Articles | Volume 12, issue 6
Research article 15 Jun 2018
Research article | 15 Jun 2018
Medium-range predictability of early summer sea ice thickness distribution in the East Siberian Sea based on the TOPAZ4 ice–ocean data assimilation system
Takuya Nakanowatari et al.
No articles found.
Justino Martínez, Carolina Gabarró, Antonio Turiel, Verónica González-Gambau, Marta Umbert, Nina Hoareau, Cristina González-Haro, Estrella Olmedo, Manuel Arias, Rafael Catany, Laurent Bertino, Roshin P. Raj, Jiping Xie, Roberto Sabia, and Diego Fernández
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Measuring salinity from space is challenging since the sensitivity of the brightness temperature to sea surface salinity is low, but this is even more challenging the retrieval of the SSS in the cold waters. In 2019, ESA launched a specific initiative called Arctic+Salinity to produce an enhanced Arctic SSS product with better quality and resolution than the available products. This paper presents the methodologies used to produce the new enhanced Arctic SMOS SSS product.
Amy Solomon, Céline Heuzé, Benjamin Rabe, Sheldon Bacon, Laurent Bertino, Patrick Heimbach, Jun Inoue, Doroteaciro Iovino, Ruth Mottram, Xiangdong Zhang, Yevgeny Aksenov, Ronan McAdam, An Nguyen, Roshin P. Raj, and Han Tang
Ocean Sci., 17, 1081–1102,Short summary
Freshwater in the Arctic Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system by impacting ocean circulations, stratification, mixing, and emergent regimes. In this review paper we assess how Arctic Ocean freshwater changed in the 2010s relative to the 2000s. Estimates from observations and reanalyses show a qualitative stabilization in the 2010s due to a compensation between a freshening of the Beaufort Gyre and a reduction in freshwater in the Amerasian and Eurasian basins.
Jun Inoue, Yutaka Tobo, Kazutoshi Sato, Fumikazu Taketani, and Marion Maturilli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4971–4987,Short summary
A cloud particle sensor (CPS) sonde is an observing system to obtain the signals of the phase, size, and the number of cloud particles. Based on the field experiments in the Arctic regions and numerical experiments, we proposed a method to correct the CPS sonde data and found that the CPS sonde system can appropriately observe the liquid cloud if our correction method is applied.
Fabio Mangini, Léon Chafik, Antonio Bonaduce, Laurent Bertino, and Jan Even Øie Nilsen
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for OSShort summary
We validate the recent ALES coastal satellite altimetry dataset along the Norwegian coast between 2003 and 2018. Compared to previous altimetry products, the ALES dataset agrees better with tide gauges in terms of linear trend, seasonal cycle, and inter-annual variability. We then use the ALES dataset and hydrographic stations to explore the sea-level budget and refine the description of the governing processes of sea-level variability along the Norwegian coast.
Sourav Chatterjee, Roshin P. Raj, Laurent Bertino, Sebastian H. Mernild, Meethale Puthukkottu Subeesh, Nuncio Murukesh, and Muthalagu Ravichandran
The Cryosphere, 15, 1307–1319,Short summary
Sea ice in the Greenland Sea (GS) is important for its climatic (fresh water), economical (shipping), and ecological contribution (light availability). The study proposes a mechanism through which sea ice concentration in GS is partly governed by the atmospheric and ocean circulation in the region. The mechanism proposed in this study can be useful for assessing the sea ice variability and its future projection in the GS.
Takehiko Nose, Takuji Waseda, Tsubasa Kodaira, and Jun Inoue
The Cryosphere, 14, 2029–2052,Short summary
Accurate wave modelling in and near ice-covered ocean requires true sea ice concentration mapping of the model region. The information derived from satellite instruments has considerable uncertainty depending on retrieval algorithms and sensors. This study shows that the accuracy of satellite-retrieved sea ice concentration estimates is a major error source in wave–ice models. A similar feedback effect of sea ice concentration uncertainty may also apply to modelling lower atmospheric conditions.
