Articles | Volume 14, issue 7
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Satellite-observed monthly glacier and snow mass changes in southeast Tibet: implication for substantial meltwater contribution to the Brahmaputra
Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0808 Japan
State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
No articles found.
Xiufeng Yin, Dipesh Rupakheti, Guoshuai Zhang, Jiali Luo, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Junhua Yang, Zhenming Ji, Zhiyuan Cong, Maheswar Rupakheti, Ping Li, Yuling Hu, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10137–10143,Short summary
The monthly mean surface ozone concentrations peaked earlier in the south in April and May and later in the north in June and July over the Tibetan Plateau. The migration of monthly surface ozone peaks was coupled with the synchronous movement of tropopause folds and the westerly jet that created conditions conducive to stratospheric ozone intrusion. Stratospheric ozone intrusion significantly contributed to surface ozone across the Tibetan Plateau.
Md Safat Sikder, Jida Wang, George H. Allen, Yongwei Sheng, Dai Yamazaki, Chunqiao Song, Meng Ding, Jean-François Crétaux, and Tamlin M. Pavelsky
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 3483–3511,Short summary
We introduce Lake-TopoCat to reveal detailed lake hydrography information. It contains the location of lake outlets, the boundary of lake catchments, and a wide suite of attributes that depict detailed lake drainage relationships. It was constructed using lake boundaries from a global lake dataset, with the help of high-resolution hydrography data. This database may facilitate a variety of applications including water quality, agriculture and fisheries, and integrated lake–river modeling.
Yuling Hu, Shichang Kang, Haipeng Yu, Junhua Yang, Mukesh Rai, Xiufeng Yin, Xintong Chen, and Pengfei Chen
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) saw the record-breaking aerosol pollution event from April 20 to May 10, 2016. We then studied the impact of aerosol-meteorology feedback on the transboundary transport flux of black carbon (BC) during this severe pollution event. It was found that the aerosol-meteorology feedback decreases the trans-boundary transport flux of BC from central and western Himalayas towards the TP. The study is of great significance to the ecological environment protection for the TP.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Long Chen, Chenghao Yu, Zhaohan Chu, Qianru Zhang, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Junfeng Liu, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3937–3953,Short summary
Lhasa is the largest city in the Tibetan Plateau, and its atmospheric mercury concentrations represent the highest level of pollution in this region. Unexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species were found. Combined with the trajectory analysis, the high atmospheric mercury concentrations may have originated from external long-range transport. Local sources, especially special mercury-related sources, are important factors influencing the variability of atmospheric mercury.
Shaoyong Wang, Xiaobo He, Shichang Kang, Hui Fu, and Xiaofeng Hong
The Cryosphere, 16, 5023–5040,Short summary
This study used the sine-wave exponential model and long-term water stable isotopic data to estimate water mean residence time (MRT) and its influencing factors in a high-altitude permafrost catchment (5300 m a.s.l.) in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP). MRT for stream and supra-permafrost water was estimated at 100 and 255 d, respectively. Climate and vegetation factors affected the MRT of stream and supra-permafrost water mainly by changing the thickness of the permafrost active layer.
Jizu Chen, Wentao Du, Shichang Kang, Xiang Qin, Weijun Sun, Yang Li, Yushuo Liu, Lihui Luo, and Youyan Jiang
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study developed a dynamic deposition model of light absorbing particles (LAPs), which coupled with a surface energy and mass balance model. Based on the coupled model, we assessed atmospheric deposited BC effect on glacier melting, and quantified global warming and increment of emitted black carbon respective contributions to current accelerated glacier melting.
Chunqiao Song, Chenyu Fan, Jingying Zhu, Jida Wang, Yongwei Sheng, Kai Liu, Tan Chen, Pengfei Zhan, Shuangxiao Luo, Chunyu Yuan, and Linghong Ke
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4017–4034,Short summary
Over the last century, many dams/reservoirs have been built globally to meet various needs. The official statistics reported more than 98 000 dams/reservoirs in China. Despite the availability of several global-scale dam/reservoir databases, these databases have insufficient coverage in China. Therefore, we present the China Reservoir Dataset (CRD), which contains 97 435 reservoir polygons. The CRD reservoirs have a total area of 50 085.21 km2 and total storage of about 979.62 Gt.
