Articles | Volume 15, issue 6
Research article 22 Jun 2021
Research article | 22 Jun 2021
Implications of surface flooding on airborne estimates of snow depth on sea ice
Anja Rösel et al.
No articles found.
Thomas Krumpen, Luisa von Albedyll, Helge F. Goessling, Stefan Hendricks, Bennet Juhls, Gunnar Spreen, Sascha Willmes, H. Jakob Belter, Klaus Dethloff, Christian Haas, Lars Kaleschke, Christian Katlein, Xiangshan Tian-Kunze, Robert Ricker, Philip Rostosky, Janna Rückert, Suman Singha, and Julia Sokolova
The Cryosphere, 15, 3897–3920,Short summary
We use satellite data records collected along the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) drift to categorize ice conditions that shaped and characterized the floe and surroundings during the expedition. A comparison with previous years is made whenever possible. The aim of this analysis is to provide a basis and reference for subsequent research in the six main research areas of atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, biogeochemistry, remote sensing and ecology.
Michele Bertò, David Cappelletti, Elena Barbaro, Cristiano Varin, Jean-Charles Gallet, Krzysztof Markowicz, Anna Rozwadowska, Mauro Mazzola, Stefano Crocchianti, Luisa Poto, Paolo Laj, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12479–12493,Short summary
We present the daily and seasonal variability in black carbon (BC) in surface snow inferred from two specific experiments based on the hourly and daily time resolution sampling during the Arctic spring in Svalbard. These unique data sets give us, for the first time, the opportunity to evaluate the associations between the observed surface snow BC mass concentration and a set of predictors corresponding to the considered meteorological and snow physico-chemical parameters.
Susanne Crewell, Kerstin Ebell, Patrick Konjari, Mario Mech, Tatiana Nomokonova, Ana Radovan, David Strack, Arantxa M. Triana-Gómez, Stefan Noël, Raul Scarlat, Gunnar Spreen, Marion Maturilli, Annette Rinke, Irina Gorodetskaya, Carolina Viceto, Thomas August, and Marc Schröder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4829–4856,Short summary
Water vapor (WV) is an important variable in the climate system. Satellite measurements are thus crucial to characterize the spatial and temporal variability in WV and how it changed over time. In particular with respect to the observed strong Arctic warming, the role of WV still needs to be better understood. However, as shown in this paper, a detailed understanding is still hampered by large uncertainties in the various satellite WV products, showing the need for improved methods to derive WV.
Alexander Mchedlishvili, Gunnar Spreen, Christian Melsheimer, and Marcus Huntemann
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
In this manuscript we have shown that the activity leading to the Weddell Sea Polynya that is known to have occurred in repeatedly from 1974–1976 as well as 2016–2017 does not simply stop for polynya-free years. Using sea ice thickness retrieval, which allows us to assess the thickness of sea ice up to 50 cm, we have identified anomalies where there is a thinning of sea ice on the scale that is comparable to the polynya events of 2016–2017, that have taken place 2010, 2013, 2014 and 2018.
Robbie D. C. Mallett, Julienne C. Stroeve, Michel Tsamados, Jack C. Landy, Rosemary Willatt, Vishnu Nandan, and Glen E. Liston
The Cryosphere, 15, 2429–2450,Short summary
We re-estimate pan-Arctic sea ice thickness (SIT) values by combining data from the Envisat and CryoSat-2 missions with data from a new, reanalysis-driven snow model. Because a decreasing amount of ice is being hidden below the waterline by the weight of overlying snow, we argue that SIT may be declining faster than previously calculated in some regions. Because the snow product varies from year to year, our new SIT calculations also display much more year-to-year variability.
Renée Mie Fredensborg Hansen, Eero Rinne, Sinéad Louise Farrell, and Henriette Skourup
The Cryosphere, 15, 2511–2529,Short summary
Ice navigators rely on timely information about ice conditions to ensure safe passage through ice-covered waters, and one parameter, the degree of ice ridging (DIR), is particularly useful. We have investigated the possibility of estimating DIR from the geolocated photons of ICESat-2 (IS2) in the Bay of Bothnia, show that IS2 retrievals from different DIR areas differ significantly, and present some of the first steps in creating sea ice applications beyond e.g. thickness retrieval.
