Articles | Volume 10, issue 3
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Past ice-sheet behaviour: retreat scenarios and changing controls in the Ross Sea, Antarctica
Anna Ruth W. Halberstadt
Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA
Lauren M. Simkins
Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA
Sarah L. Greenwood
Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
John B. Anderson
Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA
No articles found.
Allison P. Lepp, Lauren E. Miller, John B. Anderson, Matt O'Regan, Monica C. M. Winsborrow, James A. Smith, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Julia S. Wellner, Lindsay O. Prothro, and Evgeny A. Podolskiy
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
Shape and surface textures of silt-sized sediments are measured to connect marine sediment records with subglacial water flow. We find grain-shape alteration is greatest for glaciers in temperate settings and for which high-energy drainage events are implied, and that the surfaces of silt-sized sediments preserve evidence of glacial transport. Our results suggest grain shape and texture may reveal whether glaciers previously experienced temperate conditions with more abundant meltwater.
Kelly A. Hogan, Robert D. Larter, Alastair G. C. Graham, Robert Arthern, James D. Kirkham, Rebecca L. Totten, Tom A. Jordan, Rachel Clark, Victoria Fitzgerald, Anna K. Wåhlin, John B. Anderson, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Frank O. Nitsche, Lauren Simkins, James A. Smith, Karsten Gohl, Jan Erik Arndt, Jongkuk Hong, and Julia Wellner
The Cryosphere, 14, 2883–2908,Short summary
The sea-floor geometry around the rapidly changing Thwaites Glacier is a key control on warm ocean waters reaching the ice shelf and grounding zone beyond. This area was previously unsurveyed due to icebergs and sea-ice cover. The International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration mapped this area for the first time in 2019. The data reveal troughs over 1200 m deep and, as this region is thought to have only ungrounded recently, provide key insights into the morphology beneath the grounded ice sheet.
Martin Jakobsson, Christian Stranne, Matt O'Regan, Sarah L. Greenwood, Bo Gustafsson, Christoph Humborg, and Elizabeth Weidner
Ocean Sci., 15, 905–924,Short summary
The bottom topography of the Baltic Sea is analysed using the digital depth model from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) published in 2018. Analyses include depth distribution vs. area and seafloor depth variation on a kilometre scale. The limits for the Baltic Sea and analysed sub-basins are from HELCOM. EMODnet is compared with the previously most widely used depth model and the area of deep water exchange between the Bothnian Sea and the Northern Baltic Proper.
Lauren M. Simkins, Sarah L. Greenwood, and John B. Anderson
The Cryosphere, 12, 2707–2726,Short summary
Using thousands of grounding line landforms in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, we observe two distinct landform types associated with contrasting styles of grounding line retreat. We characterise landform morphology, examine factors that control landform morphology and distribution, and explore drivers of grounding line (in)stability. This study highlights the importance of understanding thresholds which may destabilise a system and of controls on grounding line retreat over a range of timescales.
