Articles | Volume 10, issue 1
Research article 29 Feb 2016
Research article | 29 Feb 2016
Bulk meltwater flow and liquid water content of snowpacks mapped using the electrical self-potential (SP) method
Sarah S. Thompson et al.
No articles found.
Juha Lemmetyinen, Juval Cohen, Anna Kontu, Juho Vehviläinen, Henna-Reetta Hannula, Ioanna Merkouriadi, Stefan Scheiblauer, Helmut Rott, Thomas Nagler, Elisabeth Ripper, Kelly Elder, Hans-Peter Marshall, Reinhard Fromm, Marc Adams, Chris Derksen, Joshua King, Adriano Meta, Alex Coccia, Nick Rutter, Melody Sandells, Giovanni Macelloni, Emanuele Santi, Marion Leduc-Leballeur, Richard Essery, Cecile Menard, and Michael Kern
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
The manuscript describes airborne, dual-polarized X and Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data collected over several campaigns over snow covered terrain in Finland, Austria and Canada. Colocated snow and meteorological observations are also presented. The data are meant for science users interested in investigating X/Ku band radar signatures from natural environments in winter conditions.
Victoria R. Dutch, Nick Rutter, Leanne Wake, Melody Sandells, Chris Derksen, Branden Walker, Gabriel Hould Gosselin, Oliver Sonnentag, Richard Essery, Richard Kelly, Philip Marsh, and Joshua King
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
Measurements of the properties of the snow and soil were compared to simulations of the Community Land Model to see how well the model represents snow insulation. Simulations underestimated snow thermal conductivity and wintertime soil temperatures. As the model does not accurately represent the properties of shallow arctic snowpacks, a correction factor was required to reduce the transfer of heat through the snowpack and bring simulated soil temperatures closer to measurements.
Sarah Susan Thompson, Bernd Kulessa, Stephen Cornford, Adrian Luckman, and Jacqueline Halpin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
We use satellite imagery and modelling to investigate the stability of the Shackleton system in East Antarctica. We find that observed changes in ice flow speed and structure appear short lived and provide an upper estimate of changes due to ocean and atmosphere warming of ~6 cm sea level rise. We conclude that knowledge remains woefully insufficient to explain recent observed change in the grounded and floating regions of the system.
Adrien Wehrlé, Martin P. Lüthi, Andrea Walter, Guillaume Jouvet, and Andreas Vieli
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
We developed a novel automated method for the detection and the quantification of ocean waves generated by glacier calving. This method was applied to data recorded with a terrestrial radar interferometer at Eqip Sermia, Greenland. Results show a high calving activity at the glacier front sector ending in deep water linked with more frequent meltwater plumes. This suggests that rising subglacial meltwater plumes strongly affect glacier calving in deep water, but weakly in shallow water.
Richard Essery, Hyungjun Kim, Libo Wang, Paul Bartlett, Aaron Boone, Claire Brutel-Vuilmet, Eleanor Burke, Matthias Cuntz, Bertrand Decharme, Emanuel Dutra, Xing Fang, Yeugeniy Gusev, Stefan Hagemann, Vanessa Haverd, Anna Kontu, Gerhard Krinner, Matthieu Lafaysse, Yves Lejeune, Thomas Marke, Danny Marks, Christoph Marty, Cecile B. Menard, Olga Nasonova, Tomoko Nitta, John Pomeroy, Gerd Schädler, Vladimir Semenov, Tatiana Smirnova, Sean Swenson, Dmitry Turkov, Nander Wever, and Hua Yuan
The Cryosphere, 14, 4687–4698,Short summary
Climate models are uncertain in predicting how warming changes snow cover. This paper compares 22 snow models with the same meteorological inputs. Predicted trends agree with observations at four snow research sites: winter snow cover does not start later, but snow now melts earlier in spring than in the 1980s at two of the sites. Cold regions where snow can last until late summer are predicted to be particularly sensitive to warming because the snow then melts faster at warmer times of year.
