles | Volume 17, issue 3
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
The response of sea ice and high-salinity shelf water in the Ross Ice Shelf Polynya to cyclonic atmosphere circulations
School of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200030, Shanghai, China
School of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200030, Shanghai, China
Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Ministry of Natural Resources, 200136, Shanghai, China
Michael S. Dinniman
Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, 00014, Helsinki, Finland
International Center for Climate and Environment Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100029, Beijing, China
School of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200030, Shanghai, China
Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Ministry of Natural Resources, 200136, Shanghai, China
No articles found.
Guokun Lyu, Armin Koehl, Xinrong Wu, Meng Zhou, and Detlef Stammer
Ocean Sci., 19, 305–319,Short summary
Data assimilation techniques are important for combining observations with numerical models. Here, we approximate the adjoint of viscous-plastic dynamics (adjoint-VP) to replace the adjoint of free-drift dynamics (adjoint-FD) for developing an advanced Arctic Ocean and sea ice modeling and adjoint-based assimilation system. We find that adjoint-VP provides a better ocean and sea ice estimation than adjoint-FD, considering the residual errors and adjustments of the atmospheric states.
Yafei Nie, Chengkun Li, Martin Vancoppenolle, Bin Cheng, Fabio Boeira Dias, Xianqing Lv, and Petteri Uotila
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1395–1425,Short summary
State-of-the-art Earth system models simulate the observed sea ice extent relatively well, but this is often due to errors in the dynamic and other processes in the simulated sea ice changes cancelling each other out. We assessed the sensitivity of these processes simulated by the coupled ocean–sea ice model NEMO4.0-SI3 to 18 parameters. The performance of the model in simulating sea ice change processes was ultimately improved by adjusting the three identified key parameters.
Juha Karvonen, Eero Rinne, Heidi Sallila, Petteri Uotila, and Marko Mäkynen
The Cryosphere, 16, 1821–1844,Short summary
We propose a method to provide sea ice thickness (SIT) estimates over a test area in the Arctic utilizing radar altimeter (RA) measurement lines and C-band SAR imagery. The RA data are from CryoSat-2, and SAR imagery is from Sentinel-1. By combining them we get a SIT grid covering the whole test area instead of only narrow measurement lines from RA. This kind of SIT estimation can be extended to cover the whole Arctic (and Antarctic) for operational SIT monitoring.
Ralf Döscher, Mario Acosta, Andrea Alessandri, Peter Anthoni, Thomas Arsouze, Tommi Bergman, Raffaele Bernardello, Souhail Boussetta, Louis-Philippe Caron, Glenn Carver, Miguel Castrillo, Franco Catalano, Ivana Cvijanovic, Paolo Davini, Evelien Dekker, Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes, David Docquier, Pablo Echevarria, Uwe Fladrich, Ramon Fuentes-Franco, Matthias Gröger, Jost v. Hardenberg, Jenny Hieronymus, M. Pasha Karami, Jukka-Pekka Keskinen, Torben Koenigk, Risto Makkonen, François Massonnet, Martin Ménégoz, Paul A. Miller, Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Lars Nieradzik, Twan van Noije, Paul Nolan, Declan O'Donnell, Pirkka Ollinaho, Gijs van den Oord, Pablo Ortega, Oriol Tintó Prims, Arthur Ramos, Thomas Reerink, Clement Rousset, Yohan Ruprich-Robert, Philippe Le Sager, Torben Schmith, Roland Schrödner, Federico Serva, Valentina Sicardi, Marianne Sloth Madsen, Benjamin Smith, Tian Tian, Etienne Tourigny, Petteri Uotila, Martin Vancoppenolle, Shiyu Wang, David Wårlind, Ulrika Willén, Klaus Wyser, Shuting Yang, Xavier Yepes-Arbós, and Qiong Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2973–3020,Short summary