C. Lavoie, E. W. Domack, E. C. Pettit, T. A. Scambos, R. D. Larter, H.-W. Schenke, K. C. Yoo, J. Gutt, J. Wellner, M. Canals, J. B. Anderson, and D. Amblas
The Cryosphere, 9, 613–629,
F. O. Nitsche, K. Gohl, R. D. Larter, C.-D. Hillenbrand, G. Kuhn, J. A. Smith, S. Jacobs, J. B. Anderson, and M. Jakobsson
The Cryosphere, 7, 249–262,
Related subject area
Paleo-Glaciology (including Former Ice Reconstructions)Late Holocene glacier and climate fluctuations in the Mackenzie and Selwyn mountain ranges, northwestern CanadaSimulating the Laurentide Ice Sheet of the Last Glacial MaximumReversible ice sheet thinning in the Amundsen Sea Embayment during the Late HoloceneAntiphase dynamics between cold-based glaciers in the Antarctic Dry Valleys region and ice extent in the Ross Sea during MIS 5The collapse of the Cordilleran–Laurentide ice saddle and early opening of the Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories, Canada, constrained by 10Be exposure datingTiming and climatic-driven mechanisms of glacier advances in Bhutanese Himalaya during the Little Ice AgeThe Holocene dynamics of Ryder Glacier and ice tongue in north GreenlandHolocene thinning of Darwin and Hatherton glaciers, Antarctica, and implications for grounding-line retreat in the Ross SeaUnderstanding drivers of glacier-length variability over the last millenniumCentral Himalayan tree-ring isotopes reveal increasing regional heterogeneity and enhancement in ice mass loss since the 1960sA model for interaction between conduits and surrounding hydraulically connected distributed drainage based on geomorphological evidence from Keewatin, CanadaRepeated ice streaming on the northwest Greenland continental shelf since the onset of the Middle Pleistocene TransitionPast ice sheet–seabed interactions in the northeastern Weddell Sea embayment, AntarcticaNonlinear response of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to late Quaternary sea level and climate forcingEemian Greenland ice sheet simulated with a higher-order model shows strong sensitivity to surface mass balance forcingThe impact of model resolution on the simulated Holocene retreat of the southwestern Greenland ice sheet using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)Marine ice sheet instability and ice shelf buttressing of the Minch Ice Stream, northwest ScotlandModelling last glacial cycle ice dynamics in the AlpsModelling the late Holocene and future evolution of Monacobreen, northern SpitsbergenPersistent tracers of historic ice flow in glacial stratigraphy near Kamb Ice Stream, West AntarcticaWest Antarctic sites for subglacial drilling to test for past ice-sheet collapseIce-shelf damming in the glacial Arctic Ocean: dynamical regimes of a basin-covering kilometre-thick ice shelfA glacial systems model configured for large ensemble analysis of Antarctic deglaciationBrief communication "Can recent ice discharges following the Larsen-B ice-shelf collapse be used to infer the driving mechanisms of millennial-scale variations of the Laurentide ice sheet?"
Adam C. Hawkins, Brian Menounos, Brent M. Goehring, Gerald Osborn, Ben M. Pelto, Christopher M. Darvill, and Joerg M. Schaefer
The Cryosphere, 17, 4381–4397,Short summary
Our study developed a record of glacier and climate change in the Mackenzie and Selwyn mountains of northwestern Canada over the past several hundred years. We estimate temperature change in this region using several methods and incorporate our glacier record with models of climate change to estimate how glacier volume in our study area has changed over time. Models of future glacier change show that our study area will become largely ice-free by the end of the 21st century.
Daniel Moreno-Parada, Jorge Alvarez-Solas, Javier Blasco, Marisa Montoya, and Alexander Robinson
The Cryosphere, 17, 2139–2156,Short summary
We have reconstructed the Laurentide Ice Sheet, located in North America during the Last Glacial Maximum (21 000 years ago). The absence of direct measurements raises a number of uncertainties. Here we study the impact of different physical laws that describe the friction as the ice slides over its base. We found that the Laurentide Ice Sheet is closest to prior reconstructions when the basal friction takes into account whether the base is frozen or thawed during its motion.
Greg Balco, Nathan Brown, Keir Nichols, Ryan A. Venturelli, Jonathan Adams, Scott Braddock, Seth Campbell, Brent Goehring, Joanne S. Johnson, Dylan H. Rood, Klaus Wilcken, Brenda Hall, and John Woodward
The Cryosphere, 17, 1787–1801,Short summary
Samples of bedrock recovered from below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet show that part of the ice sheet was thinner several thousand years ago than it is now and subsequently thickened. This is important because of concern that present ice thinning in this region may lead to rapid, irreversible sea level rise. The past episode of thinning at this site that took place in a similar, although not identical, climate was not irreversible; however, reversal required at least 3000 years to complete.