Lawrence Mudryk, María Santolaria-Otín, Gerhard Krinner, Martin Ménégoz, Chris Derksen, Claire Brutel-Vuilmet, Mike Brady, and Richard Essery
The Cryosphere, 14, 2495–2514,Short summary
We analyze how well updated state-of-the-art climate models reproduce observed historical snow cover extent and snow mass and how they project that these quantities will change up to the year 2100. Overall the updated models better represent historical snow extent than previous models, and they simulate stronger historical trends in snow extent and snow mass. They project that spring snow extent will decrease by 8 % for each degree Celsius that the global surface air temperature increases.
Alex Brisbourne, Bernd Kulessa, Thomas Hudson, Lianne Harrison, Paul Holland, Adrian Luckman, Suzanne Bevan, David Ashmore, Bryn Hubbard, Emma Pearce, James White, Adam Booth, Keith Nicholls, and Andrew Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 887–896,Short summary
Melting of the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica may lead to its collapse. To help estimate its lifespan we need to understand how the ocean can circulate beneath. This requires knowledge of the geometry of the sub-shelf cavity. New and existing measurements of seabed depth are integrated to produce a map of the ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf. The observed deep seabed may provide a pathway for circulation of warm ocean water but at the same time reduce rapid tidal melt at a critical location.
Andrea Walter, Martin P. Lüthi, and Andreas Vieli
The Cryosphere, 14, 1051–1066,Short summary
Glacier calving plays a key role in the dynamic mass loss of ocean-terminating glaciers in Greenland. Source areas and volumes of 900 individual calving events were analysed for size and timing related to environmental forcings. We found that calving volume distribution and style vary along the calving front and are controlled by the water depth and front geometry. We suggest that in deep water both oceanic melt and subaquatic calving contribute substantially to the frontal mass loss.
Guillaume Jouvet, Eef van Dongen, Martin P. Lüthi, and Andreas Vieli
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 1–10,Short summary
We report the first-ever in situ measurements of ice flow motion using a remotely controlled drone. We used a quadcopter to land on a highly crevassed area of Eqip Sermia Glacier, Greenland. The drone measured 70 cm of ice displacement over more than 4 h thanks to an accurate onboard GPS. Our study demonstrates that drones have great potential for geoscientists, especially to deploy sensors in hostile environments such as glaciers.
Nick Rutter, Melody J. Sandells, Chris Derksen, Joshua King, Peter Toose, Leanne Wake, Tom Watts, Richard Essery, Alexandre Roy, Alain Royer, Philip Marsh, Chris Larsen, and Matthew Sturm
The Cryosphere, 13, 3045–3059,Short summary
Impact of natural variability in Arctic tundra snow microstructural characteristics on the capacity to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) from Ku-band radar was assessed. Median values of metrics quantifying snow microstructure adequately characterise differences between snowpack layers. Optimal estimates of SWE required microstructural values slightly less than the measured median but tolerated natural variability for accurate estimation of SWE in shallow snowpacks.
Christoph Rohner, David Small, Jan Beutel, Daniel Henke, Martin P. Lüthi, and Andreas Vieli
The Cryosphere, 13, 2953–2975,Short summary
The recent increase in ice flow and calving rates of ocean–terminating glaciers contributes substantially to the mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Using in situ reference observations, we validate the satellite–based method of iterative offset tracking of Sentinel–1A data for deriving flow speeds. Our investigations highlight the importance of spatial resolution near the fast–flowing calving front, resulting in significantly higher ice velocities compared to large–scale operational products.
David Walters, Anthony J. Baran, Ian Boutle, Malcolm Brooks, Paul Earnshaw, John Edwards, Kalli Furtado, Peter Hill, Adrian Lock, James Manners, Cyril Morcrette, Jane Mulcahy, Claudio Sanchez, Chris Smith, Rachel Stratton, Warren Tennant, Lorenzo Tomassini, Kwinten Van Weverberg, Simon Vosper, Martin Willett, Jo Browse, Andrew Bushell, Kenneth Carslaw, Mohit Dalvi, Richard Essery, Nicola Gedney, Steven Hardiman, Ben Johnson, Colin Johnson, Andy Jones, Colin Jones, Graham Mann, Sean Milton, Heather Rumbold, Alistair Sellar, Masashi Ujiie, Michael Whitall, Keith Williams, and Mohamed Zerroukat
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1909–1963,Short summary
Global Atmosphere (GA) configurations of the Unified Model (UM) and Global Land (GL) configurations of JULES are developed for use in any global atmospheric modelling application. We describe a recent iteration of these configurations, GA7/GL7, which includes new aerosol and snow schemes and addresses the four critical errors identified in GA6. GA7/GL7 will underpin the UK's contributions to CMIP6, and hence their documentation is important.