The Earth system model EC-Earth3 is documented here. Key performance metrics show physical behavior and biases well within the frame known from recent models. With improved physical and dynamic features, new ESM components, community tools, and largely improved physical performance compared to the CMIP5 version, EC-Earth3 represents a clear step forward for the only European community ESM. We demonstrate here that EC-Earth3 is suited for a range of tasks in CMIP6 and beyond.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vihma, Jouni Räisänen, Alexander Baklanov, Sergey Chalov, Igor Esau, Ekaterina Ezhova, Matti Leppäranta, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Jukka Pumpanen, Meinrat O. Andreae, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Jianhui Bai, Igor Bashmachnikov, Boris Belan, Federico Bianchi, Boris Biskaborn, Michael Boy, Jaana Bäck, Bin Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Jonathan Duplissy, Egor Dyukarev, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Martin Forsius, Martin Heimann, Sirkku Juhola, Vladimir Konovalov, Igor Konovalov, Pavel Konstantinov, Kajar Köster, Elena Lapshina, Anna Lintunen, Alexander Mahura, Risto Makkonen, Svetlana Malkhazova, Ivan Mammarella, Stefano Mammola, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Outi Meinander, Eugene Mikhailov, Victoria Miles, Stanislav Myslenkov, Dmitry Orlov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Roberta Pirazzini, Olga Popovicheva, Jouni Pulliainen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Torsten Sachs, Vladimir Shevchenko, Andrey Skorokhod, Andreas Stohl, Elli Suhonen, Erik S. Thomson, Marina Tsidilina, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Petteri Uotila, Aki Virkkula, Nadezhda Voropay, Tobias Wolf, Sayaka Yasunaka, Jiahua Zhang, Yubao Qiu, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Nikolay Kasimov, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4413–4469,Short summary
We summarize results during the last 5 years in the northern Eurasian region, especially from Russia, and introduce recent observations of the air quality in the urban environments in China. Although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate–Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures and integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis.
Yu Yan, Wei Gu, Andrea M. U. Gierisch, Yingjun Xu, and Petteri Uotila
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1269–1288,Short summary
In this study, we developed NEMO-Bohai, an ocean–ice model for the Bohai Sea, China. This study presented the scientific design and technical choices of the parameterizations for the NEMO-Bohai model. The model was calibrated and evaluated with in situ and satellite observations of ocean and sea ice. NEMO-Bohai is intended to be a valuable tool for long-term ocean and ice simulations and climate change studies.
Guokun Lyu, Nuno Serra, Meng Zhou, and Detlef Stammer
Ocean Sci., 18, 51–66,Short summary
This study explores the Arctic sea level variability depending on different timescales and the relation to temperature, salinity and mass changes, identifying key parameters and regions that need to be observed coordinately. The decadal sea level variability reflects salinity changes. But it can only reflect salinity change at periods of greater than 1 year, highlighting the requirement for enhancing in situ hydrographic observations and complicated interpolation methods.
Joula Siponen, Petteri Uotila, Eero Rinne, and Steffen Tietsche
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Long sea-ice thickness time series are needed to better understand the Arctic climate and improve its forecasts. In this study 2002–2017 satellite observations are compared with reanalysis output, which is used as initial conditions for long forecasts. The reanalysis agrees well with satellite observations, with differences typically below 1 m when averaged in time, although seasonally and in certain years the differences are large. This is caused by uncertainties in reanalysis and observations.
Kalle Nordling, Hannele Korhonen, Petri Räisänen, Muzaffer Ege Alper, Petteri Uotila, Declan O'Donnell, and Joonas Merikanto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9969–9987,Short summary
We carry out long equilibrium climate simulations with two modern climate models and show that the climate model dynamic response contributes strongly to the anthropogenic aerosol response. We demonstrate that identical aerosol descriptions do not improve climate model skill to estimate regional anthropogenic aerosol impacts. Our experiment utilized two independent climate models (NorESM and ECHAM6) with an identical description for aerosols optical properties and indirect effect.
