Articles | Volume 8, issue 5
Research article 01 Oct 2014
Research article | 01 Oct 2014
The impact of ice layers on gas transport through firn at the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) site, Greenland
K. Keegan et al.
No articles found.
Alden C. Adolph, Mary R. Albert, and Dorothy K. Hall
The Cryosphere, 12, 907–920,Short summary
In our studies of surface temperature in Greenland, we found that there can be differences between the temperature of the snow surface and the air directly above, depending on wind speed and incoming solar radiation. We also found that temperature measurements of the snow surface from remote sensing instruments may be more accurate than previously thought. Our results are relevant to studies of climate change in the remote sensing community and in studies of the atmospheric boundary layer.
A. C. Adolph and M. R. Albert
The Cryosphere, 8, 319–328,
S. A. Gregory, M. R. Albert, and I. Baker
The Cryosphere, 8, 91–105,
K. Kawamura, J. P. Severinghaus, M. R. Albert, Z. R. Courville, M. A. Fahnestock, T. Scambos, E. Shields, and C. A. Shuman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11141–11155,
H. Fischer, J. Severinghaus, E. Brook, E. Wolff, M. Albert, O. Alemany, R. Arthern, C. Bentley, D. Blankenship, J. Chappellaz, T. Creyts, D. Dahl-Jensen, M. Dinn, M. Frezzotti, S. Fujita, H. Gallee, R. Hindmarsh, D. Hudspeth, G. Jugie, K. Kawamura, V. Lipenkov, H. Miller, R. Mulvaney, F. Parrenin, F. Pattyn, C. Ritz, J. Schwander, D. Steinhage, T. van Ommen, and F. Wilhelms
Clim. Past, 9, 2489–2505,
Related subject area
Ice CoresPhysical properties of shallow ice cores from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islandsStable water isotopes and accumulation rates in the Union Glacier region, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica, over the last 35 yearsMulti-tracer study of gas trapping in an East Antarctic ice coreVery old firn air linked to strong density layering at Styx Glacier, coastal Victoria Land, East AntarcticaApparent discrepancy of Tibetan ice core δ18O records may be attributed to misinterpretation of chronologyChallenges associated with the climatic interpretation of water stable isotope records from a highly resolved firn core from Adélie Land, coastal AntarcticaGlaciological characteristics in the Dome Fuji region and new assessment for “Oldest Ice”Age ranges of the Tibetan ice cores with emphasis on the Chongce ice cores, western Kunlun MountainsOn the similarity and apparent cycles of isotopic variations in East Antarctic snow pitsThe first luminescence dating of Tibetan glacier basal sedimentMethanesulfonic acid (MSA) migration in polar ice: data synthesis and theoryIs there 1.5-million-year-old ice near Dome C, Antarctica?Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modellingConstraints on post-depositional isotope modifications in East Antarctic firn from analysing temporal changes of isotope profilesA 125-year record of climate and chemistry variability at the Pine Island Glacier ice divide, AntarcticaCalibrated cryo-cell UV-LA-ICPMS elemental concentrations from the NGRIP ice core reveal abrupt, sub-annual variability in dust across the GI-21.2 interstadial periodLocation and distribution of micro-inclusions in the EDML and NEEM ice cores using optical microscopy and in situ Raman spectroscopyLinking pollen deposition and snow accumulation on the Alto dell'Ortles glacier (South Tyrol, Italy) for sub-seasonal dating of a firn temperate coreBromine, iodine and sodium in surface snow along the 2013 Talos Dome–GV7 traverse (northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica)A 60-year ice-core record of regional climate from Adélie Land, coastal AntarcticaRadiocarbon dating of glacier ice: overview, optimisation, validation and potentialCritical investigation of calculation methods for the elastic velocities in anisotropic ice polycrystalsSurface mass balance and water stable isotopes derived from firn cores on three ice rises, Fimbul Ice Shelf, AntarcticaAge of the Mt. Ortles ice cores, the Tyrolean Iceman and glaciation of the highest summit of South Tyrol since the Northern Hemisphere Climatic OptimumIce core evidence for a 20th century increase in surface mass balance in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East AntarcticaDispersion in deep polar firn driven by synoptic-scale surface pressure variabilityNon-climatic signal in ice core records: lessons from Antarctic megadunesA synthetic ice core approach to estimate ion relocation in an ice field site experiencing periodical melt: a case study on Lomonosovfonna, SvalbardA comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi-parametric approachSmall-scale