Gerhard Krinner, Chris Derksen, Richard Essery, Mark Flanner, Stefan Hagemann, Martyn Clark, Alex Hall, Helmut Rott, Claire Brutel-Vuilmet, Hyungjun Kim, Cécile B. Ménard, Lawrence Mudryk, Chad Thackeray, Libo Wang, Gabriele Arduini, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Paul Bartlett, Julia Boike, Aaron Boone, Frédérique Chéruy, Jeanne Colin, Matthias Cuntz, Yongjiu Dai, Bertrand Decharme, Jeff Derry, Agnès Ducharne, Emanuel Dutra, Xing Fang, Charles Fierz, Josephine Ghattas, Yeugeniy Gusev, Vanessa Haverd, Anna Kontu, Matthieu Lafaysse, Rachel Law, Dave Lawrence, Weiping Li, Thomas Marke, Danny Marks, Martin Ménégoz, Olga Nasonova, Tomoko Nitta, Masashi Niwano, John Pomeroy, Mark S. Raleigh, Gerd Schaedler, Vladimir Semenov, Tanya G. Smirnova, Tobias Stacke, Ulrich Strasser, Sean Svenson, Dmitry Turkov, Tao Wang, Nander Wever, Hua Yuan, Wenyan Zhou, and Dan Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5027–5049,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of a coordinated international experiment to determine the strengths and weaknesses in how climate models treat snow. The models will be assessed at point locations using high-quality reference measurements and globally using satellite-derived datasets. How well climate models simulate snow-related processes is important because changing snow cover is an important part of the global climate system and provides an important freshwater resource for human use.
Rémy Mercenier, Martin P. Lüthi, and Andreas Vieli
The Cryosphere, 12, 721–739,Short summary
This study investigates the effect of geometrical properties on the stress state and flow regime in the vicinity of the calving front of grounded tidewater glaciers. Our analysis shows that the stress state for simple geometries can be determined solely by the water depth relative to ice thickness. This scaled relationship allows for a simple parametrization to predict calving rates of grounded tidewater glaciers that is simple, physics-based and in good agreement with observations.
Esteban Alonso-González, J. Ignacio López-Moreno, Simon Gascoin, Matilde García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Alba Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Francisco Navarro-Serrano, Jesús Revuelto, Antonio Ceballos, María Jesús Esteban-Parra, and Richard Essery
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 303–315,Short summary
We present a new daily gridded snow depth and snow water equivalent database over the Iberian Peninsula from 1980 to 2014 structured in common elevation bands. The data have proved their consistency with in situ observations and remote sensing data (MODIS). The presented dataset may be useful for many applications, including land management, hydrometeorological studies, phenology of flora and fauna, winter tourism and risk management.
Suzanne L. Bevan, Adrian Luckman, Bryn Hubbard, Bernd Kulessa, David Ashmore, Peter Kuipers Munneke, Martin O'Leary, Adam Booth, Heidi Sevestre, and Daniel McGrath
The Cryosphere, 11, 2743–2753,Short summary
Five 90 m boreholes drilled into an Antarctic Peninsula ice shelf show units of ice that are denser than expected and must have formed from refrozen surface melt which has been buried and transported downstream. We used surface flow speeds and snow accumulation rates to work out where and when these units formed. Results show that, as well as recent surface melt, a period of strong melt occurred during the 18th century. Surface melt is thought to be a factor in causing recent ice-shelf break-up.