Timo Vihma, Petteri Uotila, Stein Sandven, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Alexander Makshtas, Alexander Pelyasov, Roberta Pirazzini, Finn Danielsen, Sergey Chalov, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Vladimir Ivanov, Ivan Frolov, Anna Albin, Bin Cheng, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Viktor Arkhipkin, Stanislav Myslenkov, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1941–1970,Short summary
The Arctic marine climate system, ecosystems, and socio-economic systems are changing rapidly. This calls for the establishment of a marine Arctic component of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (MA-PEEX), for which we present a plan. The program will promote international collaboration; sustainable marine meteorological, sea ice, and oceanographic observations; advanced data management; and multidisciplinary research on the marine Arctic and its interaction with the Eurasian continent.
Luke G. Bennetts, Siobhan O'Farrell, and Petteri Uotila
The Cryosphere, 11, 1035–1040,Short summary
A numerical model is used to investigate how Antarctic sea ice concentration and volume are affected by increased melting caused by ocean-wave breakup of the ice. When temperatures are high enough to melt the ice, concentration and volume are reduced for ~ 100 km into the ice-covered ocean. When temperatures are low enough for ice growth, the concentration recovers, but the reduced volume persists.
Petteri Uotila, Doroteaciro Iovino, Martin Vancoppenolle, Mikko Lensu, and Clement Rousset
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1009–1031,Short summary
We performed ocean model simulations with new and old sea-ice components. Sea ice improved in the new model compared to the earlier one due to better model physics. In the ocean, the largest differences are confined close to the surface within and near the sea-ice zone. The global ocean circulation slowly deviates between the simulations due to dissimilar sea ice in the deep water formation regions, such as the North Atlantic and Antarctic.
Stephen M. Griffies, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Paul J. Durack, Alistair J. Adcroft, V. Balaji, Claus W. Böning, Eric P. Chassignet, Enrique Curchitser, Julie Deshayes, Helge Drange, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Peter J. Gleckler, Jonathan M. Gregory, Helmuth Haak, Robert W. Hallberg, Patrick Heimbach, Helene T. Hewitt, David M. Holland, Tatiana Ilyina, Johann H. Jungclaus, Yoshiki Komuro, John P. Krasting, William G. Large, Simon J. Marsland, Simona Masina, Trevor J. McDougall, A. J. George Nurser, James C. Orr, Anna Pirani, Fangli Qiao, Ronald J. Stouffer, Karl E. Taylor, Anne Marie Treguier, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Petteri Uotila, Maria Valdivieso, Qiang Wang, Michael Winton, and Stephen G. Yeager
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3231–3296,Short summary
The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) aims to provide a framework for evaluating, understanding, and improving the ocean and sea-ice components of global climate and earth system models contributing to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). This document defines OMIP and details a protocol both for simulating global ocean/sea-ice models and for analysing their output.
Related subject area
Discipline: Sea ice | Subject: AntarcticAntarctic sea ice regime shift associated with decreasing zonal symmetry in the Southern Annular ModeEvolution of the dynamics, area, and ice production of the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica, 2016–2021Modulation of the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic sea ice extent by sea ice processes and feedbacks with the ocean and the atmosphereIce Sheet and Sea Ice Ultrawideband Microwave radiometric Airborne eXperiment (ISSIUMAX) in Antarctica: first results from Terra Nova BayInfluence of fast ice on future ice shelf melting in the Totten Glacier area, East AntarcticaA comparison between Envisat and ICESat sea ice thickness in the Southern OceanAn indicator of sea ice variability for the Antarctic marginal ice zonePhysical and mechanical properties of winter first-year ice in the Antarctic marginal ice zone along the Good Hope LineAltimetric observation of wave attenuation through the Antarctic marginal ice zone using ICESat-2Flexural and compressive strength of the landfast