disturbances in the stratigraphy of the NEEM ice core: observations and numerical model simulationsHalogen-based reconstruction of Russian Arctic sea ice area from the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya)Investigation of a deep ice core from the Elbrus western plateau, the Caucasus, RussiaEstimation and calibration of the water isotope differential diffusion length in ice core recordsRetrieving the paleoclimatic signal from the deeper part of the EPICA Dome C ice coreDramatic loss of glacier accumulation area on the Tibetan Plateau revealed by ice core tritium and mercury recordsConstraints on the δ2H diffusion rate in firn from field measurements at Summit, GreenlandClimatic signals from 76 shallow firn cores in Dronning Maud Land, East AntarcticaRepresentativeness and seasonality of major ion records derived from NEEM firn coresA 10 year record of black carbon and dust from a Mera Peak ice core (Nepal): variability and potential impact on melting of Himalayan glaciersInitial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)Fabric along the NEEM ice core, Greenland, and its comparison with GRIP and NGRIP ice coresInfluence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central HimalayasDiffusive equilibration of N2, O2 and CO2 mixing ratios in a 1.5-million-years-old ice coreImpact of physical properties and accumulation rate on pore close-off in layered firnSea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to SvalbardNet accumulation rates derived from ice core stable isotope records of Pío XI glacier, Southern Patagonia IcefieldHigh-resolution provenance of desert dust deposited on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus in 2009–2012 using snow pit and firn core recordsStable water isotopes of precipitation and firn cores from the northern Antarctic Peninsula region as a proxy for climate reconstructionGlaciochemical investigations of the ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mountain, CroatiaIsotope hydrological studies of the perennial ice deposit of Saarhalle, Mammuthöhle, Dachstein Mts, Austria
Elizabeth Ruth Thomas, Guisella Gacitúa, Joel B. Pedro, Amy Constance Faith King, Bradley Markle, Mariusz Potocki, and Dorothea Elizabeth Moser
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Here we present radar and ice core data from the sub-Antarctic islands of Bouvet Island, Peter 1st Island and Young Island. These islands have the potential to record past climate in one of the most data sparse regions on earth. Despite their northerly location, surface melting is generally low and the upper layer of the ice at most sites is undisturbed. We estimate that a 100 m ice core drilled on these islands could capture climate over the past 100-200 years.
Kirstin Hoffmann, Francisco Fernandoy, Hanno Meyer, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Marcelo Aliaga, Dieter Tetzner, Johannes Freitag, Thomas Opel, Jorge Arigony-Neto, Christian Florian Göbel, Ricardo Jaña, Delia Rodríguez Oroz, Rebecca Tuckwell, Emily Ludlow, Joseph R. McConnell, and Christoph Schneider
The Cryosphere, 14, 881–904,
Kévin Fourteau, Patricia Martinerie, Xavier Faïn, Christoph F. Schaller, Rebecca J. Tuckwell, Henning Löwe, Laurent Arnaud, Olivier Magand, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Johannes Freitag, Robert Mulvaney, Martin Schneebeli, and Vladimir Ya. Lipenkov
The Cryosphere, 13, 3383–3403,Short summary
Understanding gas trapping in polar ice is essential to study the relationship between greenhouse gases and past climates. New data of bubble closure, used in a simple gas-trapping model, show inconsistency with the final air content in ice. This suggests gas trapping is not fully understood. We also use a combination of high-resolution measurements to investigate the effect of polar snow stratification on gas trapping and find that all strata have similar pores, but that some close in advance.
Youngjoon Jang, Sang Bum Hong, Christo Buizert, Hun-Gyu Lee, Sang-Young Han, Ji-Woong Yang, Yoshinori Iizuka, Akira Hori, Yeongcheol Han, Seong Joon Jun, Pieter Tans, Taejin Choi, Seong-Joong Kim, Soon Do Hur, and Jinho Ahn
The Cryosphere, 13, 2407–2419,Short summary
We can learn how human activity altered atmospheric air from the interstitial air in the porous snow layer (firn) on top of glaciers. However, old firn air (> 55 years) was observed only at sites where surface temperatures and snow accumulation rates are very low, such as the South Pole. In this study, we report an unusually old firn air with CO2 age of 93 years from Styx Glacier, near the Ross Sea coast in Antarctica. We hypothesize that the large snow density variations increase firn air ages.
