Articles | Volume 14, issue 3
Research article 04 Mar 2020
Research article | 04 Mar 2020
The seasonal evolution of albedo across glaciers and the surrounding landscape of Taylor Valley, Antarctica
Anna Bergstrom et al.
No articles found.
Krista F. Myers, Peter T. Doran, Slawek M. Tulaczyk, Neil T. Foley, Thue S. Bording, Esben Auken, Hilary A. Dugan, Jill A. Mikucki, Nikolaj Foged, Denys Grombacher, and Ross A. Virginia
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
Lake Fryxell, Antarctica, has undergone hundreds of meters of change in recent geologic history. However, there is disagreement on when lake levels were higher, and by how much. This study uses resistivity data to map the subsurface conditions (frozen versus unfrozen ground) to map ancient shorelines. Our models indicate that Lake Fryxell was up to 60 m higher just 1,000 to 1,500 years ago. This amount of lake level change shows how sensitive these systems are to small changes in temperature.
Madeline E. Myers, Peter T. Doran, and Krista F. Myers
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
In polar regions like the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, snowfall is expected to increase. Small amounts of snow lower radiation for melting and photosynthesis by increasing the albedo of the surrounding dark soil. Two decades of snowfall data have shown that the volume of snowfall has been declining since 2009, which contradicts the anticipated increase; however, the number of days with snow has been increasing, which will slow glacial melt and lower productivity below the snow cover.
Brent C. Christner, Heather F. Lavender, Christina L. Davis, Erin E. Oliver, Sarah U. Neuhaus, Krista F. Myers, Birgit Hagedorn, Slawek M. Tulaczyk, Peter T. Doran, and William C. Stone
The Cryosphere, 12, 3653–3669,Short summary
Solar radiation that penetrates into the glacier heats the ice to produce nutrient-containing meltwater and provides light that fuels an ecosystem within the ice. Our analysis documents a near-surface photic zone in a glacier that functions as a liquid water oasis in the ice over half the annual cycle. Since microbial growth on glacier surfaces reduces the amount of solar radiation reflected, microbial processes at depths below the surface may also darken ice and accelerate meltwater production.
Ryan W. Webb, Steven R. Fassnacht, and Michael N. Gooseff
The Cryosphere, 12, 287–300,Short summary
We observed how snowmelt is transported on a hillslope through multiple measurements of snow and soil moisture across a small headwater catchment. We found that snowmelt flows through the snow with less infiltration on north-facing slopes and infiltrates the ground on south-facing slopes. This causes an increase in snow water equivalent at the base of the north-facing slope by as much as 170 %. We present a conceptualization of flow path development to improve future investigations.
Andrew G. Fountain, Juan C. Fernandez-Diaz, Maciej Obryk, Joseph Levy, Michael Gooseff, David J. Van Horn, Paul Morin, and Ramesh Shrestha
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 435–443,Short summary
We present detailed surface elevation measurements for the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and surroundings, derived from aerial lidar surveys flown in the austral summer of 2014–2015 as part of an effort to understand landscape changes over the past decade. Lidar return density varied from 2 to > 10 returns per square meter with an average of about 5 returns per square meter. vertical and horizontal accuracies are estimated to be 7 cm and 3 cm, respectively.
Michael N. Gooseff, David Van Horn, Zachary Sudman, Diane M. McKnight, Kathleene A. Welch, and William B. Lyons
Biogeosciences, 13, 1723–1732,Short summary
The landscape of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica has been considered quite stable. In 2012, we discovered extensive permafrost degradation along several km of Crescent Stream. Here we document the responses to water quality, specifically changes to dissolved major ion and suspended sediment characteristics. Stream nitrate concentrations were greater than observed in the stream over the previous ~ 20 years, suggesting potentially significant impacts for stream and downstream lake ecosystems.