sea ice in the Prydz Bay, East AntarcticThe sensitivity of landfast sea ice to atmospheric forcing in single-column model simulations: a case study at Zhongshan Station, AntarcticaAn evaluation of Antarctic sea-ice thickness from the Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System based on in situ and satellite observationsRectification and validation of a daily satellite-derived Antarctic sea ice velocity productWeddell Sea polynya analysis using SMOS–SMAP apparent sea ice thickness retrievalEighteen-year record of circum-Antarctic landfast-sea-ice distribution allows detailed baseline characterisation and reveals trends and variabilityBrief communication: The anomalous winter 2019 sea-ice conditions in McMurdo Sound, AntarcticaSouthern Ocean polynyas in CMIP6 modelsAirborne mapping of the sub-ice platelet layer under fast ice in McMurdo Sound, AntarcticaEvaluation of sea-ice thickness from four reanalyses in the Antarctic Weddell SeaThe Antarctic sea ice cover from ICESat-2 and CryoSat-2: freeboard, snow depth, and ice thicknessSeasonal and interannual variability of landfast sea ice in Atka Bay, Weddell Sea, AntarcticaInfluence of sea-ice anomalies on Antarctic precipitation using source attribution in the Community Earth System ModelRetrieval of snow freeboard of Antarctic sea ice using waveform fitting of CryoSat-2 returnsThree years of sea ice freeboard, snow depth, and ice thickness of the Weddell Sea from Operation IceBridge and CryoSat-2
Serena Schroeter, Terence J. O'Kane, and Paul A. Sandery
The Cryosphere, 17, 701–717,Short summary
Antarctic sea ice has increased over much of the satellite record, but we show that the early, strongly opposing regional trends diminish and reverse over time, leading to overall negative trends in recent decades. The dominant pattern of atmospheric flow has changed from strongly east–west to more wave-like with enhanced north–south winds. Sea surface temperatures have also changed from circumpolar cooling to regional warming, suggesting recent record low sea ice will not rapidly recover.
Grant J. Macdonald, Stephen F. Ackley, Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, and Adrià Blanco-Cabanillas
The Cryosphere, 17, 457–476,Short summary
Polynyas are key sites of sea ice production, biological activity, and carbon sequestration. The Amundsen Sea Polynya is of particular interest due to its size and location. By analyzing radar imagery and climate and sea ice data products, we evaluate variations in the dynamics, area, and ice production of the Amundsen Sea Polynya. In particular, we find the local seafloor topography and associated grounded icebergs play an important role in the polynya dynamics, influencing ice production.
Hugues Goosse, Sofia Allende Contador, Cecilia M. Bitz, Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Clare Eayrs, Thierry Fichefet, Kenza Himmich, Pierre-Vincent Huot, François Klein, Sylvain Marchi, François Massonnet, Bianca Mezzina, Charles Pelletier, Lettie Roach, Martin Vancoppenolle, and Nicole P. M. van Lipzig
The Cryosphere, 17, 407–425,Short summary
Using idealized sensitivity experiments with a regional atmosphere–ocean–sea ice model, we show that sea ice advance is constrained by initial conditions in March and the retreat season is influenced by the magnitude of several physical processes, in particular by the ice–albedo feedback and ice transport. Atmospheric feedbacks amplify the response of the winter ice extent to perturbations, while some negative feedbacks related to heat conduction fluxes act on the ice volume.
Marco Brogioni, Mark J. Andrews, Stefano Urbini, Kenneth C. Jezek, Joel T. Johnson, Marion Leduc-Leballeur, Giovanni Macelloni, Stephen F. Ackley, Alexandra Bringer, Ludovic Brucker, Oguz Demir, Giacomo Fontanelli, Caglar Yardim, Lars Kaleschke, Francesco Montomoli, Leung Tsang, Silvia Becagli, and Massimo Frezzotti
The Cryosphere, 17, 255–278,Short summary
In 2018 the first Antarctic campaign of UWBRAD was carried out. UWBRAD is a new radiometer able to collect microwave spectral signatures over 0.5–2 GHz, thus outperforming existing similar sensors. It allows us to probe thicker sea ice and ice sheet down to the bedrock. In this work we tried to assess the UWBRAD potentials for sea ice, glaciers, ice shelves and buried lakes. We also highlighted the wider range of information the spectral signature can provide to glaciological studies.
