Articles | Volume 11, issue 1
The Cryosphere, 11, 541–551, 2017
The Cryosphere, 11, 541–551, 2017

Research article 15 Feb 2017

Research article | 15 Feb 2017

Models for polythermal ice sheets and glaciers

Ian J. Hewitt and Christian Schoof

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Cited articles

Aschwanden, A., Bueler, E., Khroulev, C., and Blatter, H.: An enthalpy formulation for glaciers and ice sheets, J. Glaciol., 58, 441–457, 2012.
Bercovici, D., Ricard, Y., and Schubert, G.: A two-phase model for compaction and damage. 1. General Theory, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 8887–8906, 2001.
Blatter, H. and Greve, R.: Comparison and verification of enthalpy schemes for polythermal glaciers and ice sheets with a one-dimensional model, Polar Sci., 9, 197–207, 2015.
Brinkerhoff, D. J. and Johnson, J. V.: Data assimilation and prognostic whole ice sheet modelling with the variationally derived, higher order, open source, and fully parallel ice sheet model VarGlaS, The Cryosphere, 7, 1161–1184,, 2013.
Fountain, A. G. and Walder, J. S.: Water flow through temperate glaciers, Rev. Geophys., 36, 299–328, 1998.
Short summary
Many glaciers contain ice both below and at the melting temperature. Predicting the evolution of temperature and water content in such ice masses is important because they exert a strong control on the flow of the ice. We present two new models to calculate these quantities, demonstrate a number of example numerical calculations, and compare the results with existing methods. The novelty of the new methods is the inclusion of gravity-driven water transport within the ice.