J. W. Eveland, M. N. Gooseff, D. J. Lampkin, J. E. Barrett, and C. D. Takacs-Vesbach
The Cryosphere, 7, 917–931,
Related subject area
Discipline: Glaciers | Subject: Remote SensingGlacier Image Velocimetry: an open-source toolbox for easy and rapid calculation of high-resolution glacier velocity fieldsCalving Front Machine (CALFIN): glacial termini dataset and automated deep learning extraction method for Greenland, 1972–2019Brief communication: An empirical relation between center frequency and measured thickness for radar sounding of temperate glaciersAnnual and inter-annual variability and trends of albedo of Icelandic glaciersObserving traveling waves in glaciers with remote sensing: new flexible time series methods and application to Sermeq Kujalleq (Jakobshavn Isbræ), GreenlandDetecting seasonal ice dynamics in satellite imagesSharp contrasts in observed and modeled crevasse patterns at Greenland's marine terminating glaciersVariability in glacier albedo and links to annual mass balance for the gardens of Eden and Allah, Southern Alps, New ZealandRecent glacier and lake changes in High Mountain Asia and their relation to precipitation changesMultisensor validation of tidewater glacier flow fields derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity trackingDetecting dynamics of cave floor ice with selective cloud-to-cloud approachChanges of the tropical glaciers throughout Peru between 2000 and 2016 – mass balance and area fluctuationsIceberg topography and volume classification using TanDEM-X interferometryAutomatically delineating the calving front of Jakobshavn Isbræ from multitemporal TerraSAR-X images: a deep learning approachSensitivity of glacier volume change estimation to DEM void interpolationExtracting recent short-term glacier velocity evolution over southern Alaska and the Yukon from a large collection of Landsat dataChange detection of bare-ice albedo in the Swiss AlpsCharacterizing the behaviour of surge- and non-surge-type glaciers in the Kingata Mountains, eastern Pamir, from 1999 to 2016Automated detection of ice cliffs within supraglacial debris coverBrief communication: Unabated wastage of the Juneau and Stikine icefields (southeast Alaska) in the early 21st century
Maximillian Van Wyk de Vries and Andrew D. Wickert
The Cryosphere, 15, 2115–2132,Short summary
We can measure glacier flow and sliding velocity by tracking patterns on the ice surface in satellite images. The surface velocity of glaciers provides important information to support assessments of glacier response to climate change, to improve regional assessments of ice thickness, and to assist with glacier fieldwork. Our paper describes Glacier Image Velocimetry (GIV), a new, easy-to-use, and open-source toolbox for calculating high-resolution velocity time series for any glacier on earth.
Daniel Cheng, Wayne Hayes, Eric Larour, Yara Mohajerani, Michael Wood, Isabella Velicogna, and Eric Rignot
The Cryosphere, 15, 1663–1675,Short summary
Tracking changes in Greenland's glaciers is important for understanding Earth's climate, but it is time consuming to do so by hand. We train a program, called CALFIN, to automatically track these changes with human levels of accuracy. CALFIN is a special type of program called a neural network. This method can be applied to other glaciers and eventually other tracking tasks. This will enhance our understanding of the Greenland Ice Sheet and permit better models of Earth's climate.
Joseph A. MacGregor, Michael Studinger, Emily Arnold, Carlton J. Leuschen, and Fernando Rodríguez-Morales
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
By leveraging multiple recent global glacier datasets and extending one of them (GlaThiDa), this manuscript constitutes a novel synthesis of information concerning the past performance and future prospects for radar sounding of the thickness of temperate glaciers. A rough empirical envelope for radar performance as a function of center frequency is determined, and the numerous caveats with assessment of this envelope are presented.
Andri Gunnarsson, Sigurdur M. Gardarsson, Finnur Pálsson, Tómas Jóhannesson, and Óli G. B. Sveinsson
The Cryosphere, 15, 547–570,Short summary
Surface albedo quantifies the fraction of the sunlight reflected by the surface of the Earth. During the melt season in the Northern Hemisphere solar energy absorbed by snow- and ice-covered surfaces is mainly controlled by surface albedo. For Icelandic glaciers, air temperature and surface albedo are the dominating factors governing annual variability of glacier surface melt. Satellite data from the MODIS sensor are used to create a data set spanning the glacier melt season.