Guillian Van Achter, Thierry Fichefet, Hugues Goosse, and Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro
The Cryosphere, 16, 4745–4761,Short summary
We investigate the changes in ocean–ice interactions in the Totten Glacier area between the last decades (1995–2014) and the end of the 21st century (2081–2100) under warmer climate conditions. By the end of the 21st century, the sea ice is strongly reduced, and the ocean circulation close to the coast is accelerated. Our research highlights the importance of including representations of fast ice to simulate realistic ice shelf melt rate increase in East Antarctica under warming conditions.
Jinfei Wang, Chao Min, Robert Ricker, Qian Shi, Bo Han, Stefan Hendricks, Renhao Wu, and Qinghua Yang
The Cryosphere, 16, 4473–4490,Short summary
The differences between Envisat and ICESat sea ice thickness (SIT) reveal significant temporal and spatial variations. Our findings suggest that both overestimation of Envisat sea ice freeboard, potentially caused by radar backscatter originating from inside the snow layer, and the AMSR-E snow depth biases and sea ice density uncertainties can possibly account for the differences between Envisat and ICESat SIT.
The Cryosphere, 16, 4087–4106,Short summary
The marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Antarctic is the largest in the world ocean. Antarctic sea ice has large year-to-year changes, and the MIZ represents its most variable component. Processes typical of the MIZ have also been observed in fully ice-covered ocean and are not captured by existing diagnostics. A new statistical method has been shown to address previous limitations in assessing the seasonal cycle of MIZ extent and to provide a probability map of sea ice state in the Southern Ocean.
Sebastian Skatulla, Riesna R. Audh, Andrea Cook, Ehlke Hepworth, Siobhan Johnson, Doru C. Lupascu, Keith MacHutchon, Rutger Marquart, Tommy Mielke, Emmanuel Omatuku, Felix Paul, Tokoloho Rampai, Jörg Schröder, Carina Schwarz, and Marcello Vichi
The Cryosphere, 16, 2899–2925,Short summary
First-year sea ice has been sampled at the advancing outer edge of the Antarctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) along the Good Hope Line. Ice cores were extracted from five pancake ice floes and subsequently analysed for their physical and mechanical properties. Of particular interest was elucidating the transition of ice composition within the MIZ in terms of differences in mechanical stiffness and strength properties as linked to physical and textural characteristics at early-stage ice formation.
Jill Brouwer, Alexander D. Fraser, Damian J. Murphy, Pat Wongpan, Alberto Alberello, Alison Kohout, Christopher Horvat, Simon Wotherspoon, Robert A. Massom, Jessica Cartwright, and Guy D. Williams
The Cryosphere, 16, 2325–2353,Short summary
The marginal ice zone is the region where ocean waves interact with sea ice. Although this important region influences many sea ice, ocean and biological processes, it has been difficult to accurately measure on a large scale from satellite instruments. We present new techniques for measuring wave attenuation using the NASA ICESat-2 laser altimeter. By measuring how waves attenuate within the sea ice, we show that the marginal ice zone may be far wider than previously realised.
Qingkai Wang, Zhaoquan Li, Peng Lu, Yigang Xu, and Zhijun Li
The Cryosphere, 16, 1941–1961,Short summary
A large area of landfast sea ice exists in the Prydz Bay, and it is always a safety concern to transport cargos on ice to the research stations. Knowing the mechanical properties of sea ice is helpful to solve the issue; however, these data are rarely reported in this region. We explore the effects of sea ice physical properties on the flexural strength, effective elastic modulus, and uniaxial compressive strength, which gives new insights into assessing the bearing capacity of landfast sea ice.