Chaman Gul, Shichang Kang, Siva Praveen Puppala, Xiaokang Wu, Cenlin He, Yangyang Xu, Inka Koch, Sher Muhammad, Rajesh Kumar, and Getachew Dubache
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8725–8737,Short summary
This work aims to understand concentrations, spatial variability, and potential source regions of light-absorbing impurities (black carbon aerosols, dust particles, and organic carbon) in the surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers and their impact on snow albedo and radiative forcing.
Xinghua Zhang, Wenhui Zhao, Lixiang Zhai, Miao Zhong, Jinsen Shi, Junying Sun, Yanmei Liu, Conghui Xie, Yulong Tan, Kemei Li, Xinlei Ge, Qi Zhang, Shichang Kang, and Jianzhong Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
A comprehensive aerosol observation project was carried out in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in recent years to investigate the properties and sources of atmospheric aerosols as well as their regional differences by performing multiple short-term intensive field observations. The real-time online high-time-resolution (hourly) data of aerosol properties in the different TP region are integrated in a new dataset and can provide supporting for related studies in in the TP.
Yongqin Liu, Pengcheng Fang, Bixi Guo, Mukan Ji, Pengfei Liu, Guannan Mao, Baiqing Xu, Shichang Kang, and Junzhi Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2303–2314,Short summary
Glaciers are an important pool of microorganisms, organic carbon, and nitrogen. This study constructed the first dataset of microbial abundance and total nitrogen in Tibetan Plateau (TP) glaciers and the first dataset of dissolved organic carbon in ice cores on the TP. These new data could provide valuable information for research on the glacier carbon and nitrogen cycle and help in assessing the potential impacts of glacier retreat due to global warming on downstream ecosystems.
Jida Wang, Blake A. Walter, Fangfang Yao, Chunqiao Song, Meng Ding, Abu Sayeed Maroof, Jingying Zhu, Chenyu Fan, Jordan M. McAlister, Safat Sikder, Yongwei Sheng, George H. Allen, Jean-François Crétaux, and Yoshihide Wada
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1869–1899,Short summary
Improved water infrastructure data on dams and reservoirs remain to be critical to hydrologic modeling, energy planning, and environmental conservation. We present a new global dataset, GeoDAR, that includes nearly 25 000 georeferenced dam points and their associated reservoir boundaries. A majority of these features can be linked to the register of the International Commission on Large Dams, extending the potential of registered attribute information for spatially explicit applications.
Mukesh Rai, Shichang Kang, Junhua Yang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Dipesh Rupakheti, Lekhendra Tripathee, Yuling Hu, and Xintong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Our study revealed distinctive seasonality with the maximum and minimum aerosol concentrations during the winter and summer seasons respectively. However, interestingly summer high (AOD > 0.8) was observed over South Asia. The highest aerosols are laden over South Asia and East China within 1–2 km, however, aerosol overshooting found up to 10 km due to the deep convection process. Whereas, integrated aerosol transport for OC during spring was found to be 5 times higher than the annual mean.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Chenghao Yu, Long Chen, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Lun Luo, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2651–2668,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is known as
The Third Poleand is generally considered to be a clean area owing to its high altitude. However, it may receive be impacted by air pollutants transported from the Indian subcontinent. Pollutants generally enter the Tibetan Plateau in several ways. Among them is the Yarlung Zangbu–Brahmaputra Grand Canyon. In this study, we identified the influence of the Indian summer monsoon on the origin, transport, and behavior of mercury in this area.
Shichang Kang, Yulan Zhang, Pengfei Chen, Junming Guo, Qianggong Zhang, Zhiyuan Cong, Susan Kaspari, Lekhendra Tripathee, Tanguang Gao, Hewen Niu, Xinyue Zhong, Xintong Chen, Zhaofu Hu, Xiaofei Li, Yang Li, Bigyan Neupane, Fangping Yan, Dipesh Rupakheti, Chaman Gul, Wei Zhang, Guangming Wu, Ling Yang, Zhaoqing Wang, and Chaoliu Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 683–707,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is important to the Earth’s climate. However, systematically observed data here are scarce. To perform more integrated and in-depth investigations of the origins and distributions of atmospheric pollutants and their impacts on cryospheric change, systematic data of black carbon and organic carbon from the atmosphere, glaciers, snow cover, precipitation, and lake sediment cores over the plateau based on the Atmospheric Pollution and Cryospheric Change program are provided.