Roshin P. Raj, Sourav Chatterjee, Laurent Bertino, Antonio Turiel, and Marcos Portabella
Ocean Sci., 15, 1729–1744,Short summary
In this study we investigated the variability of the Arctic Front (AF), an important biologically productive region in the Norwegian Sea, using a suite of satellite data, atmospheric reanalysis and a regional coupled ocean–sea ice data assimilation system. We show evidence of the two-way interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean at the AF. The North Atlantic Oscillation is found to influence the strength of the AF and may have a profound influence on the region's biological productivity.
Jiping Xie, Roshin P. Raj, Laurent Bertino, Annette Samuelsen, and Tsuyoshi Wakamatsu
Ocean Sci., 15, 1191–1206,Short summary
Two gridded sea surface salinity (SSS) products have been derived from the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission. The uncertainties of these two products in the Arctic are quantified against two SSS products in the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Services, two climatologies, and other in situ data. The results compared with independent in situ data clearly show a common challenge for the six SSS products to represent central Arctic freshwater masses (<24 psu).
Marc Bocquet, Julien Brajard, Alberto Carrassi, and Laurent Bertino
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 26, 143–162,Short summary
This paper describes an innovative way to use data assimilation to infer the dynamics of a physical system from its observation only. The method can operate with noisy and partial observation of the physical system. It acts as a deep learning technique specialised to dynamical models without the need for machine learning tools. The method is successfully tested on chaotic dynamical systems: the Lorenz-63, Lorenz-96, and Kuramoto–Sivashinski models and a two-scale Lorenz model.
Yugo Kanaya, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Hisahiro Takashima, Yuichi Komazaki, Xiaole Pan, Saki Kato, Kengo Sudo, Takashi Sekiya, Jun Inoue, Kazutoshi Sato, and Kazuhiro Oshima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7233–7254,Short summary
Ozone and carbon monoxide levels were uniquely observed (for > 10 000 h) over oceans from 67° S to 75° N. Tropospheric chemistry reanalysis v2 reproduced the observed evolution of pollution plumes from continents but underpredicted and overpredicted ozone levels in the Arctic and in the western Pacific equatorial region, respectively. Processes to explain the gaps are proposed, including halogen-mediated destruction in the low latitudes. Our open data set will complement the TOAR data collection.
Julien Brajard, Alberto Carrassi, Marc Bocquet, and Laurent Bertino
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We explore the possibility of combining data assimilation with machine learning. We introduce a new hybrid method for a two-fold scope: (i) emulating hidden, possibly chaotic, dynamics and (ii) predicting its future states. Numerical experiments have been carried out using the chaotic Lorenz 96 model, proving both the convergence of the hybrid method and its statistical skills including short-term forecasting and emulation of the long-term dynamics.
Jiping Xie, François Counillon, and Laurent Bertino
The Cryosphere, 12, 3671–3691,Short summary
We use the winter sea-ice thickness dataset CS2SMOS merged from two satellites SMOS and CryoSat-2 for assimilation into an ice–ocean reanalysis of the Arctic, complemented by several other ocean and sea-ice measurements, using an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The errors of sea-ice thickness are reduced by 28% and the improvements persists through the summer when observations are unavailable. Improvements of ice drift are however limited to the Central Arctic.
Fabrice Ardhuin, Yevgueny Aksenov, Alvise Benetazzo, Laurent Bertino, Peter Brandt, Eric Caubet, Bertrand Chapron, Fabrice Collard, Sophie Cravatte, Jean-Marc Delouis, Frederic Dias, Gérald Dibarboure, Lucile Gaultier, Johnny Johannessen, Anton Korosov, Georgy Manucharyan, Dimitris Menemenlis, Melisa Menendez, Goulven Monnier, Alexis Mouche, Frédéric Nouguier, George Nurser, Pierre Rampal, Ad Reniers, Ernesto Rodriguez, Justin Stopa, Céline Tison, Clément Ubelmann, Erik van Sebille, and Jiping Xie
Ocean Sci., 14, 337–354,Short summary
The Sea surface KInematics Multiscale (SKIM) monitoring mission is a proposal for a future satellite that is designed to measure ocean currents and waves. Using a Doppler radar, the accurate measurement of currents requires the removal of the mean velocity due to ocean wave motions. This paper describes the main processing steps needed to produce currents and wave data from the radar measurements. With this technique, SKIM can provide unprecedented coverage and resolution, over the global ocean.