Bryan Riel, Brent Minchew, and Ian Joughin
The Cryosphere, 15, 407–429,Short summary
The availability of large volumes of publicly available remote sensing data over terrestrial glaciers provides new opportunities for studying the response of glaciers to a changing climate. We present an efficient method for tracking changes in glacier speeds at high spatial and temporal resolutions from surface observations, demonstrating the recovery of traveling waves over Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland. Quantification of wave properties may ultimately enhance understanding of glacier dynamics.
Chad A. Greene, Alex S. Gardner, and Lauren C. Andrews
The Cryosphere, 14, 4365–4378,Short summary
Seasonal variability is a fundamental characteristic of any Earth surface system, but we do not fully understand which of the world's glaciers speed up and slow down on an annual cycle. Such short-timescale accelerations may offer clues about how individual glaciers will respond to longer-term changes in climate, but understanding any behavior requires an ability to observe it. We describe how to use satellite image feature tracking to determine the magnitude and timing of seasonal ice dynamics.
Ellyn M. Enderlin and Timothy C. Bartholomaus
The Cryosphere, 14, 4121–4133,Short summary
Accurate predictions of future changes in glacier flow require the realistic simulation of glacier terminus position change in numerical models. We use crevasse observations for 19 Greenland glaciers to explore whether the two commonly used crevasse depth models match observations. The models cannot reproduce spatial patterns, and we largely attribute discrepancies between modeled and observed depths to the models' inability to account for advection.
Angus J. Dowson, Pascal Sirguey, and Nicolas J. Cullen
The Cryosphere, 14, 3425–3448,Short summary
Satellite observations over 19 years are used to characterise the spatial and temporal variability of surface albedo across the gardens of Eden and Allah, two of New Zealand’s largest ice fields. The variability in response of individual glaciers reveals the role of topographic setting and suggests that glaciers in the Southern Alps do not behave as a single climatic unit. There is evidence that the timing of the minimum surface albedo has shifted to later in the summer on 10 of the 12 glaciers.
Désirée Treichler, Andreas Kääb, Nadine Salzmann, and Chong-Yu Xu
The Cryosphere, 13, 2977–3005,Short summary
Glacier growth such as that found on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is counterintuitive in a warming world. Climate models and meteorological data are conflicting about the reasons for this glacier anomaly. We quantify the glacier changes in High Mountain Asia using satellite laser altimetry as well as the growth of over 1300 inland lakes on the TP. Our study suggests that increased summer precipitation is likely the largest contributor to the recently observed increases in glacier and lake masses.
Christoph Rohner, David Small, Jan Beutel, Daniel Henke, Martin P. Lüthi, and Andreas Vieli
The Cryosphere, 13, 2953–2975,Short summary
The recent increase in ice flow and calving rates of ocean–terminating glaciers contributes substantially to the mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Using in situ reference observations, we validate the satellite–based method of iterative offset tracking of Sentinel–1A data for deriving flow speeds. Our investigations highlight the importance of spatial resolution near the fast–flowing calving front, resulting in significantly higher ice velocities compared to large–scale operational products.
Jozef Šupinský, Ján Kaňuk, Zdenko Hochmuth, and Michal Gallay
The Cryosphere, 13, 2835–2851,Short summary
Cave ice formations can be considered an indicator of long-term changes in the landscape. Using terrestrial laser scanning we generated a time series database of a 3-D cave model. We present a novel approach toward registration of scan missions into a unified coordinate system and methodology for detection of cave floor ice changes. We demonstrate the results of the ice dynamics monitoring correlated with meteorological observations in the Silická ľadnica cave situated in the Slovak Karst.
Thorsten Seehaus, Philipp Malz, Christian Sommer, Stefan Lippl, Alejo Cochachin, and Matthias Braun
The Cryosphere, 13, 2537–2556,Short summary
The glaciers in Peru are strongly affected by climate change and have shown significant ice loss in the last century. We present the first multi-temporal, countrywide quantification of glacier area and ice mass changes. A glacier area loss of −548.5 ± 65.7 km2 (−29 %) and ice mass loss of −7.62 ± 1.05 Gt is obtained for the period 2000–2016. The ice loss rate increased towards the end of the observation period. The glacier changes revealed can be attributed to regional climatic changes and ENSO.