Rasmus T. Tonboe, Vishnu Nandan, John Yackel, Stefan Kern, Leif Toudal Pedersen, and Julienne Stroeve
The Cryosphere, 15, 1811–1822,Short summary
A relationship between the Ku-band radar scattering horizon and snow depth is found using a radar scattering model. This relationship has implications for (1) the use of snow climatology in the conversion of satellite radar freeboard into sea ice thickness and (2) the impact of variability in measured snow depth on the derived ice thickness. For both 1 and 2, the impact of using a snow climatology versus the actual snow depth is relatively small.
Yu Zhang, Tingting Zhu, Gunnar Spreen, Christian Melsheimer, Marcus Huntemann, Nick Hughes, Shengkai Zhang, and Fei Li
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
We developed an algorithm for ice-water classification using Sentinel-1 data during melting seasons in the Fram Strait. The proposed algorithm has the OA of nearly 90 % with STD less than 10 %. The comparison of sea ice concentration demonstrate that it can provide detailed information of sea ice with the spatial resolution of 1km. The time series shows the average June to September sea ice area does not change so much in 2015–2017 and 2019–2020, but it has a significant decrease in 2018.
Elena Barbaro, Krystyna Koziol, Mats P. Björkman, Carmen P. Vega, Christian Zdanowicz, Tonu Martma, Jean-Charles Gallet, Daniel Kępski, Catherine Larose, Bartłomiej Luks, Florian Tolle, Thomas V. Schuler, Aleksander Uszczyk, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3163–3180,Short summary
This paper shows the most comprehensive seasonal snow chemistry survey to date, carried out in April 2016 across 22 sites on 7 glaciers across Svalbard. The dataset consists of the concentration, mass loading, spatial and altitudinal distribution of major ion species (Ca2+, K+, Na2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42−, Br−, Cl− and NO3−), together with its stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition (δ18O and δ2H) in the snowpack. This study was part of the larger Community Coordinated Snow Study in Svalbard.
Christian Zdanowicz, Jean-Charles Gallet, Mats P. Björkman, Catherine Larose, Thomas Schuler, Bartłomiej Luks, Krystyna Koziol, Andrea Spolaor, Elena Barbaro, Tõnu Martma, Ward van Pelt, Ulla Wideqvist, and Johan Ström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3035–3057,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) aerosols are soot-like particles which, when transported to the Arctic, darken snow surfaces, thus indirectly affecting climate. Information on BC in Arctic snow is needed to measure their impact and monitor the efficacy of pollution-reduction policies. This paper presents a large new set of BC measurements in snow in Svalbard collected between 2007 and 2018. It describes how BC in snow varies across the archipelago and explores some factors controlling these variations.
Julienne Stroeve, Vishnu Nandan, Rosemary Willatt, Rasmus Tonboe, Stefan Hendricks, Robert Ricker, James Mead, Robbie Mallett, Marcus Huntemann, Polona Itkin, Martin Schneebeli, Daniela Krampe, Gunnar Spreen, Jeremy Wilkinson, Ilkka Matero, Mario Hoppmann, and Michel Tsamados
The Cryosphere, 14, 4405–4426,Short summary
This study provides a first look at the data collected by a new dual-frequency Ka- and Ku-band in situ radar over winter sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. The instrument shows potential for using both bands to retrieve snow depth over sea ice, as well as sensitivity of the measurements to changing snow and atmospheric conditions.