Jinlei Chen, Shichang Kang, Wentao Du, Junming Guo, Min Xu, Yulan Zhang, Xinyue Zhong, Wei Zhang, and Jizu Chen
The Cryosphere, 15, 5473–5482,Short summary
Sea ice is retreating with rapid warming in the Arctic. It will continue and approach the worst predicted pathway released by the IPCC. The irreversible tipping point might show around 2060 when the oldest ice will have completely disappeared. It has a huge impact on human production. Ordinary merchant ships will be able to pass the Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage by the midcentury, and the opening time will advance to the next 10 years for icebreakers with moderate ice strengthening.
Yongkang Xue, Tandong Yao, Aaron A. Boone, Ismaila Diallo, Ye Liu, Xubin Zeng, William K. M. Lau, Shiori Sugimoto, Qi Tang, Xiaoduo Pan, Peter J. van Oevelen, Daniel Klocke, Myung-Seo Koo, Tomonori Sato, Zhaohui Lin, Yuhei Takaya, Constantin Ardilouze, Stefano Materia, Subodh K. Saha, Retish Senan, Tetsu Nakamura, Hailan Wang, Jing Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Mei Zhao, Xin-Zhong Liang, J. David Neelin, Frederic Vitart, Xin Li, Ping Zhao, Chunxiang Shi, Weidong Guo, Jianping Tang, Miao Yu, Yun Qian, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yang Zhang, Kun Yang, Ruby Leung, Yuan Qiu, Daniele Peano, Xin Qi, Yanling Zhan, Michael A. Brunke, Sin Chan Chou, Michael Ek, Tianyi Fan, Hong Guan, Hai Lin, Shunlin Liang, Helin Wei, Shaocheng Xie, Haoran Xu, Weiping Li, Xueli Shi, Paulo Nobre, Yan Pan, Yi Qin, Jeff Dozier, Craig R. Ferguson, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Qing Bao, Jinming Feng, Jinkyu Hong, Songyou Hong, Huilin Huang, Duoying Ji, Zhenming Ji, Shichang Kang, Yanluan Lin, Weiguang Liu, Ryan Muncaster, Patricia de Rosnay, Hiroshi G. Takahashi, Guiling Wang, Shuyu Wang, Weicai Wang, Xu Zhou, and Yuejian Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4465–4494,Short summary
The subseasonal prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts/floods has remained stubbornly low for years. This paper presents a new international initiative which, for the first time, introduces spring land surface temperature anomalies over high mountains to improve precipitation prediction through remote effects of land–atmosphere interactions. More than 40 institutions worldwide are participating in this effort. The experimental protocol and preliminary results are presented.
Kun Wang, Shohei Hattori, Mang Lin, Sakiko Ishino, Becky Alexander, Kazuki Kamezaki, Naohiro Yoshida, and Shichang Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8357–8376,Short summary
Sulfate aerosols play an important climatic role and exert adverse effects on the ecological environment and human health. In this study, we present the triple oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate from the Mt. Everest region, southern Tibetan Plateau, and decipher the formation mechanisms of atmospheric sulfate in this pristine environment. The results indicate the important role of the S(IV) + O3 pathway in atmospheric sulfate formation promoted by conditions of high cloud water pH.
Meixin Zhang, Chun Zhao, Zhiyuan Cong, Qiuyan Du, Mingyue Xu, Yu Chen, Ming Chen, Rui Li, Yunfei Fu, Lei Zhong, Shichang Kang, Delong Zhao, and Yan Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5923–5943,Short summary
Analysis of multiple numerical experiments over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP) shows that the complex topography results in 50 % stronger overall cross-Himalayan transport during the pre-monsoon season primarily due to the strengthened efficiency of near-surface meridional transport towards the TP, enhanced wind speed in some valleys and deeper valley channels associated with larger transported BC mass volume, which leads to 30–50 % stronger BC radiative heating over the TP.
Xinghua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Qi Zhang, and Junying Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7897–7911,Short summary
Highly time resolved chemistry and sources of PM1 were measured by an Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS at Waliguan Baseline Observatory, a high-altitude background station at the northeastern edge of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP), during summer 2017. Relatively higher mass concentration of PM1 and dominant sulfate contribution were observed in this site compared to those at other high-elevation sites in the southern or central QTP, indicating the different aerosol sources between them.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Lekhendra Tripathee, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Mark G. Lawrence, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2725–2747,Short summary
The sources of primary and secondary aerosols in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau region are not well known. Organic molecular tracers are useful for aerosol source apportionment. The characterization of molecular tracers were first systemically investigated and the contribution from primary and secondary sources to carbonaceous aerosols was estimated in the Kathmandu Valley. Our results demonstrate that biomass burning contributed a significant fraction to OC in the Kathmandu Valley.
