Articles | Volume 16, issue 1
25 Jan 2022
Research article | 25 Jan 2022
Dam type and lake location characterize ice-marginal lake area change in Alaska and NW Canada between 1984 and 2019
Brianna Rick et al.
No articles found.
Luke A. McGuire, Scott W. McCoy, Odin Marc, William Struble, and Katherine R. Barnhart
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESurfShort summary
Debris flows are mixtures of mud and rocks that can travel at high speeds across steep landscapes. Here, we propose a new model to describe how landscapes are shaped by debris flow erosion over long timescales. Model results demonstrate that the shapes of channel profiles are sensitive to uplift rate, meaning that it may be possible use topographic data from steep channel networks to infer how erosion rates vary in space across a landscape.
Hannah R. Field, William H. Armstrong, and Matthias Huss
The Cryosphere, 15, 3255–3278,Short summary
The growth of a glacier lake alters the hydrology, ecology, and glaciology of its surrounding region. We investigate modern glacier lake area change across northwestern North America using repeat satellite imagery. Broadly, we find that lakes downstream from glaciers grew, while lakes dammed by glaciers shrunk. Our results suggest that the shape of the landscape surrounding a glacier lake plays a larger role in determining how quickly a lake changes than climatic or glaciologic factors.
Leif S. Anderson, William H. Armstrong, Robert S. Anderson, and Pascal Buri
The Cryosphere, 15, 265–282,Short summary
Many glaciers are thinning rapidly beneath debris cover (loose rock) that reduces melt, including Kennicott Glacier in Alaska. This contradiction has been explained by melt hotspots, such as ice cliffs, scattered within the debris cover. However, at Kennicott Glacier declining ice flow explains the rapid thinning. Through this study, Kennicott Glacier is now the first glacier in Alaska, and the largest glacier globally, where melt across its debris-covered tongue has been rigorously quantified.
Helen W. Beeson and Scott W. McCoy
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 123–159,Short summary
We used a computer model to show that, when a landscape is tilted, rivers respond in a distinct way such that river profiles take on unique forms that record tilt timing and magnitude. Using this suite of river forms, we estimated tilt timing and magnitude in the Sierra Nevada, USA, and results were consistent with independent measures. Our work broadens the scope of tectonic histories that can be extracted from landscape form to include tilting, which has been documented in diverse locations.
Leif S. Anderson, William H. Armstrong, Robert S. Anderson, and Pascal Buri
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Thick rock cover (or debris) disturbs the melt of many Alaskan glaciers. Yet the effect of debris on glacier thinning in Alaska has been overlooked. In three companion papers we assess the role of debris and ice flow on the thinning of Kennicott Glacier. In Part C we describe feedbacks contributing to rapid thinning under thick debris. Changes in debris thickness downglacier on Kennicott Glacier are manifested in the pattern of glacier thinning, ice dynamics, melt, and glacier surface features.
Leif S. Anderson, Robert S. Anderson, Pascal Buri, and William H. Armstrong
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Thick rock cover (or debris) disturbs the melt of many Alaskan glaciers. Yet the effect of debris on glacier thinning in Alaska has been overlooked. In three companion papers we assess the role of debris and ice flow on the thinning of Kennicott Glacier. In Part A, we report measurements from the glacier surface. We measured surface debris thickness, melt under debris, and the rate of ice cliff backwasting. These data allow for further studies linking debris to glacier shrinkage in Alaska.
Daniel McGrath, Louis Sass, Shad O'Neel, Chris McNeil, Salvatore G. Candela, Emily H. Baker, and Hans-Peter Marshall
The Cryosphere, 12, 3617–3633,Short summary
Measuring the amount and spatial pattern of snow on glaciers is essential for monitoring glacier mass balance and quantifying the water budget of glacierized basins. Using repeat radar surveys for 5 consecutive years, we found that the spatial pattern in snow distribution is stable over the majority of the glacier and scales with the glacier-wide average. Our findings support the use of sparse stake networks for effectively measuring interannual variability in winter balance on glaciers.
