Articles | Volume 12, issue 10
The Cryosphere, 12, 3311–3331, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-3311-2018
The Cryosphere, 12, 3311–3331, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-3311-2018
Research article
16 Oct 2018
Research article | 16 Oct 2018

19th century glacier retreat in the Alps preceded the emergence of industrial black carbon deposition on high-alpine glaciers

Michael Sigl et al.

Related authors

A Holocene black carbon ice-core record of biomass burning in the Amazon Basin from Illimani, Bolivia
Dimitri Osmont, Michael Sigl, Anja Eichler, Theo M. Jenk, and Margit Schwikowski
Clim. Past, 15, 579–592, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-15-579-2019,https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-15-579-2019, 2019
Short summary
An 800-year high-resolution black carbon ice core record from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard
Dimitri Osmont, Isabel A. Wendl, Loïc Schmidely, Michael Sigl, Carmen P. Vega, Elisabeth Isaksson, and Margit Schwikowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12777–12795, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-12777-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-12777-2018, 2018
Short summary
Multi-model comparison of the volcanic sulfate deposition from the 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora
Lauren Marshall, Anja Schmidt, Matthew Toohey, Ken S. Carslaw, Graham W. Mann, Michael Sigl, Myriam Khodri, Claudia Timmreck, Davide Zanchettin, William T. Ball, Slimane Bekki, James S. A. Brooke, Sandip Dhomse, Colin Johnson, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Allegra N. LeGrande, Michael J. Mills, Ulrike Niemeier, James O. Pope, Virginie Poulain, Alan Robock, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Timofei Sukhodolov, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2307–2328, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2307-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2307-2018, 2018
Short summary
The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations
Johann H. Jungclaus, Edouard Bard, Mélanie Baroni, Pascale Braconnot, Jian Cao, Louise P. Chini, Tania Egorova, Michael Evans, J. Fidel González-Rouco, Hugues Goosse, George C. Hurtt, Fortunat Joos, Jed O. Kaplan, Myriam Khodri, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Natalie Krivova, Allegra N. LeGrande, Stephan J. Lorenz, Jürg Luterbacher, Wenmin Man, Amanda C. Maycock, Malte Meinshausen, Anders Moberg, Raimund Muscheler, Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Bette I. Otto-Bliesner, Steven J. Phipps, Julia Pongratz, Eugene Rozanov, Gavin A. Schmidt, Hauke Schmidt, Werner Schmutz, Andrew Schurer, Alexander I. Shapiro, Michael Sigl, Jason E. Smerdon, Sami K. Solanki, Claudia Timmreck, Matthew Toohey, Ilya G. Usoskin, Sebastian Wagner, Chi-Ju Wu, Kok Leng Yeo, Davide Zanchettin, Qiong Zhang, and Eduardo Zorita
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4005–4033, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017, 2017
Short summary
Volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth from 500 BCE to 1900 CE
Matthew Toohey and Michael Sigl
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 809–831, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-9-809-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-9-809-2017, 2017
Short summary

Related subject area

Discipline: Glaciers | Subject: Alpine Glaciers
Land- to lake-terminating transition triggers dynamic thinning of a Bhutanese glacier
Yota Sato, Koji Fujita, Hiroshi Inoue, Akiko Sakai, and Karma
The Cryosphere, 16, 2643–2654, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-2643-2022,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-2643-2022, 2022
Short summary
Brief communication: A framework to classify glaciers for water resource evaluation and management in the Southern Andes
Nicole Schaffer and Shelley MacDonell
The Cryosphere, 16, 1779–1791, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-1779-2022,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-1779-2022, 2022
Short summary
Strong acceleration of glacier area loss in the Greater Caucasus between 2000 and 2020
Levan G. Tielidze, Gennady A. Nosenko, Tatiana E. Khromova, and Frank Paul
The Cryosphere, 16, 489–504, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-489-2022,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-489-2022, 2022
Short summary
Ice volume and basal topography estimation using geostatistical methods and ground-penetrating radar measurements: application to the Tsanfleuron and Scex Rouge glaciers, Swiss Alps
Alexis Neven, Valentin Dall'Alba, Przemysław Juda, Julien Straubhaar, and Philippe Renard
The Cryosphere, 15, 5169–5186, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-15-5169-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-15-5169-2021, 2021
Short summary
Significant mass loss in the accumulation area of the Adamello glacier indicated by the chronology of a 46 m ice core
Daniela Festi, Margit Schwikowski, Valter Maggi, Klaus Oeggl, and Theo Manuel Jenk
The Cryosphere, 15, 4135–4143, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-15-4135-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-15-4135-2021, 2021
Short summary

Cited articles

Abram, N. J., McGregor, H. V., Tierney, J. E., Evans, M. N., McKay, N. P., Kaufman, D. S., and Consortium, P. K.: Early onset of industrial-era warming across the oceans and continents, Nature, 536, 411–418, 2016. 
Barbante, C., Schwikowski, M., Döring, T., Gaggeler, H. W., Schotterer, U., Tobler, L., Van De Velde, K., Ferrari, C., Cozzi, G., Turetta, A., Rosman, K., Bolshov, M., Capodaglio, G., Cescon, P., and Boutron, C.: Historical record of European emissions of heavy metals to the atmosphere since the 1650s from Alpine snow/ice cores drilled near Monte Rosa, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 4085–4090, 2004. 
Bauer, S. E., Bausch, A., Nazarenko, L., Tsigaridis, K., Xu, B. Q., Edwards, R., Bisiaux, M., and McConnell, J.: Historical and future black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements and model simulations from 1850 to 2100, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 7948–7961, 2013. 
Bohleber, P., Wagenbach, D., Schöner, W., and Böhm, R.: To what extent do water isotope records from low accumulation Alpine ice cores reproduce instrumental temperature series?, Tellus B, 65, 17, 2013. 
Bohleber, P., Erhardt, T., Spaulding, N., Hoffmann, H., Fischer, H., and Mayewski, P.: Temperature and mineral dust variability recorded in two low-accumulation Alpine ice cores over the last millennium, Clim. Past, 14, 21–37, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-14-21-2018, 2018. 
Download
Short summary
The fast retreat of Alpine glaciers since the mid-19th century documented in photographs is used as a symbol for the human impact on global climate, yet the key driving forces remain elusive. Here we argue that not industrial soot but volcanic eruptions were responsible for an apparently accelerated deglaciation starting in the 1850s. Our findings support a negligible role of human activity in forcing glacier recession at the end of the Little Ice Age, highlighting the role of natural drivers.