Matthias Rabatel, Pierre Rampal, Alberto Carrassi, Laurent Bertino, and Christopher K. R. T. Jones
The Cryosphere, 12, 935–953,Short summary
Large deviations still exist between sea ice forecasts and observations because of both missing physics in models and uncertainties on model inputs. We investigate how the new sea ice model neXtSIM is sensitive to uncertainties in the winds. We highlight and quantify the role of the internal forces in the ice on this sensitivity and show that neXtSIM is better at predicting sea ice drift than a free-drift (without internal forces) ice model and is a skilful tool for search and rescue operations.
Kristoffer Aalstad, Sebastian Westermann, Thomas Vikhamar Schuler, Julia Boike, and Laurent Bertino
The Cryosphere, 12, 247–270,Short summary
We demonstrate how snow cover data from satellites can be used to constrain estimates of snow distributions at sites in the Arctic. In this effort, we make use of data assimilation to combine the information contained in the snow cover data with a simple snow model. By comparing our snow distribution estimates to independent observations, we find that this method performs favorably. Being modular, this method could be applied to other areas as a component of a larger reanalysis system.
Yoshimi Kawai, Masaki Katsumata, Kazuhiro Oshima, Masatake E. Hori, and Jun Inoue
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2485–2498,Short summary
The model RS92 radiosonde manufactured by Vaisala Ltd. is now being replaced with a successor model, the RS41, and we need to clarify accuracy differences between them for a variety of research. For this purpose, 36 twin-radiosonde flights were performed over the oceans from the Arctic to the tropics. Basically the differences between the RS41 and RS92 were smaller than the nominal combined uncertainties of the RS41; however, we found non-negligible biases in relative humidity and pressure.
Jiping Xie, Laurent Bertino, François Counillon, Knut A. Lisæter, and Pavel Sakov
Ocean Sci., 13, 123–144,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the global climate system, but the concerned interpretation about its changes is severely hampered by the sparseness of the observations of sea ice and ocean. The focus of this study is to provide a quantitative assessment of the performance of the TOPAZ4 reanalysis for ocean and sea ice variables in the pan-Arctic region (north of 63 °N) in order to guide the user through its skills and limitations.
Jiping Xie, François Counillon, Laurent Bertino, Xiangshan Tian-Kunze, and Lars Kaleschke
The Cryosphere, 10, 2745–2761,Short summary
As a potentially operational daily product, the SMOS-Ice can improve the statements of sea ice thickness and concentration. In this study, focusing on the SMOS-Ice data assimilated into the TOPAZ system, the quantitative evaluation for the impacts and the concerned comparison with the present observation system are valuable to understand the further improvement of the accuracy of operational ocean forecasting system.
Naoya Yokoi, Kohei Matsuno, Mutsuo Ichinomiya, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Shigeto Nishino, Jonaotaro Onodera, Jun Inoue, and Takashi Kikuchi
Biogeosciences, 13, 913–923,Short summary
We studied short-term changes in the microplankton community in the Chukchi Sea with regards to responses to the strong wind event (SWE) during autumn (September 2013). It is assumed that atmospheric turbulences, such as SWE, may supply sufficient nutrients to the surface layer that subsequently enhance the small bloom under the weak stratification. After the bloom, the dominant diatom community then shifts from centric-dominated to one where centric/pennate are more equal in abundance.