Dyre O. Dammann, Leif E. B. Eriksson, Son V. Nghiem, Erin C. Pettit, Nathan T. Kurtz, John G. Sonntag, Thomas E. Busche, Franz J. Meyer, and Andrew R. Mahoney
The Cryosphere, 13, 1861–1875,Short summary
We validate TanDEM-X interferometry as a tool for deriving iceberg subaerial morphology using Operation IceBridge data. This approach enables a volumetric classification of icebergs, according to volume relevant to iceberg drift and decay, freshwater contribution, and potential impact on structures. We find iceberg volumes to generally match within 7 %. These results suggest that TanDEM-X could pave the way for future interferometric systems of scientific and operational iceberg classification.
Enze Zhang, Lin Liu, and Lingcao Huang
The Cryosphere, 13, 1729–1741,Short summary
Conventionally, calving front positions have been manually delineated from remote sensing images. We design a novel method to automatically delineate the calving front positions of Jakobshavn Isbræ based on deep learning, the first of this kind for Greenland outlet glaciers. We generate high-temporal-resolution (about two measurements every month) calving fronts, demonstrating our methodology can be applied to many other tidewater glaciers through this successful case study on Jakobshavn Isbræ.
Robert McNabb, Christopher Nuth, Andreas Kääb, and Luc Girod
The Cryosphere, 13, 895–910,Short summary
Estimating glacier changes involves measuring elevation changes, often using elevation models derived from satellites. Many elevation models have data gaps (voids), which affect estimates of glacier change. We compare 11 methods for interpolating voids, finding that some methods bias estimates of glacier change by up to 20 %, though most methods have a smaller effect. Some methods produce reliable results even with large void areas, suggesting that noisy elevation data are still useful.
Bas Altena, Ted Scambos, Mark Fahnestock, and Andreas Kääb
The Cryosphere, 13, 795–814,Short summary
Many glaciers in southern Alaska and the Yukon experience changes in flow speed, which occur in episodes or sporadically. These flow changes can be measured with satellites, but the resulting raw velocity products are messy. Thus in this study we developed an automatic method to produce a synthesized velocity product over a large glacier region of roughly 600 km by 200 km. Velocities are at a monthly resolution and at 300 m resolution, making all kinds of glacier dynamics observable.
Kathrin Naegeli, Matthias Huss, and Martin Hoelzle
The Cryosphere, 13, 397–412,Short summary
The paper investigates the temporal changes of bare-ice glacier surface albedo in the Swiss Alps between 1999 and 2016 from a regional to local scale using satellite data. Significant negative trends were found in the lowermost elevations and margins of the ablation zones. Although significant changes of glacier ice albedo are only present over a limited area, we emphasize that albedo feedback will considerably enhance the rate of glacier mass loss in the Swiss Alps in the near future.
Mingyang Lv, Huadong Guo, Xiancai Lu, Guang Liu, Shiyong Yan, Zhixing Ruan, Yixing Ding, and Duncan J. Quincey
The Cryosphere, 13, 219–236,Short summary
We highlight 28 glaciers in the Kingata Mountains, among which 17 have changed markedly over the last decade. We identify four advancing and 13 surge-type glaciers. The dynamic evolution of the surges is similar to that of Karakoram, suggesting that both hydrological and thermal controls are important for surge initiation and recession. Topography seems to be a dominant control on non-surge glacier behaviour. Most glaciers experienced a significant and diverse change in their motion patterns.
Sam Herreid and Francesca Pellicciotti
The Cryosphere, 12, 1811–1829,Short summary
Ice cliffs are steep, bare ice features that can develop on the lower reaches of a glacier where the surface is covered by a layer of rock debris. Debris cover generally slows the rate of glacier melt, but ice cliffs act as small windows of higher rates of melt. It is therefore important to map these features, a process which we have automated. On a global scale, ice cliffs have variable geometries and characteristics. The method we have developed can accommodate this variability automatically.