Yanqing An, Jianzhong Xu, Lin Feng, Xinghua Zhang, Yanmei Liu, Shichang Kang, Bin Jiang, and Yuhong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1115–1128,Short summary
Detailed molecular chemical composition of water-soluble organic matter in the Himalayas was characterized by positive electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for the first time. Many products formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds and biomass-burning-emitted compounds were found in the organic compounds, suggesting the important contribution of these two sources in the Himalayas.
Zhiwen Dong, Shichang Kang, Dahe Qin, Yaping Shao, Sven Ulbrich, and Xiang Qin
The Cryosphere, 12, 3877–3890,Short summary
This study aimed to provide a first and unique record of physicochemical properties and mixing states of LAPs at the glacier and atmosphere interface over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau to determine the individual LAPs' structure aging and mixing state changes through the atmospheric deposition process from atmosphere to glacier–snowpack surface, thereby helping to characterize the LAPs' radiative forcing and climate effects in the cryosphere region.
Zhiyuan Cong, Shaopeng Gao, Wancang Zhao, Xin Wang, Guangming Wu, Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Yongqin Liu, and Junfeng Ji
The Cryosphere, 12, 3177–3186,Short summary
Cryoconites from glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding area were studied for iron oxides. We found that goethite is the predominant iron oxide form. Using the abundance, speciation and optical properties of iron oxides, the total light absorption was quantitatively attributed to goethite, hematite, black carbon and organic matter. Such findings are essential to understand the relative significance of anthropogenic and natural impacts.
Xintong Chen, Shichang Kang, Zhiyuan Cong, Junhua Yang, and Yaoming Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12859–12875,Short summary
To understand the impact of transboundary atmospheric black carbon on the Mt. Everest region and depict the transport pathways in different spatiotemporal scales, we first investigated the concentration level, temporal variation, and sources of black carbon based on high-resolution (2-year) measurements at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station (4276 m a.s.l.). Next, the WRF-Chem simulations were used to reveal the transport mechanisms of black carbon from southern Asia to the Mt. Everest region.
Cenlin He, Mark G. Flanner, Fei Chen, Michael Barlage, Kuo-Nan Liou, Shichang Kang, Jing Ming, and Yun Qian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11507–11527,Short summary
Snow albedo plays a key role in the Earth and climate system. It can be affected by impurities and snow properties. This study implements new parameterizations into a widely used snow model to account for effects of snow shape and black carbon–snow mixing state on snow albedo reduction in the Tibetan Plateau. This study points toward an imperative need for extensive measurements and improved model characterization of snow grain shape and aerosol–snow mixing state in Tibet and elsewhere.
Xiufeng Yin, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Yaoming Ma, Yindong Tong, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Wang, Guoshuai Zhang, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10557–10574,Short summary
Total gaseous mercury concentrations were measured at Nam Co Station on the inland Tibetan Plateau for ~ 3 years. The mean concentration of TGM during the entire monitoring period was 1.33 ± 0.24 ngm-3, ranking it the lowest in China and indicating the pristine atmospheric environment of the inland Tibetan Plateau. Variation of TGM at Nam Co was affected by regional surface reemission, vertical mixing and long-range transported atmospheric mercury, which was associated with the Indian monsoon.
Hewen Niu, Shichang Kang, Hailong Wang, Rudong Zhang, Xixi Lu, Yun Qian, Rukumesh Paudyal, Shijin Wang, Xiaofei Shi, and Xingguo Yan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6441–6460,Short summary
Deposition of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on the surface of glaciers can greatly alter the energy fluxes of glaciers. Two years of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in a glacierized region are analyzed. We mainly studied the light absorption properties of carbonaceous aerosol and have employed a global aerosol–climate model to estimate source attributions of atmospheric black carbon.
D. Rupakheti, S. Kang, Z. Cong, M. Rupakheti, L. Tripathee, A. K. Panday, and B. Holben
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 1493–1497,
Chaman Gul, Siva Praveen Puppala, Shichang Kang, Bhupesh Adhikary, Yulan Zhang, Shaukat Ali, Yang Li, and Xiaofei Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4981–5000,Short summary
Snow and ice samples were collected from six glaciers and multiple mountain valleys from northern Pakistan. Samples were analyzed for black carbon and water-insoluble organic carbon. Relatively high concentrations of black carbon, organic carbon, and dust were reported. Snow albedo and radiative forcing were estimated for the snow samples. Possible source regions of pollutants were identified through various techniques.