Shugui Hou, Wangbin Zhang, Hongxi Pang, Shuang-Ye Wu, Theo M. Jenk, Margit Schwikowski, and Yetang Wang
The Cryosphere, 13, 1743–1752,Short summary
The apparent discrepancy between the Holocene δ18O records of the Guliya and the Chongce ice cores may be attributed to a possible misinterpretation of the Guliya ice core chronology.
Sentia Goursaud, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Vincent Favier, Suzanne Preunkert, Michel Legrand, Bénédicte Minster, and Martin Werner
The Cryosphere, 13, 1297–1324,Short summary
We report new water stable isotope records from the first highly resolved firn core drilled in Adélie Land and covering 1998–2014. Using an updated database, we show that mean values are in line with the range of coastal values. Statistical analyses show no relationship between our record and local surface air temperature. Atmospheric back trajectories and isotopic simulations suggest that water stable isotopes in Adélie provide a fingerprint of the variability of atmospheric dynamics.
Nanna B. Karlsson, Tobias Binder, Graeme Eagles, Veit Helm, Frank Pattyn, Brice Van Liefferinge, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 12, 2413–2424,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the probability that the Dome Fuji region in East Antarctica contains ice more than 1.5 Ma old. The retrieval of a continuous ice-core record extending beyond 1 Ma is imperative to understand why the frequency of ice ages changed from 40 to 100 ka approximately 1 Ma ago. We use a new radar dataset to improve the ice thickness maps, and apply a thermokinematic model to predict basal temperature and age of the ice. Our results indicate several areas of interest.
Shugui Hou, Theo M. Jenk, Wangbin Zhang, Chaomin Wang, Shuangye Wu, Yetang Wang, Hongxi Pang, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 12, 2341–2348,Short summary
We present multiple lines of evidence indicating that the Chongce ice cores drilled from the northwestern Tibetan Plateau reaches back only to the early Holocene. This result is at least, 1 order of magnitude younger than the nearby Guliya ice core (~30 km away from the Chongce ice core drilling site) but similar to other Tibetan ice cores. Thus it is necessary to explore multiple dating techniques to confirm the age ranges of the Tibetan ice cores.
Thomas Laepple, Thomas Münch, Mathieu Casado, Maria Hoerhold, Amaelle Landais, and Sepp Kipfstuhl
The Cryosphere, 12, 169–187,Short summary
We explain why snow pits across different sites in East Antarctica show visually similar isotopic variations. We argue that the similarity and the apparent cycles of around 20 cm in the δD and δ18O variations are the result of a seasonal cycle in isotopes, noise, for example from precipitation intermittency, and diffusion. The near constancy of the diffusion length across many ice-coring sites explains why the structure and cycle length is largely independent of the accumulation conditions.
Zhu Zhang, Shugui Hou, and Shuangwen Yi
The Cryosphere, 12, 163–168,Short summary
We provide the first luminescence dating of the basal sediment of the Chongce ice cap in the western Kunlun Mountains on the north-western Tibetan Plateau (TP), which gives an upper constraint for the age of the bottom ice at the drilling site. The age is more than 1 order of magnitude younger than the previously suggested age of the basal ice of the nearby Guliya ice cap (~ 40 km away from the Chongce ice cap). This work provides an important step towards better understanding the TP ice cores.
Matthew Osman, Sarah B. Das, Olivier Marchal, and Matthew J. Evans
The Cryosphere, 11, 2439–2462,Short summary
We combine a synthesis of 22 ice core records and a model of soluble impurity transport to investigate the enigmatic, post-depositional migration of methanesulfonic acid in polar ice. Our findings suggest that migration may be universal across coastal regions of Greenland and Antarctica, though it is mitigated at sites with higher accumulation and (or) lower impurity content. Records exhibiting severe migration may still be useful for inferring decadal and lower-frequency climate variability.