T. Sueyoshi, K. Saito, S. Miyazaki, J. Mori, T. Ise, H. Arakida, R. Suzuki, A. Sato, Y. Iijima, H. Yabuki, H. Ikawa, T. Ohta, A. Kotani, T. Hajima, H. Sato, T. Yamazaki, and A. Sugimoto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 1–14,Short summary
This paper describes the construction of a forcing data set for land surface models (LSMs) with eight meteorological variables for the 35-year period from 1979 to 2013. The data set is intended for use in a model intercomparison (MIP) study, called GTMIP. In order to prepare a set of site-fitted forcing data for LSMs with realistic yet continuous entries, four observational sites were selected to construct a blended data set using both global reanalysis and observational data.
S. Miyazaki, K. Saito, J. Mori, T. Yamazaki, T. Ise, H. Arakida, T. Hajima, Y. Iijima, H. Machiya, T. Sueyoshi, H. Yabuki, E. J. Burke, M. Hosaka, K. Ichii, H. Ikawa, A. Ito, A. Kotani, Y. Matsuura, M. Niwano, T. Nitta, R. O'ishi, T. Ohta, H. Park, T. Sasai, A. Sato, H. Sato, A. Sugimoto, R. Suzuki, K. Tanaka, S. Yamaguchi, and K. Yoshimura
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2841–2856,Short summary
The paper provides an overall outlook and the Stage 1 experiment (site simulations) protocol of GTMIP, an open model intercomparison project for terrestrial Arctic, conducted as an activity of the Japan-funded Arctic Climate Change Research Project (GRENE-TEA). Models are driven by 34-year data created with the GRENE-TEA observations at four sites in Finland, Siberia and Alaska, and evaluated for physico-ecological key processes: energy budgets, snow, permafrost, phenology, and carbon budget.
K. Matsuno, A. Yamaguchi, S. Nishino, J. Inoue, and T. Kikuchi
Biogeosciences, 12, 4005–4015,Short summary
We performed high-frequency samplings of zooplankton community and gut pigment of copepods in the Chukchi Sea. Zooplankton showed no changes with a strong wind event and dominant copepods prepared for diapause. Yet, feeding activity of the copepods increased as a result of temporal phytoplankton bloom, enhanced by the wind event. Because of the long generation length of copepods, a smaller effect was detected for their abundance, population, lipid accumulation and gonad maturation.
D. Mignac, C. A. S. Tanajura, A. N. Santana, L. N. Lima, and J. Xie
Ocean Sci., 11, 195–213,
Related subject area
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The Cryosphere, 15, 3785–3796,Short summary
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Jean-François Lemieux, L. Bruno Tremblay, and Mathieu Plante
The Cryosphere, 14, 3465–3478,Short summary
Sea ice pressure poses great risk for navigation; it can lead to ship besetting and damages. Sea ice forecasting systems can predict the evolution of pressure. However, these systems have low spatial resolution (a few km) compared to the dimensions of ships. We study the downscaling of pressure from the km-scale to scales relevant for navigation. We find that the pressure applied on a ship beset in heavy ice conditions can be markedly larger than the pressure predicted by the forecasting system.
Clara Burgard, Dirk Notz, Leif T. Pedersen, and Rasmus T. Tonboe
The Cryosphere, 14, 2369–2386,Short summary
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Clara Burgard, Dirk Notz, Leif T. Pedersen, and Rasmus T. Tonboe
The Cryosphere, 14, 2387–2407,Short summary
The high disagreement between observations of Arctic sea ice inhibits the evaluation of climate models with observations. We develop a tool that translates the simulated Arctic Ocean state into what a satellite could observe from space in the form of brightness temperatures, a measure for the radiation emitted by the surface. We find that the simulated brightness temperatures compare well with the observed brightness temperatures. This tool brings a new perspective for climate model evaluation.