Xinghua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Yanmei Liu, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4617–4638,Short summary
Highly time and chemically resolved submicron aerosol properties were characterized online for the first time in a high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas by using the Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Biomass burning plumes were frequently observed and the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical processing) were characterized. The source and chemical composition of organic aerosol were further elucidated using positive matrix factorization analysis.
Haipeng Wang, Jianhui Chen, Shengda Zhang, David D. Zhang, Zongli Wang, Qinghai Xu, Shengqian Chen, Shijin Wang, Shichang Kang, and Fahu Chen
Clim. Past, 14, 383–396,Short summary
The chironomid-inferred temperature record from Gonghai Lake exhibits a stepwise decreasing trend since 4 ka. A cold event in the Era of Disunity, the Sui-Tang Warm Period, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age can all be recognized in our record, as well as in many other temperature reconstructions in China. Local wars in Shanxi Province, documented in the historical literature during the past 2700 years, are statistically significantly correlated with changes in temperature.
Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Michael Sprenger, Zhiyuan Cong, Tanguang Gao, Chaoliu Li, Shu Tao, Xiaofei Li, Xinyue Zhong, Min Xu, Wenjun Meng, Bigyan Neupane, Xiang Qin, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 12, 413–431,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities deposited on snow can reduce surface albedo and contribute to the near-worldwide melting of snowpack and ice. This study focused on the black carbon and mineral dust in snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau. We discussed their concentrations, distributions, possible sources, and albedo reduction and radiative forcing. Findings indicated that the impacts of black carbon and mineral dust need to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections.
Xinyue Zhong, Tingjun Zhang, Shichang Kang, Kang Wang, Lei Zheng, Yuantao Hu, and Huijuan Wang
The Cryosphere, 12, 227–245,
Jianzhong Xu, Qi Zhang, Jinsen Shi, Xinlei Ge, Conghui Xie, Junfeng Wang, Shichang Kang, Ruixiong Zhang, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 427–443,Short summary
This manuscript presents results from a comprehensive field study using an HR-AMS coupled with a suite of other instruments in central Tibetan Plateau. The study discusses the chemical composition, sources, and processes of submicron aerosol during the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon. Organic aerosol was overall highly oxidized during the entire study with higher O / C ratios during the pre-monsoon period. Sensitivity of air pollution transport with synoptic process was also evaluated.
Lin Feng, Yanqing An, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Xiaofei Li, Yongqiang Zhou, Yunlin Zhang, Bin Jiang, and Yuhong Liao
Revised manuscript not accepted
Chaoliu Li, Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Pengfei Chen, Xiaowen Han, Zhaofu Hu, Guoshuai Zhang, Ye Hong, Shaopeng Gao, Bin Qu, Zhejing Zhu, Jiwei Li, Bing Chen, and Mika Sillanpää
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11899–11912,Short summary
In this study, we found, due to contribution of carbonates, previously reported BC concentration in atmosphere of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP) were overestimated by around 39–52 %. Meanwhile, we found BC deposition of lake cores overestimated the atmospheric deposition of BC in the HTP; BC depositions of glacier region reflected actual values of 17.9 ± 5.3 mg m−2 a−1. The above results are critical for studying atmospheric distribution and chemical transport of BC in and around the HTP.
Xiufeng Yin, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Zhiyuan Cong, Jiali Luo, Lang Zhang, Yaoming Ma, Guoshuai Zhang, Dipesh Rupakheti, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11293–11311,Short summary
We presented 5-year surface ozone measurements at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau and made a synthesis comparison of diurnal and seasonal patterns on regional and hemispheric scales. Surface ozone at Nam Co is mainly dominated by natural processes and is less influenced by stratospheric intrusions and human activities than on the rim of the Tibetan Plateau. Ozone at Nam Co is representative of background that is valuable for studying ozone-related effects on large scales.
Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhupesh Adhikary, Puppala Siva Praveen, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shichang Kang, Khadak Singh Mahata, Manish Naja, Qianggong Zhang, Arnico Kumar Panday, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11041–11063,Short summary
For the first time, atmospheric composition was monitored during pre-monsoon season of 2013 at Lumbini (UNESCO world heritage site as birthplace of the Buddha). PM and O3 frequently exceeded WHO guidelines. Pollution concentration, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini were investigated. Potential source regions were also identified. Results show that air pollution at this site is of a great concern, requiring prompt attention for mitigation.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Quanlian Li, Dipesh Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Lekhendra Tripathee, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Wu Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Shaopeng Gao, Guangming Wu, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8867–8885,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) tracers in the aerosols in Lumbini, northern IGP, were studied for the first time. The levoglucosan was the predominant tracer and BB significantly contributed to the air quality in Lumbini. Mixed crop residues and hardwood were main burning materials. BB emissions constituted large fraction of OC, especially during the post-monsoon season. The sources of BB aerosols in Lumbini varies seasonally due to the influence of local emissions and long-range transport.