Larysa Istomina, Henrik Marks, Marcus Huntemann, Georg Heygster, and Gunnar Spreen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6459–6472,
Bronwen L. Konecky, Nicholas P. McKay, Olga V. Churakova (Sidorova), Laia Comas-Bru, Emilie P. Dassié, Kristine L. DeLong, Georgina M. Falster, Matt J. Fischer, Matthew D. Jones, Lukas Jonkers, Darrell S. Kaufman, Guillaume Leduc, Shreyas R. Managave, Belen Martrat, Thomas Opel, Anais J. Orsi, Judson W. Partin, Hussein R. Sayani, Elizabeth K. Thomas, Diane M. Thompson, Jonathan J. Tyler, Nerilie J. Abram, Alyssa R. Atwood, Olivier Cartapanis, Jessica L. Conroy, Mark A. Curran, Sylvia G. Dee, Michael Deininger, Dmitry V. Divine, Zoltán Kern, Trevor J. Porter, Samantha L. Stevenson, Lucien von Gunten, and Iso2k Project Members
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2261–2288,
Lisa Claire Orme, Xavier Crosta, Arto Miettinen, Dmitry V. Divine, Katrine Husum, Elisabeth Isaksson, Lukas Wacker, Rahul Mohan, Olivier Ther, and Minoru Ikehara
Clim. Past, 16, 1451–1467,Short summary
A record of past sea temperature in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, spanning the last 14 200 years, has been developed by analysis of fossil diatoms in marine sediment. During the late deglaciation the reconstructed temperature changes were highly similar to those over Antarctica, most likely due to a reorganisation of global ocean and atmospheric circulation. During the last 11 600 years temperatures gradually cooled and became increasingly variable.
Arantxa M. Triana-Gómez, Georg Heygster, Christian Melsheimer, Gunnar Spreen, Monia Negusini, and Boyan H. Petkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3697–3715,Short summary
In the Arctic, in situ measurements are sparse and standard remote sensing retrieval methods have problems. We present advances in a retrieval algorithm for vertically integrated water vapour tuned for polar regions. In addition to the initial sensor used (AMSU-B), we can now also use data from the successor instrument (MHS). Additionally, certain artefacts are now filtered out. Comparison with radiosondes shows the overall good performance of the updated algorithm.
Michele Bertò, David Cappelletti, Elena Barbaro, Cristiano Varin, Jean-Charles Gallet, Krzysztof Markowicz, Anna Rozwadowska, Mauro Mazzola, Stefano Crocchianti, Luisa Poto, Paolo Laj, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We present the daily and seasonal variability of Black carbon inferred from two specific experiment based on the hourly and daily time resolution sampling strategy. These unique datasets give us for the first time the opportunity to evaluate the associations between the observed surface snow rBC mass concentration and a set of predictors corresponding to the considered meteorological and snow physico-chemical parameters, via a multiple linear regression approach.
Xiaoyong Yu, Annette Rinke, Wolfgang Dorn, Gunnar Spreen, Christof Lüpkes, Hiroshi Sumata, and Vladimir M. Gryanik
The Cryosphere, 14, 1727–1746,Short summary
This study presents an evaluation of Arctic sea ice drift speed for the period 2003–2014 in a state-of-the-art coupled regional model for the Arctic, called HIRHAM–NAOSIM. In particular, the dependency of the drift speed on the near-surface wind speed and sea ice conditions is presented. Effects of sea ice form drag included by an improved parameterization of the transfer coefficients for momentum and heat over sea ice are discussed.
Christine Pohl, Larysa Istomina, Steffen Tietsche, Evelyn Jäkel, Johannes Stapf, Gunnar Spreen, and Georg Heygster
The Cryosphere, 14, 165–182,Short summary
A spectral to broadband conversion is developed empirically that can be used in combination with the Melt Pond Detector algorithm to derive broadband albedo (300–3000 nm) of Arctic sea ice from MERIS data. It is validated and shows better performance compared to existing conversion methods. A comparison of MERIS broadband albedo with respective values from ERA5 reanalysis suggests a revision of the albedo values used in ERA5. MERIS albedo might be useful for improving albedo representation.
Tine Nilsen, Dmitry V. Divine, Annika Hofgaard, Andreas Born, Johann Jungclaus, and Igor Drobyshev
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Using a set of three climate model simulations we cannot find a consistent relationship between atmospheric conditions favorable for forest fire activity in northern Scandinavia and weaker ocean circulation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre on seasonal timescales. In the literature there is support of such a relationship for longer timescales. With the motivation to improve seasonal prediction systems, we conclude that the gyre circulation alone does not indicate forthcoming model drought.
