Articles | Volume 14, issue 7
The Cryosphere, 14, 2515–2535, 2020
The Cryosphere, 14, 2515–2535, 2020
Research article
31 Jul 2020
Research article | 31 Jul 2020

The contrasting response of outlet glaciers to interior and ocean forcing

John Erich Christian et al.

Related authors

A probabilistic framework for quantifying the role of anthropogenic climate change in marine-terminating glacier retreats
John Erich Christian, Alexander A. Robel, and Ginny Catania
The Cryosphere Discuss.,,, 2022
Revised manuscript under review for TC
Short summary
On the attribution of industrial-era glacier mass loss to anthropogenic climate change
Gerard H. Roe, John Erich Christian, and Ben Marzeion
The Cryosphere, 15, 1889–1905,,, 2021
Short summary

Related subject area

Discipline: Glaciers | Subject: Numerical Modelling
Modelling supraglacial debris-cover evolution from the single-glacier to the regional scale: an application to High Mountain Asia
Loris Compagno, Matthias Huss, Evan Stewart Miles, Michael James McCarthy, Harry Zekollari, Amaury Dehecq, Francesca Pellicciotti, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 16, 1697–1718,,, 2022
Short summary
The 21st-century fate of the Mocho-Choshuenco ice cap in southern Chile
Matthias Scheiter, Marius Schaefer, Eduardo Flández, Deniz Bozkurt, and Ralf Greve
The Cryosphere, 15, 3637–3654,,, 2021
Short summary
Modelling steady states and the transient response of debris-covered glaciers
James C. Ferguson and Andreas Vieli
The Cryosphere, 15, 3377–3399,,, 2021
Short summary
Twentieth century global glacier mass change: an ensemble-based model reconstruction
Jan-Hendrik Malles and Ben Marzeion
The Cryosphere, 15, 3135–3157,,, 2021
Short summary
Mapping the age of ice of Gauligletscher combining surface radionuclide contamination and ice flow modeling
Guillaume Jouvet, Stefan Röllin, Hans Sahli, José Corcho, Lars Gnägi, Loris Compagno, Dominik Sidler, Margit Schwikowski, Andreas Bauder, and Martin Funk
The Cryosphere, 14, 4233–4251,,, 2020
Short summary

Cited articles

Abram, N. J., McGregor, H. V., Tierney, J. E., Evans, M. N., McKay, N. P., Kaufman, D. S., Thirumalai, K., Martrat, B., Goosse, H., Phipps, S. J., Steig, E. J., Kilbourne, K. H., Saenger, C. P., Zinke, J., Leduc, G., Addison, J. A., Mortyn, P. G., Seidenkrantz, M. S., Sicre, M. A., Selvaraj, K., Filipsson, H. L., Neukom, R., Gergis, J., Curran, M. A., and Von Gunten, L.: Early onset of industrial-era warming across the oceans and continents, Nature, 536, 411–418,, 2016. a
Andresen, C. S., Straneo, F., Ribergaard, M. H., Bjørk, A. A., Andersen, T. J., Kuijpers, A., Nørgaard-Pedersen, N., Kjær, K. H., Schjøth, F., Weckström, K., and Ahlstrøm, A. P.: Rapid response of Helheim Glacier in Greenland to climate variability over the past century, Nat. Geosci., 5, 37–41,, 2012. a
Armour, K. C. and Roe, G. H.: Climate commitment in an uncertain world, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, F02030,, 2011. a
Aschwanden, A., Fahnestock, M. A., Truffer, M., Brinkerhoff, D. J., Hock, R., Khroulev, C., Mottram, R., and Abbas Khan, S.: Contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet to sea level over the next millennium, Sci. Adv., 5, eaav9396,, 2019. a, b
Bindschadler, R. A., Nowicki, S., Abe-OUCHI, A., Aschwanden, A., Choi, H., Fastook, J., Granzow, G., Greve, R., Gutowski, G., Herzfeld, U., Jackson, C., Johnson, J., Khroulev, C., Levermann, A., Lipscomb, W. H., Martin, M. A., Morlighem, M., Parizek, B. R., Pollard, D., Price, S. F., Ren, D., Saito, F., Sato, T., Seddik, H., Seroussi, H., Takahashi, K., Walker, R., and Wang, W. L.: Ice-sheet model sensitivities to environmental forcing and their use in projecting future sea level (the SeaRISE project), J. Glaciol., 59, 195–224,, 2013. a
Short summary
We use simple, physics-based models to compare how marine-terminating glaciers respond to changes at their marine margin vs. inland surface melt. Initial glacier retreat is more rapid for ocean changes than for inland changes, but in both cases, glaciers will continue responding for millennia. We analyze several implications of these differing pathways of change. In particular, natural ocean variability must be better understood to correctly identify the anthropogenic role in glacier retreat.