Etienne Berthier, Christopher Larsen, William J. Durkin, Michael J. Willis, and Matthew E. Pritchard
The Cryosphere, 12, 1523–1530,Short summary
Two recent studies suggested a slowdown in mass loss after 2000 of the Juneau and Stikine icefields, accounting for 10% of the total ice cover in Alaska. Here, the ASTER-based geodetic mass balances are revisited, carefully avoiding the use of the SRTM DEM, because of the unknown penetration depth of the SRTM C-band radar signal. We find strongly negative mass balances from 2000 to 2016 for both icefields, in agreement with airborne laser altimetry. Mass losses are thus continuing unabated.
Adams, E. E., Priscu, J. C., Fritsen, C. H., Smith, S. R., and Brackman, S. L.: Permanent ice covers of the McMurdo Dry Valley Lakes, Antarctica: Bubble formation and metamorphism, in Ecosystem Dynamics in a Polar Desert: The McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, edited by: Priscu, J. C., American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., 281–295, 1998.
Allison, I., Brandt, R. E., and Warren, S. G.: East Antarctic sea ice: Albedo, thickness distribution, and snow cover, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 12417–12429, https://doi.org/10.1029/93JC00648, 1993.
Bagshaw, E. A., Tranter, M., Wadham, J. L., Fountain, A. G., and Basagic, H. J.: Dynamic behaviour of supraglacial lakes on cold polar glaciers: Canada Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, J. Glaciol., 56, 366–368, https://doi.org/10.3189/002214310791968449, 2010.
Bergstrom, A. and Gooseff, M. N.: Landscape Albedo in Taylor Valley, Antarctica from 2015 to 2019, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/728016d29b9a7df1eec1cf1ac9b17c23, 2019.
Bliss, A. K., Cuffey, K. M., and Kavanaugh, J. L.: Sublimation and surface energy budget of Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, J. Glaciol., 57, 684–696, https://doi.org/10.3189/002214311797409767, 2011.
Bøggild, C. E., Brandt, R. E., Brown, K. J., and Warren, S. G.: The ablation zone in northeast Greenland: ice types, albedos and impurities, J. Glaciol., 56, 101–113, https://doi.org/10.3189/002214310791190776, 2010.
Brock, B. W., Willis, I. C., Sharp, M. J., and Arnold, N. S.: Modelling seasonal and spatial variations in the surface energy balance of Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland, Ann. Glaciol., 31, 53–62, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756400781820183, 2000.
Brun, F., Dumont, M., Wagnon, P., Berthier, E., Azam, M. F., Shea, J. M., Sirguey, P., Rabatel, A., and Ramanathan, Al.: Seasonal changes in surface albedo of Himalayan glaciers from MODIS data and links with the annual mass balance, The Cryosphere, 9, 341–355, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-9-341-2015, 2015.
Chapman, W. L. and Walsh, J. E.: A synthesis of Antarctic temperatures, J. Climate, 20, 4096–4117, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4236.1, 2007.
Chinn, T. J.: Recent fluctuations of the Dry Valleys glaciers, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 27, 119–124, 1998.
Doran, P. T. and Fountain, A. G.: McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER: High frequency measurements from Canada Glacier Meteorological Station (CAAM) in Taylor Valley, Antarctica from 1994 to present, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/72b6851a637a29982ae6898a7f61a0eb, 2019a.
Doran, P. T. and Fountain, A. G.: McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER: High frequency measurements from Commonwealth Glacier Meteorological Station (COHM) in Taylor Valley, Antarctica from 1993 to present, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/16a9543aa5a72ead75c40a89038e8f0f, 2019b.
Doran, P. T. and Fountain, A. G.: McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER: High frequency measurements from Lake Bonney Meteorological Station (BOYM) in Taylor Valley, Antarctica from 1993 to present, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/bee9b480f56ed8ea651b03648ee43c8d, 2019c.
Doran, P. T. and Fountain, A. G.: McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER: High frequency measurements from Lake Fryxell Meteorological Station (FRLM) in Taylor Valley, Antarctica from 1993 to present, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/5eded15437054e7f72f2350e98c44717, 2019d.
Doran, P. T. and Fountain, A. G.: McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER: High frequency measurements from Lake Hoare Meteorological Station (HOEM) in Taylor Valley, Antarctica from 1987 to present, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/1dd10a2c705fed76b2017c6a1819b95b, 2019e.