Peter Kuipers Munneke, Daniel McGrath, Brooke Medley, Adrian Luckman, Suzanne Bevan, Bernd Kulessa, Daniela Jansen, Adam Booth, Paul Smeets, Bryn Hubbard, David Ashmore, Michiel Van den Broeke, Heidi Sevestre, Konrad Steffen, Andrew Shepherd, and Noel Gourmelen
The Cryosphere, 11, 2411–2426,Short summary
How much snow falls on the Larsen C ice shelf? This is a relevant question, because this ice shelf might collapse sometime this century. To know if and when this could happen, we found out how much snow falls on its surface. This was difficult, because there are only very few measurements. Here, we used data from automatic weather stations, sled-pulled radars, and a climate model to find that melting the annual snowfall produces about 20 cm of water in the NE and over 70 cm in the SW.
Melody Sandells, Richard Essery, Nick Rutter, Leanne Wake, Leena Leppänen, and Juha Lemmetyinen
The Cryosphere, 11, 229–246,Short summary
This study looks at a wide range of options for simulating sensor signals for satellite monitoring of water stored as snow, though an ensemble of 1323 coupled snow evolution and microwave scattering models. The greatest improvements will be made with better computer simulations of how the snow microstructure changes, followed by how the microstructure scatters radiation at microwave frequencies. Snow compaction should also be considered in systems to monitor snow mass from space.
Richard Essery, Anna Kontu, Juha Lemmetyinen, Marie Dumont, and Cécile B. Ménard
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 219–227,Short summary
Physically based models that predict the properties of snow on the ground are used in many applications, but meteorological input data required by these models are hard to obtain in cold regions. Monitoring at the Sodankyla research station allows construction of model input and evaluation datasets covering several years for the first time in the Arctic. The data are used to show that a sophisticated snow model developed for warmer and wetter sites can perform well in very different conditions.
Martin P. Lüthi and Andreas Vieli
The Cryosphere, 10, 995–1002,Short summary
Glaciers flowing into the ocean sometimes release huge pieces of ice and cause violent tsunami waves which, upon landfall, can cause severe destruction. During an exceptionally well-documented event at Eqip Sermia, west Greenland, the collapse of a 200 m high ice cliff caused a tsunami wave of 50 m height, traveling at a speed exceeding 100 km h−1. This tsunami wave was filmed from a tour boat, and was simultaneously observed with several instruments, as was the run-up of 15 m on the shore.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3867–3876,Short summary
Models of snow on the ground need to represent processes of solar radiation absorption, heat conduction, liquid water movement and compaction in snow and transfers of heat from the atmosphere. There are many such models in use, but their wide range in complexity makes it hard to understand how differences in process representations determine differences in predictions. Processes in the factorial snow model can be switched on or off independently, allowing highly controlled numerical experiments.
S. E. Chadburn, E. J. Burke, R. L. H. Essery, J. Boike, M. Langer, M. Heikenfeld, P. M. Cox, and P. Friedlingstein
The Cryosphere, 9, 1505–1521,Short summary
In this paper we use a global land-surface model to study the dynamics of Arctic permafrost. We examine the impact of new and improved processes in the model, namely soil depth and resolution, organic soils, moss and the representation of snow. These improvements make the simulated soil temperatures and thaw depth significantly more realistic. Simulations under future climate scenarios show that permafrost thaws more slowly in the new model version, but still a large amount is lost by 2100.
D. Jansen, A. J. Luckman, A. Cook, S. Bevan, B. Kulessa, B. Hubbard, and P. R. Holland
The Cryosphere, 9, 1223–1227,Short summary
Within the last year, a large rift in the southern part of the Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, propagated towards the inner part of the ice shelf. In this study we present the development of the rift as derived from remote sensing data and assess the impact of possible calving scenarios on the future stability of the Larsen C Ice Shelf, using a numerical model. We find that the calving front is likely to become unstable after the anticipated calving events.