Gregory E. Tucker, Scott W. McCoy, and Daniel E. J. Hobley
Earth Surf. Dynam., 6, 563–582,Short summary
This article presents a new technique for computer simulation of slope forms. The method provides a way to study how events that disturb soil or turn rock into soil add up over time to produce landforms. The model represents a cross section of a hypothetical landform as a lattice of cells, each of which may represent air, soil, or rock. Despite its simplicity, the model does a good job of simulating a range of common of natural slope forms.
Suzanne L. Bevan, Adrian Luckman, Bryn Hubbard, Bernd Kulessa, David Ashmore, Peter Kuipers Munneke, Martin O'Leary, Adam Booth, Heidi Sevestre, and Daniel McGrath
The Cryosphere, 11, 2743–2753,Short summary
Five 90 m boreholes drilled into an Antarctic Peninsula ice shelf show units of ice that are denser than expected and must have formed from refrozen surface melt which has been buried and transported downstream. We used surface flow speeds and snow accumulation rates to work out where and when these units formed. Results show that, as well as recent surface melt, a period of strong melt occurred during the 18th century. Surface melt is thought to be a factor in causing recent ice-shelf break-up.
Peter Kuipers Munneke, Daniel McGrath, Brooke Medley, Adrian Luckman, Suzanne Bevan, Bernd Kulessa, Daniela Jansen, Adam Booth, Paul Smeets, Bryn Hubbard, David Ashmore, Michiel Van den Broeke, Heidi Sevestre, Konrad Steffen, Andrew Shepherd, and Noel Gourmelen
The Cryosphere, 11, 2411–2426,Short summary
How much snow falls on the Larsen C ice shelf? This is a relevant question, because this ice shelf might collapse sometime this century. To know if and when this could happen, we found out how much snow falls on its surface. This was difficult, because there are only very few measurements. Here, we used data from automatic weather stations, sled-pulled radars, and a climate model to find that melting the annual snowfall produces about 20 cm of water in the NE and over 70 cm in the SW.
Related subject area
Discipline: Other | Subject: Freshwater IceMechanisms and effects of under-ice warming water in Ngoring Lake of Qinghai–Tibet PlateauTricentennial trends in spring ice break-ups on three rivers in northern EuropeClimate warming shortens ice durations and alters freeze and break-up patterns in Swedish water bodiesSunlight penetration dominates the thermal regime and energetics of a shallow ice-covered lake in arid climateRiver ice phenology and thickness from satellite altimetry: potential for ice bridge road operation and climate studiesGiant ice rings in southern Baikal: multi-satellite data help to study ice cover dynamics and eddies under iceIce roughness estimation via remotely piloted aircraft and photogrammetryAnalyses of Peace River Shallow Water Ice Profiling Sonar data and their implications for the roles played by frazil ice and in situ anchor ice growth in a freezing riverCreep and fracture of warm columnar freshwater iceClimate change and Northern Hemisphere lake and river ice phenology from 1931–2005Methane pathways in winter ice of a thermokarst lake–lagoon–coastal water transect in north SiberiaContinuous in situ measurements of anchor ice formation, growth, and releaseProglacial icings as records of winter hydrological processesInvestigation of spatial and temporal variability of river ice phenology and thickness across Songhua River Basin, northeast ChinaObservation-derived ice growth curves show patterns and trends in maximum ice thickness and safe travel duration of Alaskan lakes and rivers
Mengxiao Wang, Lijuan Wen, Zhaoguo Li, Matti Leppäranta, Victor Stepanenko, Yixin Zhao, Ruijia Niu, Liuyiyi Yang, and Georgiy Kirillin
The Cryosphere, 16, 3635–3648,Short summary
The under-ice water temperature of Ngoring Lake has been rising based on in situ observations. We obtained results showing that strong downward shortwave radiation is the main meteorological factor, and precipitation, wind speed, downward longwave radiation, air temperature, ice albedo, and ice extinction coefficient have an impact on the range and rate of lake temperature rise. Once the ice breaks, the lake body releases more energy than other lakes, whose water temperature remains horizontal.