Valentin Ludwig, Gunnar Spreen, Christian Haas, Larysa Istomina, Frank Kauker, and Dmitrii Murashkin
The Cryosphere, 13, 2051–2073,Short summary
Sea-ice concentration, the fraction of an area covered by sea ice, can be observed from satellites with different methods. We combine two methods to obtain a product which is better than either of the input measurements alone. The benefit of our product is demonstrated by observing the formation of an open water area which can now be observed with more detail. Additionally, we find that the open water area formed because the sea ice drifted in the opposite direction and faster than usual.
Caixin Wang, Robert M. Graham, Keguang Wang, Sebastian Gerland, and Mats A. Granskog
The Cryosphere, 13, 1661–1679,Short summary
A warm bias and higher total precipitation and snowfall were found in ERA5 compared with ERA-Interim (ERA-I) over Arctic sea ice. The warm bias in ERA5 was larger in the cold season when 2 m air temperature was < −25 °C and smaller in the warm season than in ERA-I. Substantial anomalous Arctic rainfall in ERA-I was reduced in ERA5, particularly in summer and autumn. When using ERA5 and ERA-I to force a 1-D sea ice model, the effects on ice growth are very small (cm) during the freezing period.
Elena Barbaro, Cristiano Varin, Xanthi Pedeli, Jean Marc Christille, Torben Kirchgeorg, Fabio Giardi, David Cappelletti, Clara Turetta, Andrea Gambaro, Andrea Bernagozzi, Jean Charles Gallet, Mats P. Björkman, and Andrea Spolaor
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Cătălin Paţilea, Georg Heygster, Marcus Huntemann, and Gunnar Spreen
The Cryosphere, 13, 675–691,Short summary
Sea ice thickness is important for representing atmosphere–ocean interactions in climate models. A validated satellite sea ice thickness measurement algorithm is transferred to a new sensor. The results offer a better temporal and spatial coverage of satellite measurements in the polar regions. Here we describe the calibration procedure between the two sensors, taking into account their technical differences. In addition a new filter for interference from artificial radio sources is implemented.
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Tine Nilsen, Johannes P. Werner, Dmitry V. Divine, and Martin Rypdal
Clim. Past, 14, 947–967,Short summary
The BARCAST climate field reconstruction method is tested using synthetic data experiments. It is demonstrated that the output reconstructions have altered statistical properties compared with the input data, but they are also not necessarily consistent with the model assumption of the reconstruction method. The conclusion is that the statistical properties of a reconstruction not only reflect the statistics of the real climate, but they may very well be affected by the manipulation of the data.
Aleksey Malinka, Eleonora Zege, Larysa Istomina, Georg Heygster, Gunnar Spreen, Donald Perovich, and Chris Polashenski
The Cryosphere, 12, 1921–1937,Short summary
Melt ponds occupy a large part of the Arctic sea ice in summer and strongly affect the radiative budget of the atmosphere–ice–ocean system. The melt pond reflectance is modeled in the framework of the radiative transfer theory and validated with field observations. It improves understanding of melting sea ice and enables better parameterization of the surface in Arctic atmospheric remote sensing (clouds, aerosols, trace gases) and re-evaluating Arctic climatic feedbacks at a new accuracy level.
Meri M. Ruppel, Joana Soares, Jean-Charles Gallet, Elisabeth Isaksson, Tõnu Martma, Jonas Svensson, Jack Kohler, Christina A. Pedersen, Sirkku Manninen, Atte Korhola, and Johan Ström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12779–12795,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) deposition enhances Arctic warming and melting. We present Svalbard ice core BC data from 2005 to 2015, comparing the results with chemical transport model data. The ice core and modelled BC deposition trends clearly deviate from measured and observed atmospheric concentration trends, and thus meteorological processes such as precipitation and scavenging efficiency seem to have a stronger influence on the BC deposition trend than BC emission or atmospheric concentration trends.