S. Chadburn, E. Burke, R. Essery, J. Boike, M. Langer, M. Heikenfeld, P. Cox, and P. Friedlingstein
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1493–1508,Short summary
Permafrost, ground that is frozen for 2 or more years, is found extensively in the Arctic. It stores large quantities of carbon, which may be released under climate warming, so it is important to include it in climate models. Here we improve the representation of permafrost in a climate model land-surface scheme, both in the numerical representation of soil and snow, and by adding the effects of organic soils and moss. Site simulations show significantly improved soil temperature and thaw depth.
M. P. Lüthi, C. Ryser, L. C. Andrews, G. A. Catania, M. Funk, R. L. Hawley, M. J. Hoffman, and T. A. Neumann
The Cryosphere, 9, 245–253,Short summary
We analyze the thermal structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet with a heat flow model. New borehole measurements indicate that more heat is stored within the ice than would be expected from heat diffusion alone. We conclude that temperate paleo-firn and cyro-hydrologic warming are essential processes that explain the measurements.
E. Collier, L. I. Nicholson, B. W. Brock, F. Maussion, R. Essery, and A. B. G. Bush
The Cryosphere, 8, 1429–1444,
C. B. Ménard, R. Essery, and J. Pomeroy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2375–2392,
M. P. Lüthi
The Cryosphere, 8, 639–650,
B. F. Morriss, R. L. Hawley, J. W. Chipman, L. C. Andrews, G. A. Catania, M. J. Hoffman, M. P. Lüthi, and T. A. Neumann
The Cryosphere, 7, 1869–1877,
S. H. Doyle, A. L. Hubbard, C. F. Dow, G. A. Jones, A. Fitzpatrick, A. Gusmeroli, B. Kulessa, K. Lindback, R. Pettersson, and J. E. Box
The Cryosphere, 7, 129–140,
Related subject area
Snow HydrologyTwo-dimensional liquid water flow through snow at the plot scale in continental snowpacks: simulations and field data comparisonsFractional snow-covered area: scale-independent peak of winter parameterizationSeasonal components of freshwater runoff in Glacier Bay, Alaska: diverse spatial patterns and temporal changeHydrologic flow path development varies by aspect during spring snowmelt in complex subalpine terrainSnowmelt response to simulated warming across a large elevation gradient, southern Sierra Nevada, CaliforniaA continuum model for meltwater flow through compacting snowAssimilation of snow cover and snow depth into a snow model to estimate snow water equivalent and snowmelt runoff in a Himalayan catchmentBias corrections of precipitation measurements across experimental sites in different ecoclimatic regions of western CanadaObservations of capillary barriers and preferential flow in layered snow during cold laboratory experimentsA model for the spatial distribution of snow water equivalent parameterized from the spatial variability of precipitationMultilevel spatiotemporal validation of snow/ice mass balance and runoff modeling in glacierized catchmentsTopographic and vegetation effects on snow accumulation in the southern Sierra Nevada: a statistical summary from lidar dataInconsistency in precipitation measurements across the Alaska–Yukon borderPrecipitation measurement intercomparison in the Qilian Mountains, north-eastern Tibetan PlateauIndependent evaluation of the SNODAS snow depth product using regional-scale lidar-derived measurementsTopographic control of snowpack distribution in a small catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees: intra- and inter-annual persistenceModeling bulk density and snow water equivalent using daily snow depth observationsEvaluation of the snow regime in dynamic vegetation land surface models using field measurementsHomogenisation of a gridded snow water equivalent climatology for Alpine terrain: methodology and applicationsWhat drives basin scale spatial variability of snowpack properties in northern Colorado?Micrometeorological processes driving snow ablation in an Alpine catchmentUnderstanding snow-transport processes shaping the mountain snow-coverFreshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland
Ryan W. Webb, Keith Jennings, Stefan Finsterle, and Steven R. Fassnacht
The Cryosphere, 15, 1423–1434,Short summary
We simulate the flow of liquid water through snow and compare results to field experiments. This process is important because it controls how much and how quickly water will reach our streams and rivers in snowy regions. We found that water can flow large distances downslope through the snow even after the snow has stopped melting. Improved modeling of snowmelt processes will allow us to more accurately estimate available water resources, especially under changing climate conditions.