Frédéric Parrenin, Marie G. P. Cavitte, Donald D. Blankenship, Jérôme Chappellaz, Hubertus Fischer, Olivier Gagliardini, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Olivier Passalacqua, Catherine Ritz, Jason Roberts, Martin J. Siegert, and Duncan A. Young
The Cryosphere, 11, 2427–2437,Short summary
The oldest dated deep ice core drilled in Antarctica has been retrieved at EPICA Dome C (EDC), reaching ~ 800 000 years. Obtaining an older palaeoclimatic record from Antarctica is one of the greatest challenges of the ice core community. Here, we estimate the age of basal ice in the Dome C area. We find that old ice (> 1.5 Myr) likely exists in two regions a few tens of kilometres away from EDC:
Little Dome C Patchand
Olivier Passalacqua, Catherine Ritz, Frédéric Parrenin, Stefano Urbini, and Massimo Frezzotti
The Cryosphere, 11, 2231–2246,Short summary
As the Dome C region is a key area for oldest-ice research, we need to better constrain the geothermal flux (GF) so that past basal melt rates are well constrained. Our inverse heat model significantly reduces the confidence intervals of the GF regional field around Dome C, which ranges from 48 to 60 mW m−2. Radar echoes need to be interpreted knowing the time lag of the climate signal to reach the bed. Several old-ice targets are confirmed and a new one is suggested, in which the GF is very low.
Thomas Münch, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Johannes Freitag, Hanno Meyer, and Thomas Laepple
The Cryosphere, 11, 2175–2188,Short summary
The importance of post-depositional changes for the temperature interpretation of water isotopes is poorly constrained by observations. Here, for the first time, temporal isotope changes in the open-porous firn are directly analysed using a large array of shallow isotope profiles. By this, we can reject the possibility of post-depositional change beyond diffusion and densification as the cause of the discrepancy between isotope and local temperature variations at Kohnen Station, East Antarctica.
Franciele Schwanck, Jefferson C. Simões, Michael Handley, Paul A. Mayewski, Jeffrey D. Auger, Ronaldo T. Bernardo, and Francisco E. Aquino
The Cryosphere, 11, 1537–1552,Short summary
The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is more susceptible to marine influences than the East Antarctica Ice Sheet (EAIS). During recent decades, rapid changes have occurred in the WAIS sector, including flow velocity acceleration, retraction of ice streams, and mass loss. In this study, we use an ice core located near the Pine Island Glacier ice divide to reconstruct mineral dust and marine aerosol transport and the influence of climate variables on the elemental concentration.
Damiano Della Lunga, Wolfgang Müller, Sune Olander Rasmussen, Anders Svensson, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 11, 1297–1309,Short summary
In our study we combined the wealth of information provided by Greenland ice cores with an ultra-high-resolution technique well known in geoscience (laser ablation). Our set-up was developed and applied to investigate the variability in concentration of ions across a rapid climatic change from the oldest part of the last glaciation, showing that concentrations drop abruptly from cold to warm periods, representing a shift in atmospheric transport that happens even faster than previously thought.
Jan Eichler, Ina Kleitz, Maddalena Bayer-Giraldi, Daniela Jansen, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Wataru Shigeyama, Christian Weikusat, and Ilka Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 11, 1075–1090,Short summary
This study contributes to investigations of the effect of impurities on ice microstructure and flow properties. For the first time we mapped over 5000 micro-inclusions in four samples from the EDML and NEEM polar ice cores. The particle distributions show no correlation with grain boundaries and thus we conclude that particle pinning plays only a secondary role for the microstructure evolution. Alternative mechanisms are discussed.
Daniela Festi, Luca Carturan, Werner Kofler, Giancarlo dalla Fontana, Fabrizio de Blasi, Federico Cazorzi, Edith Bucher, Volkmar Mair, Paolo Gabrielli, and Klaus Oeggl
The Cryosphere, 11, 937–948,Short summary
We propose a sub-seasonal timescale based on pollen analyses for a Mt. Ortles firn core. The method can be applied to all types of glaciers, provided the proximity of the pollen source and a negligible time lag between pollen production and its deposition on the glacier. By combining pollen dating with a mass balance model we found evidence that pollen grains are resilient to downward transport by percolating water and that pollen shows a high potential for inferring past climatic conditions.
Niccolò Maffezzoli, Andrea Spolaor, Carlo Barbante, Michele Bertò, Massimo Frezzotti, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 11, 693–705,Short summary
Sea ice is a crucial parameter within Earth's climate system. Understanding its dynamics and its response to other climatic variables is therefore of primary importance in view of a warming climate and sea ice decline. In this work we investigate some features of a chemical parameter in ice cores, bromine enrichment, which is linked to sea ice and can therefore be used to reconstruct sea ice in the past.
