Articles | Volume 17, issue 2
Research article
13 Feb 2023
Research article |  | 13 Feb 2023

The effects of surface roughness on the calculated, spectral, conical–conical reflectance factor as an alternative to the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of bare sea ice

Maxim L. Lamare, John D. Hedley, and Martin D. King

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Cited articles

Arnold, G. T., Tsay, S.-C., King, M. D., Li, J. Y., and Soulen, P. F.: Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for arctic sea ice and tundra, Int. J. Remote Sens., 23, 3763–3781,, 2002. a, b, c, d, e
Bacour, C., Bréon, F.-M., Gonzalez, L., Price, I., Muller, J.-P., and Straume, A. G.: Simulating Multi-Directional Narrowband Reflectance of the Earth's Surface Using ADAM (A Surface Reflectance Database for ESA's Earth Observation Missions), Remote Sens., 12, 1679–1703,, 2020. a
Ball, C. P., Marks, A. A., Green, P. D., MacArthur, A., Maturilli, M., Fox, N. P., and King, M. D.: Hemispherical-Directional Reflectance (HDRF) of Windblown Snow-Covered Arctic Tundra at Large Solar Zenith Angles, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 53, 5377–5387,, 2015. a
Becker, S., Ehrlich, A., Jäkel, E., Carlsen, T., Schäfer, M., and Wendisch, M.: Airborne measurements of directional reflectivity over the Arctic marginal sea ice zone, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2939–2953,, 2022. a
Beine, H., Anastasio, C., Domine, F., Douglas, T., Barret, M., France, J., King, M., Hall, S., and Ullmann, K.: Soluble chromophores in marine snow, seawater, sea ice and frost flowers near Barrow, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D00R15,, 2012. a
Short summary
The reflectivity of sea ice is crucial for modern climate change and for monitoring sea ice from satellites. The reflectivity depends on the angle at which the ice is viewed and the angle illuminated. The directional reflectivity is calculated as a function of viewing angle, illuminating angle, thickness, wavelength and surface roughness. Roughness cannot be considered independent of thickness, illumination angle and the wavelength. Remote sensors will use the data to image sea ice from space.