Nora Helbig, Yves Bühler, Lucie Eberhard, César Deschamps-Berger, Simon Gascoin, Marie Dumont, Jesus Revuelto, Jeff S. Deems, and Tobias Jonas
The Cryosphere, 15, 615–632,Short summary
The spatial variability in snow depth in mountains is driven by interactions between topography, wind, precipitation and radiation. In applications such as weather, climate and hydrological predictions, this is accounted for by the fractional snow-covered area describing the fraction of the ground surface covered by snow. We developed a new description for model grid cell sizes larger than 200 m. An evaluation suggests that the description performs similarly well in most geographical regions.
Ryan L. Crumley, David F. Hill, Jordan P. Beamer, and Elizabeth R. Holzenthal
The Cryosphere, 13, 1597–1619,Short summary
In this study we investigate the historical (1980–2015) and projection scenario (2070–2099) components of freshwater runoff to Glacier Bay, Alaska, using a modeling approach. We find that many of the historically snow-dominated watersheds in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve may transition towards rainfall-dominated hydrographs in a projection scenario under RCP 8.5 conditions. The changes in timing and volume of freshwater entering Glacier Bay will affect bay ecology and hydrochemistry.
Ryan W. Webb, Steven R. Fassnacht, and Michael N. Gooseff
The Cryosphere, 12, 287–300,Short summary
We observed how snowmelt is transported on a hillslope through multiple measurements of snow and soil moisture across a small headwater catchment. We found that snowmelt flows through the snow with less infiltration on north-facing slopes and infiltrates the ground on south-facing slopes. This causes an increase in snow water equivalent at the base of the north-facing slope by as much as 170 %. We present a conceptualization of flow path development to improve future investigations.
Keith N. Musselman, Noah P. Molotch, and Steven A. Margulis
The Cryosphere, 11, 2847–2866,Short summary
We present a study of how melt rates in the California Sierra Nevada respond to a range of warming projected for this century. Snowfall and melt were simulated for historical and modified (warmer) snow seasons. Winter melt occurs more frequently and more intensely, causing an increase in extreme winter melt. In a warmer climate, less snow persists into the spring, causing spring melt to be substantially lower. The results offer insight into how snow water resources may respond to climate change.
Colin R. Meyer and Ian J. Hewitt
The Cryosphere, 11, 2799–2813,Short summary
We describe a new model for the evolution of snow temperature, density, and water content on the surface of glaciers and ice sheets. The model encompasses the surface hydrology of accumulation and ablation areas, allowing us to explore the transition from one to the other as thermal forcing varies. We predict year-round liquid water storage for intermediate values of the surface forcing. We also compare our model to data for the vertical percolation of meltwater in Greenland.
Emmy E. Stigter, Niko Wanders, Tuomo M. Saloranta, Joseph M. Shea, Marc F. P. Bierkens, and Walter W. Immerzeel
The Cryosphere, 11, 1647–1664,
Xicai Pan, Daqing Yang, Yanping Li, Alan Barr, Warren Helgason, Masaki Hayashi, Philip Marsh, John Pomeroy, and Richard J. Janowicz
The Cryosphere, 10, 2347–2360,Short summary
This study demonstrates a robust procedure for accumulating precipitation gauge measurements and provides an analysis of bias corrections of precipitation measurements across experimental sites in different ecoclimatic regions of western Canada. It highlights the need for and importance of precipitation bias corrections at both research sites and operational networks for water balance assessment and the validation of global/regional climate–hydrology models.
Francesco Avanzi, Hiroyuki Hirashima, Satoru Yamaguchi, Takafumi Katsushima, and Carlo De Michele
The Cryosphere, 10, 2013–2026,Short summary
We investigate capillary barriers and preferential flow in layered snow during nine cold laboratory experiments. The dynamics of each sample were replicated solving Richards equation within the 1-D multi-layer physically based SNOWPACK model. Results show that both processes affect the speed of water infiltration in stratified snow and are marked by a high degree of spatial variability at cm scale and complex 3-D patterns.