Stefan Norrgård and Samuli Helama
The Cryosphere, 16, 2881–2898,Short summary
We examined changes in the dates of ice break-ups in three Finnish rivers since the 1700s. The analyses show that ice break-ups nowadays occur earlier in spring than in previous centuries. The changes are pronounced in the south, and both rivers had their first recorded years without a complete ice cover in the 21st century. These events occurred during exceptionally warm winters and show that climate extremes affect the river-ice regime in southwest Finland differently than in the north.
Sofia Hallerbäck, Laurie S. Huning, Charlotte Love, Magnus Persson, Katarina Stensen, David Gustafsson, and Amir AghaKouchak
The Cryosphere, 16, 2493–2503,Short summary
Using unique data, some dating back to the 18th century, we show a significant trend in shorter ice duration, later freeze, and earlier break-up dates across Sweden. In recent observations, the mean ice durations have decreased by 11–28 d and the chance of years with an extremely short ice cover duration (less than 50 d) have increased by 800 %. Results show that even a 1 °C increase in air temperatures can result in a decrease in ice duration in Sweden of around 8–23 d.
Wenfeng Huang, Wen Zhao, Cheng Zhang, Matti Leppäranta, Zhijun Li, Rui Li, and Zhanjun Lin
The Cryosphere, 16, 1793–1806,Short summary
Thermal regimes of seasonally ice-covered lakes in an arid region like Central Asia are not well constrained despite the unique climate. We observed annual and seasonal dynamics of thermal stratification and energetics in a shallow arid-region lake. Strong penetrated solar radiation and high water-to-ice heat flux are the predominant components in water heat balance. The under-ice stratification and convection are jointly governed by the radiative penetration and salt rejection during freezing.
Elena Zakharova, Svetlana Agafonova, Claude Duguay, Natalia Frolova, and Alexei Kouraev
The Cryosphere, 15, 5387–5407,Short summary
The paper investigates the performance of altimetric satellite instruments to detect river ice onset and melting dates and to retrieve ice thickness of the Ob River. This is a first attempt to use satellite altimetry for monitoring ice in the challenging conditions restrained by the object size. A novel approach permitted elaboration of the spatiotemporal ice thickness product for the 400 km river reach. The potential of the product for prediction of ice road operation was demonstrated.
Alexei V. Kouraev, Elena A. Zakharova, Andrey G. Kostianoy, Mikhail N. Shimaraev, Lev V. Desinov, Evgeny A. Petrov, Nicholas M. J. Hall, Frédérique Rémy, and Andrey Ya. Suknev
The Cryosphere, 15, 4501–4516,Short summary
Giant ice rings are a beautiful and puzzling natural phenomenon. Our data show that ice rings are generated by lens-like warm eddies below the ice. We use multi-satellite data to analyse lake ice cover in the presence of eddies in April 2020 in southern Baikal. Unusual changes in ice colour may be explained by the competing influences of atmosphere above and the warm eddy below the ice. Tracking ice floes also helps to estimate eddy currents and their influence on the upper water layer.
James Ehrman, Shawn Clark, and Alexander Wall
The Cryosphere, 15, 4031–4046,Short summary
This research proposes and tests new methods for the estimation of the surface roughness of newly formed river ice covers. The hypothesis sought to determine if surface ice roughness was indicative of the subsurface. Ice roughness has consequences for winter flow characteristics of rivers and can greatly impact river ice jams. Remotely piloted aircraft and photogrammetry were used, and good correlation was found between the observed surface ice roughness and estimated subsurface ice roughness.
John R. Marko and David R. Topham
The Cryosphere, 15, 2473–2489,Short summary
Acoustic backscattering data from Peace River frazil events are interpreted to develop a quantitative model of interactions between ice particles in the water column and riverbed ice layers. Two generic behaviours, evident in observed time variability, are linked to differences in the relative stability of in situ anchor ice layers which develop at the beginning of each frazil interval and are determined by cooling rates. Changes in these layers are shown to control water column frazil content.