Bin Liu, Zhiyuan Cong, Yuesi Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Xin Wan, Yuepeng Pan, Zirui Liu, Yonghong Wang, Guoshuai Zhang, Zhongyan Wang, Yongjie Wang, and Shichang Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 449–463,Short summary
The first observation net of background atmospheric aerosols of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau were conducted in 2011–2013, and the aerosol mass loadings were especially illustrated in this paper. Consequently, these terrestrial aerosol masses were strongly ecosystem-dependent, with various seasonality and diurnal cycles at these sites. These findings implicate that regional characteristics and fine-particle emissions need to be treated sensitively when assessing their climatic effects.
Jianzhong Xu, Jinsen Shi, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Matthias Vonwiller, Sönke Szidat, Jinming Ge, Jianmin Ma, Yanqing An, Shichang Kang, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14937–14957,Short summary
This study deployed an AMS field study in Lanzhou, a city in northwestern China, evaluating the chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during wintertime. In comparison with the results during summer in Lanzhou, the air pollution during winter was more severe and the sources were more complex. In addition, this paper estimates the contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon to primary and secondary organic carbon using the carbon isotopic method.
Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Yulan Zhang, Xiang Qin, Yang Li, Xiaopeng Zhang, Zhaofu Hu, Pengfei Chen, Xiaofei Li, Bin Qu, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 10, 2611–2621,Short summary
DOC release of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 was 192 kg km−2 yr−1, of which 43.2 % could be decomposed and return to atmosphere as CO2 within 28 days, producing positive feedback in the warming process and influencing downstream ecosystems. Radiative forcing of snow pit DOC was calculated to be 0.43 W m−2, accounting for about 10 % of the radiative forcing caused by BC. Therefore, DOC is also a light-absorbing agent in glacierized regions, influencing the albedo of glacier surface and glacier melting.
Shengyun Chen, Wenjie Liu, Qian Zhao, Lin Zhao, Qingbai Wu, Xingjie Lu, Shichang Kang, Xiang Qin, Shilong Chen, Jiawen Ren, and Dahe Qin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Experimental warming was manipulated using open top chambers in alpine grassland ecosystem in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results revealed variations of earlier thawing, later freezing and longer freezing-thawing periods in shallow soil. Further, the estimated permafrost table declined under the warming scenarios. The work will be helpful to evaluate the stability of Qinghai-Tibet Railway/Highway and estimate the release of carbon under the future climate warming.
Yang Li, Jizu Chen, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Bin Qu, Lekhendra Tripathee, Fangping Yan, Yulan Zhang, Junmin Guo, Chaman Gul, and Xiang Qin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first quantitative dataset of the impacts of light absorbing particles (LAPs) on glacier ablation estimated directly from the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau (TP).The average concentrations of black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD) in surface snow and ice at Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (LHG) were much higher than those detected in snow pits and ice cores in TP and Tien Shan mountains.
S. Song, N. E. Selin, A. L. Soerensen, H. Angot, R. Artz, S. Brooks, E.-G. Brunke, G. Conley, A. Dommergue, R. Ebinghaus, T. M. Holsen, D. A. Jaffe, S. Kang, P. Kelley, W. T. Luke, O. Magand, K. Marumoto, K. A. Pfaffhuber, X. Ren, G.-R. Sheu, F. Slemr, T. Warneke, A. Weigelt, P. Weiss-Penzias, D. C. Wip, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7103–7125,Short summary
A better knowledge of mercury (Hg) emission fluxes into the global atmosphere is important for assessing its human health impacts and evaluating the effectiveness of corresponding policy actions. We for the first time apply a top-down approach at a global scale to quantitatively estimate present-day mercury emission sources as well as key parameters in a chemical transport model, in order to better constrain the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury.