Gunnar Spreen, Ron Kwok, Dimitris Menemenlis, and An T. Nguyen
The Cryosphere, 11, 1553–1573,
John Faulkner Burkhart, Arve Kylling, Crystal B. Schaaf, Zhuosen Wang, Wiley Bogren, Rune Storvold, Stian Solbø, Christina A. Pedersen, and Sebastian Gerland
The Cryosphere, 11, 1575–1589,Short summary
We present the first use of spectrometer measurements from a drone to assess reflectance and albedo over the Greenland Ice Sheet. In order to measure albedo – a critical parameter in the earth's energy balance – a drone was flown along 200 km transects coincident with Terra and Aqua satellites flying MODIS. We present a direct comparison of UAV-measured reflectance with satellite data over Greenland and provide a new method to study cryospheric surfaces using UAV with spectral instruments.
Ane S. Fors, Dmitry V. Divine, Anthony P. Doulgeris, Angelika H. H. Renner, and Sebastian Gerland
The Cryosphere, 11, 755–771,Short summary
This paper investigates the signature of melt ponds in satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. A comparison between helicopter-borne images of drifting first-year ice and polarimetric X-band SAR images shows relations between observed melt pond fraction and several polarimetric SAR features. Melt ponds strongly influence the Arctic sea ice energy budget, and the results imply prospective opportunities for expanded monitoring of melt ponds from space.
Paul Vallelonga, Niccolo Maffezzoli, Andrew D. Moy, Mark A. J. Curran, Tessa R. Vance, Ross Edwards, Gwyn Hughes, Emily Barker, Gunnar Spreen, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, J. Pablo Corella, Carlos A. Cuevas, and Andrea Spolaor
Clim. Past, 13, 171–184,Short summary
We present a study of bromine, iodine and sodium in an ice core from Law Dome, in coastal East Antarctica. We find that bromine and iodine variability at Law Dome is correlated to changes in the area of sea ice along the Law Dome coast as observed by satellite since the early 1970s. These findings are in agreement with a previous study based on MSA and confirm a long-term trend of sea ice decrease for this sector of Antarctica over the 20th century.
T. Krumpen, R. Gerdes, C. Haas, S. Hendricks, A. Herber, V. Selyuzhenok, L. Smedsrud, and G. Spreen
The Cryosphere, 10, 523–534,Short summary
We present an extensive data set of ground-based and airborne electromagnetic ice thickness measurements covering Fram Strait in summer between 2001 and 2012. An investigation of back trajectories of surveyed sea ice using satellite-based sea ice motion data allows us to examine the connection between thickness variability, ice age and source area. In addition, we determine across and along strait gradients in ice thickness and associated volume fluxes.
A. Spolaor, T. Opel, J. R. McConnell, O. J. Maselli, G. Spreen, C. Varin, T. Kirchgeorg, D. Fritzsche, A. Saiz-Lopez, and P. Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 10, 245–256,Short summary
The role of sea ice in the Earth climate system is still under debate, although it is known to influence albedo, ocean circulation, and atmosphere-ocean heat and gas exchange. Here we present a reconstruction of 1950 to 1998 AD sea ice in the Laptev Sea based on the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic) and halogen measurements. The results suggest a connection between bromine and sea ice, as well as a connection between iodine concentration in snow and summer sea ice.
Related subject area
Discipline: Snow | Subject: Field StudiesEvaluating a prediction system for snow managementA low-cost method for monitoring snow characteristics at remote field sitesThe RHOSSA campaign: multi-resolution monitoring of the seasonal evolution of the structure and mechanical stability of an alpine snowpackMeasurement of specific surface area of fresh solid precipitation particles in heavy snowfall regions of JapanThe evolution of snow bedforms in the Colorado Front Range and the processes that shape themEstimating the snow water equivalent on a glacierized high elevation site (Forni Glacier, Italy)Snowmobile impacts on snowpack physical and mechanical properties
Pirmin Philipp Ebner, Franziska Koch, Valentina Premier, Carlo Marin, Florian Hanzer, Carlo Maria Carmagnola, Hugues François, Daniel Günther, Fabiano Monti, Olivier Hargoaa, Ulrich Strasser, Samuel Morin, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere, 15, 3949–3973,Short summary
A service to enable real-time optimization of grooming and snow-making at ski resorts was developed and evaluated using both GNSS-measured snow depth and spaceborne snow maps derived from Copernicus Sentinel-2. The correlation to the ground observation data was high. Potential sources for the overestimation of the snow depth by the simulations are mainly the impact of snow redistribution by skiers, compensation of uneven terrain, or spontaneous local adaptions of the snow management.