Jacob T. H. Anderson, Toshiyuki Fujioka, David Fink, Alan J. Hidy, Gary S. Wilson, Klaus Wilcken, Andrey Abramov, and Nikita Demidov
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Geological evidence from the Dry Valleys in Antarctica provides records of outlet and alpine glacier advance and retreat through time. Our data show that Taylor Glacier retreated from Pearse Valley ~65,000−74,000 years ago, and near-surface (< 1.65 m depth) permafrost sediments were deposited ~180,000 years ago. These data suggest that snowfall controls advance and retreat of alpine glaciers in the Dry Valleys and is associated with reduction and expansion of sea ice in the Ross Sea.
Benjamin J. Stoker, Martin Margold, John C. Gosse, Alan J. Hidy, Alistair J. Monteath, Joseph M. Young, Niall Gandy, Lauren J. Gregoire, Sophie L. Norris, and Duane Froese
The Cryosphere, 16, 4865–4886,Short summary
The Laurentide Ice Sheet was the largest ice sheet to grow and disappear in the Northern Hemisphere during the last glaciation. In northwestern Canada, it covered the Mackenzie Valley, blocking the migration of fauna and early humans between North America and Beringia and altering the drainage systems. We reconstruct the timing of ice sheet retreat in this region and the implications for the migration of early humans into North America, the drainage of glacial lakes, and past sea level rise.
Weilin Yang, Yingkui Li, Gengnian Liu, and Wenchao Chu
The Cryosphere, 16, 3739–3752,Short summary
We simulated the glacier evolutions in Bhutanese Himalaya during the LIA using OGGM. At the regional scale, four compelling glacial substages were reported, and a positive correlation between the number of glacial substages and the glacier slope was found. Based on the surface mass balance analysis, the study also indicated that the regional glacier advances are dominated by the reduction of summer ablation.
Matt O'Regan, Thomas M. Cronin, Brendan Reilly, Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Laura Gemery, Anna Golub, Larry A. Mayer, Mathieu Morlighem, Matthias Moros, Ole L. Munk, Johan Nilsson, Christof Pearce, Henrieka Detlef, Christian Stranne, Flor Vermassen, Gabriel West, and Martin Jakobsson
The Cryosphere, 15, 4073–4097,Short summary
Ryder Glacier is a marine-terminating glacier in north Greenland discharging ice into the Lincoln Sea. Here we use marine sediment cores to reconstruct its retreat and advance behavior through the Holocene. We show that while Sherard Osborn Fjord has a physiography conducive to glacier and ice tongue stability, Ryder still retreated more than 40 km inland from its current position by the Middle Holocene. This highlights the sensitivity of north Greenland's marine glaciers to climate change.
Trevor R. Hillebrand, John O. Stone, Michelle Koutnik, Courtney King, Howard Conway, Brenda Hall, Keir Nichols, Brent Goehring, and Mette K. Gillespie
The Cryosphere, 15, 3329–3354,Short summary
We present chronologies from Darwin and Hatherton glaciers to better constrain ice sheet retreat during the last deglaciation in the Ross Sector of Antarctica. We use a glacier flowband model and an ensemble of 3D ice sheet model simulations to show that (i) the whole glacier system likely thinned steadily from about 9–3 ka, and (ii) the grounding line likely reached the Darwin–Hatherton Glacier System at about 3 ka, which is ≥3.8 kyr later than was suggested by previous reconstructions.
Alan Huston, Nicholas Siler, Gerard H. Roe, Erin Pettit, and Nathan J. Steiger
The Cryosphere, 15, 1645–1662,Short summary
We simulate the past 1000 years of glacier length variability using a simple glacier model and an ensemble of global climate model simulations. Glaciers with long response times are more likely to record global climate changes caused by events like volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas emissions, while glaciers with short response times are more likely to record natural variability. This difference stems from differences in the frequency spectra of natural and forced temperature variability.