Doran, P. T. and Fountain, A. G.: McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER: High frequency measurements from Taylor Glacier Meteorological Station (TARM) in Taylor Valley, Antarctica from 1994 to present, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/a1df5cdab3319e9adeb18f8448fd363e, 2019f.
Doran, P. T., McKay, C. P., Clow, G. D., Dana, G. L., Fountain, A. G., Nylen, T. H., and Lyons, W. B.: Valley floor climate observations from the McMurdo dry valleys, Antarctica, 1986–2000, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD002045, 2002.
Dumont, M., Sirguey, P., Arnaud, Y., and Six, D.: Monitoring spatial and temporal variations of surface albedo on Saint Sorlin Glacier (French Alps) using terrestrial photography, The Cryosphere, 5, 759–771, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-5-759-2011, 2011.
Dumont, M., Gardelle, J., Sirguey, P., Guillot, A., Six, D., Rabatel, A., and Arnaud, Y.: Linking glacier annual mass balance and glacier albedo retrieved from MODIS data, The Cryosphere, 6, 1527–1539, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-6-1527-2012, 2012.
Fountain, A. G., Lyons, W. B., Burkins, M. B., Dana, G. L., Doran, P. T., Lewis, K. J., McKnight, D. M., Moorhead, D. L., Parsons, A. N., Priscu, J. C., Wall, D. H., Wharton, R. A., and Virginia, R. A.: Physical Controls on the Taylor Valley Ecosystem, Antarctica, Bioscience, 49, 961, https://doi.org/10.2307/1313730, 1999.
Fountain, A. G., Nylen, T. H., Tranter, M., and Bagshaw, E. A.: Temporal variations in physical and chemical features of cryoconite holes on Canada Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Artarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 113, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JG000430, 2008.
Fountain, A. G., Nylen, T. H., Monaghan, A., Basagic, H. J., and Bromwich, D.: Snow in the Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Int. J. Climatol., 35, 633–642, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1933, 2010.
Fountain, A. G., Fernandez-Diaz, J. C., Obryk, M., Levy, J., Gooseff, M., Van Horn, D. J., Morin, P., and Shrestha, R.: High-resolution elevation mapping of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and surrounding regions, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 435–443, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-9-435-2017, 2017.
Fritsen, C. H. and Priscu, J. C.: Seasonal change in the optical properties of the permanent ice cover on Lake Bonney, Antarctica: consequences for lake productivity and phytoplankton dynamics, Limnol. Oceanogr., 44, 447–454, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1999.44.2.0447, 1999.
Gardner, A. S. and Sharp, M. J.: A review of snow and ice albedo and the development of a new physically based broadband albedo parameterization, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth., 115, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JF001444, 2010.
Gooseff, M. N., Barrett, J. E., Adams, B. J., Doran, P. T., Fountain, A. G., Lyons, W. B., McKnight, D. M., Priscu, J. C., Sokol, E. R., Takacs-Vesbach, C. D., Vandegehuchte, M. L., Virginia, R. A., and Wall, D. H.: Decadal ecosystem response to an anomalous melt season in a polar desert in Antarctica, Nat. Ecol. Evol., 1, 1334–1338, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0253-0, 2017.
Grenfell, T. C.: A theoretical model of the optical properties of sea ice in the visible and near infrared, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 88, 9723–9735, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC088iC14p09723, 1983.
Grenfell, T. C.: Seasonal and spatial evolution of albedo in a snow-ice-land-ocean environment, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C01001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC001866, 2004.
Grenfell, T. C. and Maykut, G. A.: The optical properties of ice and snow in the Arctic basin, J. Glaciol., 18, 445–463, 1977.
Grenfell, T. C., Warren, S. G., and Mullen, P. C.: Reflection of solar radiation by the Antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 18669, https://doi.org/10.1029/94JD01484, 1994.
Hoffman, M. J., Fountain, A. G., and Liston, G. E.: Surface energy balance and melt thresholds over 11 years at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 113, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JF001029, 2008.