Nils Hutter and Martin Losch
The Cryosphere, 14, 93–113,Short summary
Sea ice is composed of a multitude of floes that constantly deform due to wind and ocean currents and thereby form leads and pressure ridges. These features are visible in the ice as stripes of open-ocean or high-piled ice. High-resolution sea ice models start to resolve these deformation features. In this paper we present two simulations that agree with satellite data according to a new evaluation metric that detects deformation features and compares their spatial and temporal characteristics.
Agnieszka Herman, Sukun Cheng, and Hayley H. Shen
The Cryosphere, 13, 2887–2900,Short summary
Sea ice interactions with waves are extensively studied in recent years, but mechanisms leading to wave energy attenuation in sea ice remain poorly understood. Close to the ice edge, processes contributing to dissipation include collisions between ice floes and turbulence generated under the ice due to velocity differences between ice and water. This paper analyses details of those processes both theoretically and by means of a numerical model.
Evelyn Jäkel, Johannes Stapf, Manfred Wendisch, Marcel Nicolaus, Wolfgang Dorn, and Annette Rinke
The Cryosphere, 13, 1695–1708,Short summary
The sea ice surface albedo parameterization of a coupled regional climate model was validated against aircraft measurements performed in May–June 2017 north of Svalbard. The albedo parameterization was run offline from the model using the measured parameters surface temperature and snow depth to calculate the surface albedo and the individual fractions of the ice surface subtypes. An adjustment of the variables and additionally accounting for cloud cover reduced the root-mean-squared error.
Damien Ringeisen, Martin Losch, L. Bruno Tremblay, and Nils Hutter
The Cryosphere, 13, 1167–1186,Short summary
We study the creation of fracture in sea ice plastic models. To do this, we compress an ideal piece of ice of 8 km by 25 km. We use two different mathematical expressions defining the resistance of ice. We find that the most common one is unable to model the fracture correctly, while the other gives better results but brings instabilities. The results are often in opposition with ice granular nature (e.g., sand) and call for changes in ice modeling.
Charles Gignac, Monique Bernier, and Karem Chokmani
The Cryosphere, 13, 451–468,Short summary
The IcePAC tool is made to estimate the probabilities of specific sea ice conditions based on historical sea ice concentration time series from the EUMETSAT OSI-409 product (12.5 km grid), modelled using the beta distribution and used to build event probability maps, which have been unavailable until now. Compared to the Canadian ice service atlas, IcePAC showed promising results in the Hudson Bay, paving the way for its usage in other regions of the cryosphere to inform stakeholders' decisions.
David Schröder, Danny L. Feltham, Michel Tsamados, Andy Ridout, and Rachel Tilling
The Cryosphere, 13, 125–139,Short summary
This paper uses sea ice thickness data (CryoSat-2) to identify and correct shortcomings in simulating winter ice growth in the widely used sea ice model CICE. Adding a model of snow drift and using a different scheme for calculating the ice conductivity improve model results. Sensitivity studies demonstrate that atmospheric winter conditions have little impact on winter ice growth, and the fate of Arctic summer sea ice is largely controlled by atmospheric conditions during the melting season.
Ann Keen and Ed Blockley
The Cryosphere, 12, 2855–2868,Short summary
As the climate warms during the 21st century, our model shows extra melting at the top and the base of the Arctic sea ice. The reducing ice cover affects the impact these processes have on the sea ice volume budget, where the largest individual change is a reduction in the amount of growth at the base of existing ice. Using different forcing scenarios we show that, for this model, changes in the volume budget depend on the evolving ice area but not on the speed at which the ice area declines.
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Medium-range predictability of early summer sea ice thickness in the East Siberian Sea was examined, based on TOPAZ4 forecast data. Statistical examination indicates that the estimate drops abruptly at 4 days, which is related to dynamical process controlled by synoptic-scale atmospheric fluctuations such as an Arctic cyclone. For longer lead times (> 4 days), the thermodynamic melting process takes over, which represents most of the remaining prediction.
Medium-range predictability of early summer sea ice thickness in the East Siberian Sea was...