Sentia Goursaud, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Vincent Favier, Susanne Preunkert, Michel Fily, Hubert Gallée, Bruno Jourdain, Michel Legrand, Olivier Magand, Bénédicte Minster, and Martin Werner
The Cryosphere, 11, 343–362,Short summary
Uncertainty of sea level changes is a challenge. As Antarctica is the biggest water reservoir, it is necessary to know how it will contribute. To be able to simulate it, an understanding of past climate is to be achieved, for instance, by studying the ice cores. As climate change is different in different regions, observations are needed all over the continent. Studying an ice core in Adélie Land, we can conclude that there are no changes there at decadal scale over the period 1947–2007.
Chiara Uglietti, Alexander Zapf, Theo Manuel Jenk, Michael Sigl, Sönke Szidat, Gary Salazar, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 10, 3091–3105,Short summary
A meaningful interpretation of the climatic history contained in ice cores requires a precise chronology. For dating the older and deeper part of the glaciers, radiocarbon analysis can be used when organic matter such as plant or insect fragments are found in the ice. Since this happens rarely, a complementary dating tool, based on radiocarbon dating of the insoluble fraction of carbonaceous aerosols entrapped in the ice, allows for ice dating between 200 and more than 10 000 years.
Agnès Maurel, Jean-François Mercier, and Maurine Montagnat
The Cryosphere, 10, 3063–3070,Short summary
Crystallographic texture evolution with depth along ice cores can be evaluated using borehole sonic logging measurements. These measurements provide the velocities of elastic waves that depend on the ice polycrystal anisotropy and can further be related to the ice texture. To do so, elastic velocities need to be inverted from a modeling approach that relate elastic velocities to ice texture. The present paper presents a critical analysis of the different methods used for the inversion.
Carmen P. Vega, Elisabeth Schlosser, Dmitry V. Divine, Jack Kohler, Tõnu Martma, Anja Eichler, Margit Schwikowski, and Elisabeth Isaksson
The Cryosphere, 10, 2763–2777,Short summary
Surface mass balance and water stable isotopes from firn cores on three ice rises at Fimbul Ice Shelf are reported. The results suggest that the ice rises are suitable sites for the retrieval of longer firn and ice cores. The first deuterium excess data for the area suggests a possible role of seasonal moisture transport changes on the annual isotopic signal. Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns most likely provide the dominant influence on water stable isotope ratios at the sites.
Paolo Gabrielli, Carlo Barbante, Giuliano Bertagna, Michele Bertó, Daniel Binder, Alberto Carton, Luca Carturan, Federico Cazorzi, Giulio Cozzi, Giancarlo Dalla Fontana, Mary Davis, Fabrizio De Blasi, Roberto Dinale, Gianfranco Dragà, Giuliano Dreossi, Daniela Festi, Massimo Frezzotti, Jacopo Gabrieli, Stephan P. Galos, Patrick Ginot, Petra Heidenwolf, Theo M. Jenk, Natalie Kehrwald, Donald Kenny, Olivier Magand, Volkmar Mair, Vladimir Mikhalenko, Ping Nan Lin, Klaus Oeggl, Gianni Piffer, Mirko Rinaldi, Ulrich Schotterer, Margit Schwikowski, Roberto Seppi, Andrea Spolaor, Barbara Stenni, David Tonidandel, Chiara Uglietti, Victor Zagorodnov, Thomas Zanoner, and Piero Zennaro
The Cryosphere, 10, 2779–2797,Short summary
New ice cores were extracted from Alto dell'Ortles, the highest glacier of South Tyrol in the Italian Alps, to check whether prehistoric ice, which is coeval to the famous 5300-yr-old Tyrolean Iceman, is still preserved in this region. Dating of the ice cores confirms the hypothesis and indicates the drilling site has been glaciated since the end of the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum (7000 yrs BP). We also infer that an unprecedented acceleration of the glacier flow has recently begun.
Morgane Philippe, Jean-Louis Tison, Karen Fjøsne, Bryn Hubbard, Helle A. Kjær, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Reinhard Drews, Simon G. Sheldon, Kevin De Bondt, Philippe Claeys, and Frank Pattyn
The Cryosphere, 10, 2501–2516,Short summary
The reconstruction of past snow accumulation rates is crucial in the context of recent climate change and sea level rise. We measured ~ 250 years of snow accumulation using a 120 m ice core drilled in coastal East Antarctica, where such long records are very scarce. This study is the first to show an increase in snow accumulation, beginning in the 20th and particularly marked in the last 50 years, thereby confirming model predictions of increased snowfall associated with climate change.
