Articles | Volume 11, issue 1
The Cryosphere, 11, 541–551, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-11-541-2017
The Cryosphere, 11, 541–551, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-11-541-2017

Research article 15 Feb 2017

Research article | 15 Feb 2017

Models for polythermal ice sheets and glaciers

Ian J. Hewitt and Christian Schoof

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Cited articles

Aschwanden, A., Bueler, E., Khroulev, C., and Blatter, H.: An enthalpy formulation for glaciers and ice sheets, J. Glaciol., 58, 441–457, 2012.
Bercovici, D., Ricard, Y., and Schubert, G.: A two-phase model for compaction and damage. 1. General Theory, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 8887–8906, 2001.
Blatter, H. and Greve, R.: Comparison and verification of enthalpy schemes for polythermal glaciers and ice sheets with a one-dimensional model, Polar Sci., 9, 197–207, 2015.
Brinkerhoff, D. J. and Johnson, J. V.: Data assimilation and prognostic whole ice sheet modelling with the variationally derived, higher order, open source, and fully parallel ice sheet model VarGlaS, The Cryosphere, 7, 1161–1184, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-7-1161-2013, 2013.
Fountain, A. G. and Walder, J. S.: Water flow through temperate glaciers, Rev. Geophys., 36, 299–328, 1998.
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Many glaciers contain ice both below and at the melting temperature. Predicting the evolution of temperature and water content in such ice masses is important because they exert a strong control on the flow of the ice. We present two new models to calculate these quantities, demonstrate a number of example numerical calculations, and compare the results with existing methods. The novelty of the new methods is the inclusion of gravity-driven water transport within the ice.