Hoffman, M. J., Fountain, A. G., and Liston, G. E.: Near-surface internal melting: A substantial mass loss on Antarctic Dry Valley glaciers, J. Glaciol., 60, 361–374, https://doi.org/10.3189/2014JoG13J095, 2014.
Hoffman, M. J., Fountain, A. G., and Liston, G. E.: Distributed modeling of ablation (1996–2011) and climate sensitivity on the glaciers of Taylor Valley, Antarctica, J. Glaciol., 62, 215–229, https://doi.org/10.1017/jog.2015.2, 2016.
Howard-Williams, C., Schwarz, A.-M., Hawes, I., and Priscu, J. C.: Optical Properties of the McMurdo Dry Valley Lakes, Antarctica, in Ecosystem Dynamics in a Polar Desert: The McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarcitca, edited by: Priscu, J. C., Washington D.C., 189–203, 1988.
Key, J. R., Wang, X., Stroeve, J. C., and Fowler, C.: Estimating the cloudy-sky albedo of sea ice and snow from space, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 12489–12497, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD900069, 2001.
Klok, E. J., Greuell, W., and Oerlemans, J.: Temporal and spatial variation of the surface albedo of Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland, as derived from 12 Landsat images, J. Glaciol., 49, 491–502, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756503781830395, 2004.
Knap, W. H. and Oerlemans, J.: The surface albedo of the Greenland ice sheet: satellite-derived and in situ measurements in the Søndre Strømfjord area during the 1991 melt season, J. Glaciol., 42, 364–374, https://doi.org/10.3189/S0022143000004214, 1996.
Knight, C. A. and Knight, N. C.: Superheated ice: true compression fractures and fast internal melting, Science, 178, 613–614, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.178.4061.613, 1972.
Lancaster, N.: Flux of Eolian Sediment in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: A Preliminary Assessment, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 34, 318–323, 2002.
Levy, J.: How big are the McMurdo Dry Valleys? Estimating ice-free area using Landsat image data, Antarct. Sci., 25, 119–120, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102012000727, 2013.
Levy, J. S., Fountain, A. G., Welch, K. A., and Lyons, W. B.: Hypersaline “wet patches” in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL050898, 2012.
Lewis, K. J., Fountain, A. G., and Dana, G. L.: Surface energy balance and meltwater production for a Dry Valley glacier, Taylor Valley, Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 27, 603–609, 1998.
Lhermitte, S., Abermann, J., and Kinnard, C.: Albedo over rough snow and ice surfaces, The Cryosphere, 8, 1069–1086, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-8-1069-2014, 2014.
Malatesta, R. J., Auster, P. L., and Carlin, B. P.: Analysis of transect data for microhabitat correlations and faunal patchiness, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 87, 189–195, 1992.
Male, D. H. and Granger, R. J.: Snow Surface Energy Exchange, Water Resour. Manag., 17, 609–627, 1981.
McKay, C. P., Clow, G. D., Andersen, D. T., and Wharton, R. A.: Light transmission and reflection in perennially ice-covered Lake Hoare, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 20427, https://doi.org/10.1029/94JC01414, 1994.
Mölg, T. and Hardy, D. R.: Ablation and associated energy balance of a horizontal glacier surface on Kilimanjaro, J. Geophys. Res, 109, D16104, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004338, 2004.
Möller, R., Möller, M., Björnsson, H., Gudmundsson, S., Pálsson, F., Oddsson, B., Kukla, P. A., and Schneider, C.: MODIS-derived albedo changes of Vatnajökull (Iceland) due to tephradeposition from the 2004 Grímsvötn eruption, Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs., 26, 256–269, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.08.005, 2014.
Nylen, T. H., Fountain, A. G., and Doran, P. T.: Climatology of katabatic winds in the McMurdo dry valleys, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D03114, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003937, 2004.
Oerlemans, J. and Knap, W. H.: A 1 year record of global radiation and albedo in the ablation zone of Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland, J. Glaciol., 44, 231–238, https://doi.org/10.3189/S0022143000002574, 1998.
Pellicciotti, F., Helbing, J., Rivera, A., Favier, V., Corripio, J., Araos, J., Sicart, J.-E., and Carenzo, M.: A study of the energy balance and melt regime on Juncal Norte Glacier, semi-arid Andes of central Chile, using melt models of different complexity, Hydrol. Process., 22, 3980–3997, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7085, 2008.