Thomas Skaugen and Ingunn H. Weltzien
The Cryosphere, 10, 1947–1963,Short summary
In hydrological models it is important to properly simulate the spatial distribution of snow water equivalent (SWE) for the timing of spring melt floods and the accounting of energy fluxes. This paper describes a method for the spatial distribution of SWE which is parameterised from observed spatial variability of precipitation and has hence no calibration parameters. Results show improved simulation of SWE and the evolution of snow-free areas when compared with the standard method.
Florian Hanzer, Kay Helfricht, Thomas Marke, and Ulrich Strasser
The Cryosphere, 10, 1859–1881,Short summary
The hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN is set up to simulate snow and ice accumulation, ablation, and runoff for a study region in the Ötztal Alps (Austria) in the period 1997–2013. A new validation concept is introduced and demonstrated by evaluating the model performance using several independent data sets, e.g. snow depth measurements, satellite-derived snow maps, lidar data, glacier mass balances, and runoff measurements.
Z. Zheng, P. B. Kirchner, and R. C. Bales
The Cryosphere, 10, 257–269,Short summary
By analyzing high-resolution lidar products and using statistical methods, we quantified the snow depth dependency on elevation, slope and aspect of the terrain and also the surrounding vegetation in four catchment size sites in the southern Sierra Nevada during snow peak season. The relative importance of topographic and vegetation attributes varies with elevation and canopy, but all these attributes were found significant in affecting snow distribution in mountain basins.
L. Scaff, D. Yang, Y. Li, and E. Mekis
The Cryosphere, 9, 2417–2428,Short summary
The bias corrections show significant errors in the gauge precipitation measurements over the northern regions. Monthly precipitation is closely correlated between the stations across the Alaska--Yukon border, particularly for the warm months. Double mass curves indicate changes in the cumulative precipitation due to bias corrections over the study period. Overall the bias corrections lead to a smaller and inverted precipitation gradient across the border, especially for snowfall.
R. Chen, J. Liu, E. Kang, Y. Yang, C. Han, Z. Liu, Y. Song, W. Qing, and P. Zhu
The Cryosphere, 9, 1995–2008,Short summary
The catch ratio of Chinese standard precipitation gauge vs. wind speed relationship for different precipitation types was well quantified by cubic polynomials and exponential functions using 5-year field data in the high-mountain environment of the Tibetan Plateau. The daily precipitation measured by shielded gauges increases linearly with that of unshielded gauges. The pit gauge catches the most local precipitation in rainy season and could be used as a reference in most regions of China.
A. Hedrick, H.-P. Marshall, A. Winstral, K. Elder, S. Yueh, and D. Cline
The Cryosphere, 9, 13–23,
J. Revuelto, J. I. López-Moreno, C. Azorin-Molina, and S. M. Vicente-Serrano
The Cryosphere, 8, 1989–2006,
J. L. McCreight and E. E. Small
The Cryosphere, 8, 521–536,
E. Kantzas, S. Quegan, M. Lomas, and E. Zakharova
The Cryosphere, 8, 487–502,
S. Jörg-Hess, F. Fundel, T. Jonas, and M. Zappa
The Cryosphere, 8, 471–485,
G. A. Sexstone and S. R. Fassnacht
The Cryosphere, 8, 329–344,
R. Mott, L. Egli, T. Grünewald, N. Dawes, C. Manes, M. Bavay, and M. Lehning
The Cryosphere, 5, 1083–1098,
R. Mott, M. Schirmer, M. Bavay, T. Grünewald, and M. Lehning
The Cryosphere, 4, 545–559,
S. H. Mernild, I. M. Howat, Y. Ahn, G. E. Liston, K. Steffen, B. H. Jakobsen, B. Hasholt, B. Fog, and D. van As
The Cryosphere, 4, 453–465,
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We show that strong electrical self-potential fields are generated in melting in in situ snowpacks at Rhone Glacier and Jungfraujoch Glacier, Switzerland. We conclude that the electrical self-potential method is a promising snow and firn hydrology sensor, owing to its suitability for sensing lateral and vertical liquid water flows directly and minimally invasively, complementing established observational programs and monitoring autonomously at a low cost.
We show that strong electrical self-potential fields are generated in melting in in situ...