Rosamond J. Tutton and Robert G. Way
The Cryosphere, 15, 1–15,Short summary
Snow cover is critical to everyday life for people around the globe. Regular measurements of snow cover usually occur only in larger communities because snow monitoring equipment is costly. In this study, we developed a new low-cost method for estimating snow depth and tested it continuously for 1 year at six remote field locations in coastal Labrador, Canada. Field testing suggests that this new method provides a promising option for researchers in need of a low-cost snow measurement system.
Neige Calonne, Bettina Richter, Henning Löwe, Cecilia Cetti, Judith ter Schure, Alec Van Herwijnen, Charles Fierz, Matthias Jaggi, and Martin Schneebeli
The Cryosphere, 14, 1829–1848,Short summary
During winter 2015–2016, the standard program to monitor the structure and stability of the snowpack at Weissflujoch, Swiss Alps, was complemented by additional measurements to compare between various traditional and newly developed techniques. Snow micro-penetrometer measurements allowed monitoring of the evolution of the snowpack's internal structure at a daily resolution throughout the winter. We show the potential of such high-resolution data for detailed evaluations of snowpack models.
Satoru Yamaguchi, Masaaki Ishizaka, Hiroki Motoyoshi, Sent Nakai, Vincent Vionnet, Teruo Aoki, Katsuya Yamashita, Akihiro Hashimoto, and Akihiro Hachikubo
The Cryosphere, 13, 2713–2732,Short summary
The specific surface area (SSA) of solid precipitation particles (PPs) includes detailed information of PP. This work is based on field measurement of SSA of PPs in Nagaoka, the city with the heaviest snowfall in Japan. The values of SSA strongly depend on wind speed (WS) and wet-bulb temperature (Tw) on the ground. An equation to empirically estimate the SSA of fresh PPs with WS and Tw was established and the equation successfully reproduced the fluctuation of SSA in Nagaoka.
Kelly Kochanski, Robert S. Anderson, and Gregory E. Tucker
The Cryosphere, 13, 1267–1281,Short summary
Wind-blown snow does not lie flat. It forms dunes, ripples, and anvil-shaped sastrugi. These features ornament much of the snow on Earth and change the snow's effects on polar climates, but they have rarely been studied. We spent three winters watching snow move through the Colorado Front Range and present our findings here, including the first time-lapse videos of snow dune and sastrugi growth.
Antonella Senese, Maurizio Maugeri, Eraldo Meraldi, Gian Pietro Verza, Roberto Sergio Azzoni, Chiara Compostella, and Guglielmina Diolaiuti
The Cryosphere, 12, 1293–1306,Short summary
We present and compare 11 years of snow data measured by an automatic weather station and corroborated by data from field campaigns on the Forni Glacier in Italy. The methodology we present is interesting for remote locations such as glaciers or high alpine regions, as it makes it possible to estimate the total snow water equivalent (SWE) using a relatively inexpensive, low-power, low-maintenance, and reliable instrument such as the sonic ranger.
Steven R. Fassnacht, Jared T. Heath, Niah B. H. Venable, and Kelly J. Elder
The Cryosphere, 12, 1121–1135,Short summary
We conducted a series of experiments to determine how snowpack properties change with varying snowmobile traffic. Experiments were initiated at a shallow (30 cm) and deep (120 cm) snow depth at two locations. Except for initiation at 120 cm, snowmobiles significantly changed the density, hardness, ram resistance, and basal layer crystal size. Temperature was not changed. A density change model was developed and tested. The results inform management of lands with snowmobile traffic.
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Recent observations in the Arctic suggest a significant shift towards a snow–ice regime caused by deep snow on thin sea ice which may result in a flooding of the snowpack. These conditions cause the brine wicking and saturation of the basal snow layers which lead to a subsequent underestimation of snow depth from snow radar mesurements. As a consequence the calculated sea ice thickness will be biased towards higher values.
Recent observations in the Arctic suggest a significant shift towards a snow–ice regime caused...