Nilendu Singh, Mayank Shekhar, Jayendra Singh, Anil K. Gupta, Achim Bräuning, Christoph Mayr, and Mohit Singhal
The Cryosphere, 15, 95–112,Short summary
Tree-ring isotope records from the central Himalaya provided a basis for previously lacking regional multi-century glacier mass balance (MB) reconstruction. Isotopic and climate coherency analyses specify an eastward-declining influence of the westerlies, an increase in east–west climate heterogeneity, and an increase in ice mass loss since the 1960s. Reasons for this are attributed to anthropogenic climate change, including concurrent alterations in atmospheric circulation patterns.
Emma L. M. Lewington, Stephen J. Livingstone, Chris D. Clark, Andrew J. Sole, and Robert D. Storrar
The Cryosphere, 14, 2949–2976,Short summary
We map visible traces of subglacial meltwater flow across Keewatin, Canada. Eskers are commonly observed to form within meltwater corridors up to a few kilometres wide, and we interpret different traces to have formed as part of the same integrated drainage system. In our proposed model, we suggest that eskers record the imprint of a central conduit while meltwater corridors represent the interaction with the surrounding distributed drainage system.
Andrew M. W. Newton, Mads Huuse, Paul C. Knutz, and David R. Cox
The Cryosphere, 14, 2303–2312,Short summary
Seismic reflection data offshore northwest Greenland reveal buried landforms that have been interpreted as mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGLs). These have been formed by ancient ice streams that advanced hundreds of kilometres across the continental shelf. The stratigraphy and available chronology show that the MSGLs are confined to separate stratigraphic units and were most likely formed during several glacial maxima after the onset of the Middle Pleistocene Transition at ~ 1.3 Ma.
Jan Erik Arndt, Robert D. Larter, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Simon H. Sørli, Matthias Forwick, James A. Smith, and Lukas Wacker
The Cryosphere, 14, 2115–2135,Short summary
We interpret landforms on the seabed and investigate sediment cores to improve our understanding of the past ice sheet development in this poorly understood part of Antarctica. Recent crack development of the Brunt ice shelf has raised concerns about its stability and the security of the British research station Halley. We describe ramp-shaped bedforms that likely represent ice shelf grounding and stabilization locations of the past that may reflect an analogue to the process going on now.
Michelle Tigchelaar, Axel Timmermann, Tobias Friedrich, Malte Heinemann, and David Pollard
The Cryosphere, 13, 2615–2631,Short summary
The Antarctic Ice Sheet has expanded and retracted often in the past, but, so far, studies have not identified which environmental driver is most important: air temperature, snowfall, ocean conditions or global sea level. In a modeling study of 400 000 years of Antarctic Ice Sheet variability we isolated different drivers and found that no single driver dominates. Air temperature and sea level are most important and combine in a synergistic way, with important implications for future change.
Andreas Plach, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Petra M. Langebroek, Andreas Born, and Sébastien Le clec'h
The Cryosphere, 13, 2133–2148,Short summary
Meltwater from the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) rises sea level and knowing how the GrIS behaved in the past will help to become better in predicting its future. Here, the evolution of the past GrIS is shown to be dominated by how much ice melts (a result of the prevailing climate) rather than how ice flow is represented in the simulations. Therefore, it is very important to know past climates accurately, in order to be able to simulate the evolution of the GrIS and its contribution to sea level.
Joshua K. Cuzzone, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Mathieu Morlighem, Eric Larour, Jason P. Briner, Helene Seroussi, and Lambert Caron
The Cryosphere, 13, 879–893,Short summary
We present ice sheet modeling results of ice retreat over southwestern Greenland during the last 12 000 years, and we also test the impact that model horizontal resolution has on differences in the simulated spatial retreat and its associated rate. Results indicate that model resolution plays a minor role in simulated retreat in areas where bed topography is not complex but plays an important role in areas where bed topography is complex (such as fjords).