Perovich, D. K. and Polashenski, C.: Albedo evolution of seasonal Arctic sea ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051432, 2012.
Pirazzini, R.: Surface albedo measurements over Antarctic sites in summer, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004617, 2004.
Pope, A. and Rees, W. G.: Using in situ spectra to explore landsat classification of glacier surfaces, Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs., 27, 42–52, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.08.007, 2014.
Sabacka, M., Priscu, J. C., Basagic, H. J., Fountain, A. G., Wall, D. H., Virginia, R. A., and Greenwood, M. C.: Aeolian flux of biotic and abiotic material in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, Geomorphology, 155–156, 102–111, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.12.009, 2012.
Schaaf, C. B. and Wang, Z.: MCD43A3 MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Daily L3 Global – 500m V006, Data set, NASA EOSDIS Land Processes DAAC, NASA EOSDIS L. Process. DAAC, https://doi.org/10.5067/MODIS/MCD43A3.006, 2017.
Stroeve, J. C., Nolin, A. W., and Steffen, K.: Comparison of AVHRR-derived and in situ surface albedo over the Greenland ice sheet, Remote Sens. Environ., 62, 262–276, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(97)00107-7, 1997.
Stroeve, J. C., Box, J. E., Gao, F., Liang, S., Nolin, A. W., and Schaaf, C. B.: Accuracy assessment of the MODIS 16-day albedo product for snow: Comparisons with Greenland in situ measurements, Remote Sens. Environ., 94, 46–60, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2004.09.001, 2005.
Warren, S. G.: Optical properties of snow, Rev. Geophys., 20, 67–89, https://doi.org/10.1029/RG020i001p00067, 1982.
Warren, S. G. and Wiscombe, W. J.: A Model for the Spectral Albedo of Snow. II: Snow Containing Atmospheric Aerosols, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2734–2745, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1980)037<2734:AMFTSA>2.0.CO;2, 1980.
Warren, S. G., Brandt, R. E., and O'Rawe Hinton, P.: Effect of surface roughness on bidirectional reflectance of Antarctic snow, J. Geophys. Res.-Planet., 103, 25789–25807, https://doi.org/10.1029/98JE01898, 1998.
Weiser, U., Olefs, M., Schöner, W., Weyss, G., and Hynek, B.: Correction of broadband snow albedo measurements affected by unknown slope and sensor tilts, The Cryosphere, 10, 775–790, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-775-2016, 2016.
Wen, J., Liu, Q., Liu, Q., Xiao, Q., and Li, X.: Scale effect and scale correction of land-surface albedo in rugged terrain, Int. J. Remote Sens., 30, 5397–5420, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160903130903, 2009.
Wharton, R. A., Simmons, G. M., and McKay, C. P.: Perennially ice-covered Lake Hoare, Antarctica: physical environment, biology and sedimentation, Hydrobiologia, 172, 305–320, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00031629, 1989.
Winkler, M., Juen, I., Mölg, T., Wagnon, P., Gómez, J., and Kaser, G.: Measured and modelled sublimation on the tropical Glaciar Artesonraju, Perú, The Cryosphere, 3, 21–30, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-3-21-2009, 2009.
Wiscombe, W. J. and Warren, S. G.: A Model for the Spectral Albedo of Snow, I: Pure Snow, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2712–2733, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1980)037<2712:AMFTSA>2.0.CO;2, 1980.
Wlostowski, A. N., Gooseff, M. N., and Adams, B. J.: Soil Moisture Controls the Thermal Habitat of Active Layer Soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 123, 46–59, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JG004018, 2018.
This study sought to understand patterns of reflectance of visible light across the landscape of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. We used a helicopter-based platform to measure reflectance along an entire valley with a particular focus on the glaciers, as reflectance strongly controls glacier melt and available water to the downstream ecosystem. We found that patterns are controlled by gradients in snowfall, wind redistribution, and landscape structure, which can trap snow and sediment.
This study sought to understand patterns of reflectance of visible light across the landscape of...