Fengguan Gu, Qinghua Yang, Frank Kauker, Changwei Liu, Guanghua Hao, Chao-Yuan Yang, Jiping Liu, Petra Heil, Xuewei Li, and Bo Han
The Cryosphere, 16, 1873–1887,Short summary
The sea ice thickness was simulated by a single-column model and compared with in situ observations obtained off Zhongshan Station in the Antarctic. It is shown that the unrealistic precipitation in the atmospheric forcing data leads to the largest bias in sea ice thickness and snow depth modeling. In addition, the increasing snow depth gradually inhibits the growth of sea ice associated with thermal blanketing by the snow.
Sutao Liao, Hao Luo, Jinfei Wang, Qian Shi, Jinlun Zhang, and Qinghua Yang
The Cryosphere, 16, 1807–1819,Short summary
The Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (GIOMAS) can basically reproduce the observed variability in Antarctic sea-ice volume and its changes in the trend before and after 2013, and it underestimates Antarctic sea-ice thickness (SIT) especially in deformed ice zones. Assimilating additional sea-ice observations with advanced assimilation methods may result in a more accurate estimation of Antarctic SIT.
Tian R. Tian, Alexander D. Fraser, Noriaki Kimura, Chen Zhao, and Petra Heil
The Cryosphere, 16, 1299–1314,Short summary
This study presents a comprehensive validation of a satellite observational sea ice motion product in Antarctica by using drifting buoys. Two problems existing in this sea ice motion product have been noticed. After rectifying problems, we use it to investigate the impacts of satellite observational configuration and timescale on Antarctic sea ice kinematics and suggest the future improvement of satellite missions specifically designed for retrieval of sea ice motion.
Alexander Mchedlishvili, Gunnar Spreen, Christian Melsheimer, and Marcus Huntemann
The Cryosphere, 16, 471–487,Short summary
In this paper we show that the activity leading to the open-ocean polynyas near the Maud Rise seamount that have occurred repeatedly from 1974–1976 as well as 2016–2017 does not simply stop for polynya-free years. Using apparent sea ice thickness retrieval, we have identified anomalies where there is thinning of sea ice on a scale that is comparable to that of the polynya events of 2016–2017. These anomalies took place in 2010, 2013, 2014 and 2018.
Alexander D. Fraser, Robert A. Massom, Mark S. Handcock, Phillip Reid, Kay I. Ohshima, Marilyn N. Raphael, Jessica Cartwright, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Zhaohui Wang, and Richard Porter-Smith
The Cryosphere, 15, 5061–5077,Short summary
Landfast ice is sea ice that remains stationary by attaching to Antarctica's coastline and grounded icebergs. Although a variable feature, landfast ice exerts influence on key coastal processes involving pack ice, the ice sheet, ocean, and atmosphere and is of ecological importance. We present a first analysis of change in landfast ice over an 18-year period and quantify trends (−0.19 ± 0.18 % yr−1). This analysis forms a reference of landfast-ice extent and variability for use in other studies.
Greg H. Leonard, Kate E. Turner, Maren E. Richter, Maddy S. Whittaker, and Inga J. Smith
The Cryosphere, 15, 4999–5006,Short summary
McMurdo Sound sea ice can generally be partitioned into two regimes: a stable fast-ice cover forming south of approximately 77.6° S and a more dynamic region north of 77.6° S that is regularly impacted by polynyas. In 2019, a stable fast-ice cover formed unusually late due to repeated break-out events. This subsequently affected sea-ice operations in the 2019/20 field season. We analysed the 2019 sea-ice conditions and found a strong correlation with unusually large southerly wind events.
Martin Mohrmann, Céline Heuzé, and Sebastiaan Swart
The Cryosphere, 15, 4281–4313,Short summary
Polynyas are large open-water areas within the sea ice. We developed a method to estimate their area, distribution and frequency for the Southern Ocean in climate models and observations. All models have polynyas along the coast but few do so in the open ocean, in contrast to observations. We examine potential atmospheric and oceanic drivers of open-water polynyas and discuss recently implemented schemes that may have improved some models' polynya representation.
