Articles | Volume 13, issue 4
The Cryosphere, 13, 1325–1347, 2019
The Cryosphere, 13, 1325–1347, 2019

Research article 24 Apr 2019

Research article | 24 Apr 2019

Winter tourism under climate change in the Pyrenees and the French Alps: relevance of snowmaking as a technical adaptation

Pierre Spandre et al.

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Cited articles

Abegg, B., Agrawala, S., Crick, F., and de Montfalcon, A.: Climate change impacts and adaptation in winter tourism, in: Climate Change in the European Alps, edited by: Agrawala, S., OECD Paris, 25–60,, 2007. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j
Beniston, M., Farinotti, D., Stoffel, M., Andreassen, L. M., Coppola, E., Eckert, N., Fantini, A., Giacona, F., Hauck, C., Huss, M., Huwald, H., Lehning, M., López-Moreno, J.-I., Magnusson, J., Marty, C., Morán-Tejéda, E., Morin, S., Naaim, M., Provenzale, A., Rabatel, A., Six, D., Stötter, J., Strasser, U., Terzago, S., and Vincent, C.: The European mountain cryosphere: a review of its current state, trends, and future challenges, The Cryosphere, 12, 759–794,, 2018. a
Breiling, M. and Charamza, P.: The impact of global warming on winter tourism and skiing: a regionalised model for Austrian snow conditions, Reg. Environ. Change, 1, 4–14,, 1999. a, b
Brun, E., David, P., Sudul, M., and Brunot, G.: A numerical model to simulate snow-cover stratigraphy for operational avalanche forecasting, J. Glaciol., 38, 13–22, 1992. a
Damm, A., Greuell, W., Landgren, O., and Prettenthaler, F.: Impacts of +2C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe, Climate Services, 7, 31–46,, 2017. a, b
Short summary
This study investigates the snow reliability of 175 ski resorts in the Pyrenees (France, Spain and Andorra) and the French Alps under past and future conditions (1950–2100) using state-of-the-art climate projections and snowpack modelling accounting for snow management, i.e. grooming and snowmaking. The snow reliability of ski resorts shows strong elevation and regional differences, and our study quantifies changes in snow reliability induced by snowmaking under various climate scenarios.