Niall Gandy, Lauren J. Gregoire, Jeremy C. Ely, Christopher D. Clark, David M. Hodgson, Victoria Lee, Tom Bradwell, and Ruza F. Ivanovic
The Cryosphere, 12, 3635–3651,Short summary
We use the deglaciation of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet as a valuable case to examine the processes of contemporary ice sheet change, using an ice sheet model to simulate the Minch Ice Stream. We find that ice shelves were a control on retreat and that the Minch Ice Stream was vulnerable to the same marine mechanisms which threaten the future of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. This demonstrates the importance of marine processes when projecting the future of our contemporary ice sheets.
Julien Seguinot, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Guillaume Jouvet, Matthias Huss, Martin Funk, and Frank Preusser
The Cryosphere, 12, 3265–3285,Short summary
About 25 000 years ago, Alpine glaciers filled most of the valleys and even extended onto the plains. In this study, with help from traces left by glaciers on the landscape, we use a computer model that contains knowledge of glacier physics based on modern observations of Greenland and Antarctica and laboratory experiments on ice, and one of the fastest computers in the world, to attempt a reconstruction of the evolution of Alpine glaciers through time from 120 000 years ago to today.
The Cryosphere, 12, 3001–3015,Short summary
Monacobreen is a 40 km long surge-type tidewater glacier in northern Spitsbergen. The front is retreating fast. Calculations with a glacier model predict that due to future climate warming this glacier will have lost 20 to 40 % of its volume by the year 2100. Because of the glacier's memory, much of the response will come after 2100, even if the climatic conditions would stabilize.
Nicholas Holschuh, Knut Christianson, Howard Conway, Robert W. Jacobel, and Brian C. Welch
The Cryosphere, 12, 2821–2829,Short summary
Models of the Antarctic Sheet are tuned using observations of historic ice-sheet behavior, but we have few observations that tell us how inland ice behaved over the last few millennia. A 2 km tall volcano sitting under the ice sheet has left a record in the ice as it flows by, and that feature provides unique insight into the regional ice-flow history. It indicates that observed, rapid changes in West Antarctica flow dynamics have not affected the continental interior over the last 5700 years.
Perry Spector, John Stone, David Pollard, Trevor Hillebrand, Cameron Lewis, and Joel Gombiner
The Cryosphere, 12, 2741–2757,Short summary
Cosmogenic-nuclide analyses in bedrock recovered from below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet have the potential to establish whether and when large-scale deglaciation occurred in the past. Here we (i) discuss the criteria and considerations for subglacial drill sites, (ii) evaluate candidate sites in West Antarctica, and (iii) describe reconnaissance at three West Antarctic sites, focusing on the Pirrit Hills, which we present as a case study of site selection on the scale of an individual nunatak.
Johan Nilsson, Martin Jakobsson, Chris Borstad, Nina Kirchner, Göran Björk, Raymond T. Pierrehumbert, and Christian Stranne
The Cryosphere, 11, 1745–1765,Short summary
Recent data suggest that a 1 km thick ice shelf extended over the glacial Arctic Ocean during MIS 6, about 140 000 years ago. Here, we theoretically analyse the development and equilibrium features of such an ice shelf. The ice shelf was effectively dammed by the Fram Strait and the mean ice-shelf thickness was controlled primarily by the horizontally integrated mass balance. Our results can aid in resolving some outstanding questions of the state of the glacial Arctic Ocean.
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The Cryosphere, 6, 687–693,
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Geomorphic features on the Ross Sea sea floor provide a record of ice-sheet behaviour during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat. Based on extensive mapping of these glacial landforms, a large embayment formed in the eastern Ross Sea. This was followed by complex, late-stage retreat in the western Ross Sea where banks stabilised the ice sheet. Physiography and sea floor geology act as regional controls on ice-sheet dynamics across the Ross Sea.
Geomorphic features on the Ross Sea sea floor provide a record of ice-sheet behaviour during the...