Christian Haas, Patricia J. Langhorne, Wolfgang Rack, Greg H. Leonard, Gemma M. Brett, Daniel Price, Justin F. Beckers, and Alex J. Gough
The Cryosphere, 15, 247–264,Short summary
We developed a method to remotely detect proxy signals of Antarctic ice shelf melt under adjacent sea ice. It is based on aircraft surveys with electromagnetic induction sounding. We found year-to-year variability of the ice shelf melt proxy in McMurdo Sound and spatial fine structure that support assumptions about the melt of the McMurdo Ice Shelf. With this method it will be possible to map and detect locations of intense ice shelf melt along the coast of Antarctica.
Qian Shi, Qinghua Yang, Longjiang Mu, Jinfei Wang, François Massonnet, and Matthew R. Mazloff
The Cryosphere, 15, 31–47,Short summary
The ice thickness from four state-of-the-art reanalyses (GECCO2, SOSE, NEMO-EnKF and GIOMAS) are evaluated against that from remote sensing and in situ observations in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Most of the reanalyses can reproduce ice thickness in the central and eastern Weddell Sea but failed to capture the thick and deformed ice in the western Weddell Sea. These results demonstrate the possibilities and limitations of using current sea-ice reanalysis in Antarctic climate research.
Sahra Kacimi and Ron Kwok
The Cryosphere, 14, 4453–4474,Short summary
Our current understanding of Antarctic ice cover is largely informed by ice extent measurements from passive microwave sensors. These records, while useful, provide a limited picture of how the ice is responding to climate change. In this paper, we combine measurements from ICESat-2 and CryoSat-2 missions to assess snow depth and ice thickness of the Antarctic ice cover over an 8-month period (April through November 2019). The potential impact of salinity in the snow layer is discussed.
Stefanie Arndt, Mario Hoppmann, Holger Schmithüsen, Alexander D. Fraser, and Marcel Nicolaus
The Cryosphere, 14, 2775–2793,
Hailong Wang, Jeremy G. Fyke, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Jesse M. Nusbaumer, Hansi Singh, David Noone, Philip J. Rasch, and Rudong Zhang
The Cryosphere, 14, 429–444,Short summary
Using a climate model with unique water source tagging, we found that sea-ice anomalies in the Southern Ocean and accompanying SST changes have a significant influence on Antarctic precipitation and its source attribution through their direct impact on moisture sources and indirect impact on moisture transport. This study also highlights the importance of atmospheric dynamics in affecting the thermodynamic impact of sea-ice anomalies on regional Antarctic precipitation.
Steven W. Fons and Nathan T. Kurtz
The Cryosphere, 13, 861–878,Short summary
A method to measure the snow freeboard of Antarctic sea ice from CryoSat-2 data is developed. Through comparisons with data from airborne campaigns and another satellite mission, we find that this method can reasonably retrieve snow freeboard across the Antarctic and shows promise in retrieving snow depth in certain locations. Snow freeboard data from CryoSat-2 are important because they enable the calculation of sea ice thickness and help to better understand snow depth on Antarctic sea ice.
Ron Kwok and Sahra Kacimi
The Cryosphere, 12, 2789–2801,Short summary
The variability of snow depth and ice thickness in three years of repeat surveys of an IceBridge (OIB) transect across the Weddell Sea is examined. Retrieved thicknesses suggest a highly variable but broadly thicker ice cover compared to that inferred from drilling and ship-based measurements. The use of lidar and radar altimeters to estimate snow depth for thickness calculations is analyzed, and the need for better characterization of biases due to radar penetration effects is highlighted.
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The bottom water of the global ocean originates from high-salinity water formed in polynyas in the Southern Ocean where sea ice coverage is low. This study reveals the impacts of cyclones on sea ice and water mass formation in the Ross Ice Shelf Polynya using numerical simulations. Sea ice production is rapidly increased caused by enhancement in offshore wind, promoting high-salinity water formation in the polynya. Cyclones also modulate the transport of this water mass by wind-driven currents.
The bottom water of the global ocean originates from high-salinity water formed in polynyas in...