S. Kang, F. Wang, U. Morgenstern, Y. Zhang, B. Grigholm, S. Kaspari, M. Schwikowski, J. Ren, T. Yao, D. Qin, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1213–1222,Short summary
Related subject area
Discipline: Glaciers | Subject: Mass Balance ObsBrief communication: The Glacier Loss Day as an indicator of a record-breaking negative glacier mass balance in 2022European heat waves 2022: contribution to extreme glacier melt in Switzerland inferred from automated ablation readingsCentral Asia's spatiotemporal glacier response ambiguity due to data inconsistencies and regional simplificationsRecent contrasting behaviour of mountain glaciers across the European High Arctic revealed by ArcticDEM dataCharacteristics of mountain glaciers in the northern Japanese AlpsAssimilating near-real-time mass balance stake readings into a model ensemble using a particle filterGeodetic point surface mass balances: a new approach to determine point surface mass balances on glaciers from remote sensing measurementsApplying artificial snowfall to reduce the melting of the Muz Taw Glacier, Sawir MountainsBrief communication: Ad hoc estimation of glacier contributions to sea-level rise from the latest glaciological observationsHeterogeneous spatial and temporal pattern of surface elevation change and mass balance of the Patagonian ice fields between 2000 and 2016Long-range terrestrial laser scanning measurements of annual and intra-annual mass balances for Urumqi Glacier No. 1, eastern Tien Shan, ChinaMulti-year evaluation of airborne geodetic surveys to estimate seasonal mass balance, Columbia and Rocky Mountains, CanadaInterannual snow accumulation variability on glaciers derived from repeat, spatially extensive ground-penetrating radar surveysLocal topography increasingly influences the mass balance of a retreating cirque glacierMulti-decadal mass balance series of three Kyrgyz glaciers inferred from modelling constrained with repeated snow line observationsChanging pattern of ice flow and mass balance for glaciers discharging into the Larsen A and B embayments, Antarctic Peninsula, 2011 to 2016
Annelies Voordendag, Rainer Prinz, Lilian Schuster, and Georg Kaser
The Cryosphere, 17, 3661–3665,Short summary
The Glacier Loss Day (GLD) is the day on which all mass gained from the accumulation period is lost, and the glacier loses mass irrecoverably for the rest of the mass balance year. In 2022, the GLD was already reached on 23 June at Hintereisferner (Austria), and this led to a record-breaking mass loss. We introduce the GLD as a gross yet expressive indicator of the glacier’s imbalance with a persistently warming climate.
Aaron Cremona, Matthias Huss, Johannes Marian Landmann, Joël Borner, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 17, 1895–1912,Short summary
Summer heat waves have a substantial impact on glacier melt as emphasized by the extreme summer of 2022. This study presents a novel approach for detecting extreme glacier melt events at the regional scale based on the combination of automatically retrieved point mass balance observations and modelling approaches. The in-depth analysis of summer 2022 evidences the strong correspondence between heat waves and extreme melt events and demonstrates their significance for seasonal melt.
Martina Barandun and Eric Pohl
The Cryosphere, 17, 1343–1371,Short summary
Meteorological and glacier mass balance data scarcity introduces large uncertainties about drivers of heterogeneous glacier mass balance response in Central Asia. We investigate the consistency of interpretations derived from various datasets through a systematic correlation analysis between climatic and static drivers with mass balance estimates. Our results show in particular that even supposedly similar datasets lead to different and partly contradicting assumptions on dominant drivers.
The Cryosphere, 16, 2067–2082,Short summary
This study presents a snapshot of the recent state of small mountain glaciers across the European High Arctic, where severe climate warming has been occurring over the past years. The analysis revealed that this class of ice mass might melt away from many study sites within the coming two to five decades even without further warming. Glacier changes were, however, very variable in space, and some glaciers have been gaining mass, but the exact drivers behind this phenomenon are unclear.
Kenshiro Arie, Chiyuki Narama, Ryohei Yamamoto, Kotaro Fukui, and Hajime Iida
The Cryosphere, 16, 1091–1106,Short summary
In recent years, seven glaciers are confirmed in the northern Japanese Alps. However, their mass balance has not been clarified. In this study, we calculated the seasonal and continuous annual mass balance of these glaciers during 2015–2019 by the geodetic method using aerial images and SfM–MVS technology. Our results showed that the mass balance of these glaciers was different from other glaciers in the world. The characteristics of Japanese glaciers provide new insights for earth science.
Johannes Marian Landmann, Hans Rudolf Künsch, Matthias Huss, Christophe Ogier, Markus Kalisch, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 15, 5017–5040,Short summary
In this study, we (1) acquire real-time information on point glacier mass balance with autonomous real-time cameras and (2) assimilate these observations into a mass balance model ensemble driven by meteorological input. For doing so, we use a customized particle filter that we designed for the specific purposes of our study. We find melt rates of up to 0.12 m water equivalent per day and show that our assimilation method has a higher performance than reference mass balance models.