Iman E. Gharamti, John P. Dempsey, Arttu Polojärvi, and Jukka Tuhkuri
The Cryosphere, 15, 2401–2413,Short summary
We study the creep and fracture behavior of 3 m × 6 m floating edge-cracked rectangular plates of warm columnar freshwater S2 ice under creep/cyclic-recovery loading and monotonic loading to fracture. Under the testing conditions, the ice response was elastic–viscoplastic; no significant viscoelasticity or major recovery was detected. There was no clear effect of the creep/cyclic loading on the fracture properties: failure load and crack opening displacements at crack growth initiation.
Andrew M. W. Newton and Donal J. Mullan
The Cryosphere, 15, 2211–2234,Short summary
This paper investigates changes in the dates of ice freeze-up and breakup for 678 Northern Hemisphere lakes and rivers from 1931–2005. From 3510 time series, the results show that breakup dates have gradually occurred earlier through time, whilst freeze-up trends have tended to be significantly more variable. These data combined show that the number of annual open-water days has increased through time for most sites, with the magnitude of change at its largest in more recent years.
Ines Spangenberg, Pier Paul Overduin, Ellen Damm, Ingeborg Bussmann, Hanno Meyer, Susanne Liebner, Michael Angelopoulos, Boris K. Biskaborn, Mikhail N. Grigoriev, and Guido Grosse
The Cryosphere, 15, 1607–1625,Short summary
Thermokarst lakes are common on ice-rich permafrost. Many studies have shown that they are sources of methane to the atmosphere. Although they are usually covered by ice, little is known about what happens to methane in winter. We studied how much methane is contained in the ice of a thermokarst lake, a thermokarst lagoon and offshore. Methane concentrations differed strongly, depending on water body type. Microbes can also oxidize methane in ice and lower the concentrations during winter.
Tadros R. Ghobrial and Mark R. Loewen
The Cryosphere, 15, 49–67,Short summary
Anchor ice typically forms on riverbeds during freeze-up and can alter the river ice regime. Most of the knowledge on anchor ice mechanisms has been attributed to lab experiments. This study presents for the first time insights into anchor ice initiation, growth, and release in rivers using an underwater camera system. Three stages of growth and modes of release have been identified. These results will improve modelling capabilities in predicting the effect of anchor ice on river ice regimes.
Anna Chesnokova, Michel Baraër, and Émilie Bouchard
The Cryosphere, 14, 4145–4164,Short summary
In the context of a ubiquitous increase in winter discharge in cold regions, our results show that icing formations can help overcome the lack of direct observations in these remote environments and provide new insights into winter runoff generation. The multi-technique approach used in this study provided important information about the water sources active during the winter season in the headwaters of glacierized catchments.
Qian Yang, Kaishan Song, Xiaohua Hao, Zhidan Wen, Yue Tan, and Weibang Li
The Cryosphere, 14, 3581–3593,Short summary
Using daily ice records of 156 hydrological stations across Songhua River Basin, we examined the spatial variability in the river ice phenology and river ice thickness from 2010 to 2015 and explored the role of snow depth and air temperature on the ice thickness. Snow cover correlated with ice thickness significantly and positively when the freshwater was completely frozen. Cumulative air temperature of freezing provides a better predictor than the air temperature for ice thickness modeling.
Christopher D. Arp, Jessica E. Cherry, Dana R. N. Brown, Allen C. Bondurant, and Karen L. Endres
The Cryosphere, 14, 3595–3609,Short summary
River and lake ice thickens at varying rates geographically and from year to year. We took a closer look at ice growth across a large geographic region experiencing rapid climate change, the State of Alaska, USA. Slower ice growth was most pronounced in northern Alaskan lakes over the last 60 years. Western and interior Alaska ice showed more variability in thickness and safe travel duration. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of changing freshwater ice in Alaska.
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Glacial lakes impact societies as both resources and hazards. Lakes form, grow, and drain as glaciers thin and retreat, and understanding lake evolution is a critical first step in assessing their hazard potential. We map glacial lakes in Alaska between 1984 and 2019. Overall, lakes grew in number and area, though lakes with different damming material (ice, moraine, bedrock) behaved differently. Namely, ice-dammed lakes decreased in number and area, a trend lost if dam type is not considered.
Glacial lakes impact societies as both resources and hazards. Lakes form, grow, and drain as...