Christo Buizert and Jeffrey P. Severinghaus
The Cryosphere, 10, 2099–2111,Short summary
The upper 50–100 m of the world's ice sheets consists of the firn layer, a porous layer of snow that is slowly compacted by overlying snow. Understanding air movement inside the firn is critical for ice core climate reconstructions. Buizert and Severinghaus identify and describe a new mechanism of firn air movement. High- and low-pressure systems force air movement in the firn that drives strong mixing, called dispersion. Dispersion is the main mechanism for air mixing in the deep firn.
Alexey Ekaykin, Lutz Eberlein, Vladimir Lipenkov, Sergey Popov, Mirko Scheinert, Ludwig Schröder, and Alexey Turkeev
The Cryosphere, 10, 1217–1227,
Carmen P. Vega, Veijo A. Pohjola, Emilie Beaudon, Björn Claremar, Ward J. J. van Pelt, Rickard Pettersson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Tõnu Martma, Margit Schwikowski, and Carl E. Bøggild
The Cryosphere, 10, 961–976,Short summary
To quantify post-depositional relocation of major ions by meltwater in snow and firn at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, consecutive ice cores drilled at this site were used to construct a synthetic core. The relocation length of most of the ions was on the order of 1 m between 2007 and 2010. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution.
Thomas Goossens, Célia J. Sapart, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Trevor Popp, Saïda El Amri, and Jean-Louis Tison
The Cryosphere, 10, 553–567,Short summary
This first multi-parametric analysis of the basal ice layer of the NEEM ice core reveals that its formation does not result from a mixing process between local relict ice and the deepest ice layers of the advancing ice sheet during its growth phase. Instead, it is shown that the basal sequence partly originates from melting and refreezing processes acting at the ice/bedrock interface under a well-developed ice sheet. These have partially destroyed the paleoclimatic records of the ice.
D. Jansen, M.-G. Llorens, J. Westhoff, F. Steinbach, S. Kipfstuhl, P. D. Bons, A. Griera, and I. Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 10, 359–370,Short summary
In this study we present examples of typical small-scale folds observed in the NEEM ice core, North Greenland, and discuss their characteristics. Numerical modelling of viscoplastic deformation and dynamic recrystallisation was used to improve the understanding of the formation of the observed structures under simple shear boundary conditions. We conclude that the folds originate from bands of grains with a tilted lattice relative to the strong lattice preferred orientation below 1500 m depth.
A. Spolaor, T. Opel, J. R. McConnell, O. J. Maselli, G. Spreen, C. Varin, T. Kirchgeorg, D. Fritzsche, A. Saiz-Lopez, and P. Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 10, 245–256,Short summary
The role of sea ice in the Earth climate system is still under debate, although it is known to influence albedo, ocean circulation, and atmosphere-ocean heat and gas exchange. Here we present a reconstruction of 1950 to 1998 AD sea ice in the Laptev Sea based on the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic) and halogen measurements. The results suggest a connection between bromine and sea ice, as well as a connection between iodine concentration in snow and summer sea ice.
V. Mikhalenko, S. Sokratov, S. Kutuzov, P. Ginot, M. Legrand, S. Preunkert, I. Lavrentiev, A. Kozachek, A. Ekaykin, X. Faïn, S. Lim, U. Schotterer, V. Lipenkov, and P. Toropov
The Cryosphere, 9, 2253–2270,Short summary
For the first time an ice core unaffected by melting was recovered from the western Elbrus plateau in the Caucasus. The preserved chemical and isotopic data are considered a source of paleo-climate information for southern/eastern Europe. Considerable snow accumulation (about 1500mm w.e.) and high sampling resolution allowed seasonal variability to be obtained in climate signals, covering a time period of about 200 years. Ice flow models suggest that the basal ice age can be more than 600 years.
G. van der Wel, H. Fischer, H. Oerter, H. Meyer, and H. A. J. Meijer
The Cryosphere, 9, 1601–1616,Short summary
The diffusion of the stable water isotope signal during firnification of snow is a temperature-dependent process. Therefore, past local temperatures can be derived from the differential diffusion length. In this paper we develop a new method for determining this quantity and compare it with the existing method. Both methods are applied to a large number of synthetic data sets to assess the precision and accuracy of the reconstruction and to a section of the Antarctic EDML ice core record.
