Articles | Volume 11, issue 1
The Cryosphere, 11, 541–551, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-11-541-2017
The Cryosphere, 11, 541–551, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-11-541-2017

Research article 15 Feb 2017

Research article | 15 Feb 2017

Models for polythermal ice sheets and glaciers

Ian J. Hewitt and Christian Schoof

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Latest update: 25 Oct 2021
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Short summary
Many glaciers contain ice both below and at the melting temperature. Predicting the evolution of temperature and water content in such ice masses is important because they exert a strong control on the flow of the ice. We present two new models to calculate these quantities, demonstrate a number of example numerical calculations, and compare the results with existing methods. The novelty of the new methods is the inclusion of gravity-driven water transport within the ice.