J.-L. Tison, M. de Angelis, G. Littot, E. Wolff, H. Fischer, M. Hansson, M. Bigler, R. Udisti, A. Wegner, J. Jouzel, B. Stenni, S. Johnsen, V. Masson-Delmotte, A. Landais, V. Lipenkov, L. Loulergue, J.-M. Barnola, J.-R. Petit, B. Delmonte, G. Dreyfus, D. Dahl-Jensen, G. Durand, B. Bereiter, A. Schilt, R. Spahni, K. Pol, R. Lorrain, R. Souchez, and D. Samyn
The Cryosphere, 9, 1633–1648,Short summary
The oldest paleoclimatic information is buried within the lowermost layers of deep ice cores. It is therefore essential to judge how deep these records remain unaltered. We study the bottom 60 meters of the EPICA Dome C ice core from central Antarctica to show that the paleoclimatic signal is only affected at the small scale (decimeters) in terms of some of the global ice properties. However our data suggest that the time scale has been considerably distorted by mechanical stretching.
S. Kang, F. Wang, U. Morgenstern, Y. Zhang, B. Grigholm, S. Kaspari, M. Schwikowski, J. Ren, T. Yao, D. Qin, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1213–1222,
L. G. van der Wel, H. A. Been, R. S. W. van de Wal, C. J. P. P. Smeets, and H. A. J. Meijer
The Cryosphere, 9, 1089–1103,Short summary
We performed 2H isotope diffusion measurements in the upper 3 metres of firn at Summit, Greenland, by following over a 4-year period isotope-enriched snow that we deposited. We found that the diffusion process was much less rapid than in the most commonly used model. We discuss several aspects of the diffusion process that are still poorly constrained and might lead to this discrepancy. Quantitative knowledge of diffusion is necessary for use of the diffusion process itself as a climate proxy.
S. Altnau, E. Schlosser, E. Isaksson, and D. Divine
The Cryosphere, 9, 925–944,Short summary
The first comprehensive study of a set of 76 firn cores in Dronning Maud Land was carried out. The δ18O of both the plateau and the ice shelf cores exhibit a slight positive trend over the second half of the 20th century. The SMB has a negative trend in the ice shelf cores, but increases on the plateau. Comparison with meteorological data revealed that for the ice shelf regions, atmospheric dynamic effects are more important, while on the plateau, thermodynamic effects predominate.
G. Gfeller, H. Fischer, M. Bigler, S. Schüpbach, D. Leuenberger, and O. Mini
The Cryosphere, 8, 1855–1870,
P. Ginot, M. Dumont, S. Lim, N. Patris, J.-D. Taupin, P. Wagnon, A. Gilbert, Y. Arnaud, A. Marinoni, P. Bonasoni, and P. Laj
The Cryosphere, 8, 1479–1496,
P. Vallelonga, K. Christianson, R. B. Alley, S. Anandakrishnan, J. E. M. Christian, D. Dahl-Jensen, V. Gkinis, C. Holme, R. W. Jacobel, N. B. Karlsson, B. A. Keisling, S. Kipfstuhl, H. A. Kjær, M. E. L. Kristensen, A. Muto, L. E. Peters, T. Popp, K. L. Riverman, A. M. Svensson, C. Tibuleac, B. M. Vinther, Y. Weng, and M. Winstrup
The Cryosphere, 8, 1275–1287,
M. Montagnat, N. Azuma, D. Dahl-Jensen, J. Eichler, S. Fujita, F. Gillet-Chaulet, S. Kipfstuhl, D. Samyn, A. Svensson, and I. Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 8, 1129–1138,
H. Pang, S. Hou, S. Kaspari, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 8, 289–301,
B. Bereiter, H. Fischer, J. Schwander, and T. F. Stocker
The Cryosphere, 8, 245–256,
S. A. Gregory, M. R. Albert, and I. Baker
The Cryosphere, 8, 91–105,
A. Spolaor, J. Gabrieli, T. Martma, J. Kohler, M. B. Björkman, E. Isaksson, C. Varin, P. Vallelonga, J. M. C. Plane, and C. Barbante
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