Christian Vincent, Diego Cusicanqui, Bruno Jourdain, Olivier Laarman, Delphine Six, Adrien Gilbert, Andrea Walpersdorf, Antoine Rabatel, Luc Piard, Florent Gimbert, Olivier Gagliardini, Vincent Peyaud, Laurent Arnaud, Emmanuel Thibert, Fanny Brun, and Ugo Nanni
The Cryosphere, 15, 1259–1276,Short summary
In situ glacier point mass balance data are crucial to assess climate change in different regions of the world. Unfortunately, these data are rare because huge efforts are required to conduct in situ measurements on glaciers. Here, we propose a new approach from remote sensing observations. The method has been tested on the Argentière and Mer de Glace glaciers (France). It should be possible to apply this method to high-spatial-resolution satellite images and on numerous glaciers in the world.
Feiteng Wang, Xiaoying Yue, Lin Wang, Huilin Li, Zhencai Du, Jing Ming, and Zhongqin Li
The Cryosphere, 14, 2597–2606,Short summary
How to mitigate the melting of most mountainous glaciers is a disturbing issue for scientists and the public. We chose the Muz Taw Glacier of the Sawir Mountains as our study object. We carried out two artificial precipitation experiments on the glacier to study the role of precipitation in mitigating its melting. The average mass loss from the glacier decreased by over 14 %. We also propose a possible mechanism describing the role of precipitation in mitigating the melting of the glaciers.
Michael Zemp, Matthias Huss, Nicolas Eckert, Emmanuel Thibert, Frank Paul, Samuel U. Nussbaumer, and Isabelle Gärtner-Roer
The Cryosphere, 14, 1043–1050,Short summary
Comprehensive assessments of global glacier mass changes have been published at multi-annual intervals, typically in IPCC reports. For the years in between, we present an approach to infer timely but preliminary estimates of global-scale glacier mass changes from glaciological observations. These ad hoc estimates for 2017/18 indicate that annual glacier contributions to sea-level rise exceeded 1 mm sea-level equivalent, which corresponds to more than a quarter of the currently observed rise.
Wael Abdel Jaber, Helmut Rott, Dana Floricioiu, Jan Wuite, and Nuno Miranda
The Cryosphere, 13, 2511–2535,Short summary
We use topographic maps from two radar remote-sensing missions to map surface elevation changes of the northern and southern Patagonian ice fields (NPI and SPI) for two epochs (2000–2012 and 2012–2016). We find a heterogeneous pattern of thinning within the ice fields and a varying temporal trend, which may be explained by complex interdependence between surface mass balance and effects of flow dynamics. The contribution to sea level rise amounts to 0.05 mm a−1 for both ice fields for 2000–2016.
Chunhai Xu, Zhongqin Li, Huilin Li, Feiteng Wang, and Ping Zhou
The Cryosphere, 13, 2361–2383,Short summary
We take Urumqi Glacier No. 1 as an example and validate a long-range terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) as an efficient tool for monitoring annual and intra-annual mass balances, especially for inaccessible glacier areas where no glaciological measurements are available. The TLS has application potential for glacier mass-balance monitoring in China. For wide applications of the TLS, we can select some benchmark glaciers and use stable scan positions and in-situ-measured densities of snow–firn.
Ben M. Pelto, Brian Menounos, and Shawn J. Marshall
The Cryosphere, 13, 1709–1727,Short summary
Changes in glacier mass are the direct response to meteorological conditions during the accumulation and melt seasons. We derived multi-year, seasonal mass balance from airborne laser scanning surveys and compared them to field measurements for six glaciers in the Columbia and Rocky Mountains, Canada. Our method can accurately measure seasonal changes in glacier mass and can be easily adapted to derive seasonal mass change for entire mountain ranges.
Daniel McGrath, Louis Sass, Shad O'Neel, Chris McNeil, Salvatore G. Candela, Emily H. Baker, and Hans-Peter Marshall
The Cryosphere, 12, 3617–3633,Short summary
Measuring the amount and spatial pattern of snow on glaciers is essential for monitoring glacier mass balance and quantifying the water budget of glacierized basins. Using repeat radar surveys for 5 consecutive years, we found that the spatial pattern in snow distribution is stable over the majority of the glacier and scales with the glacier-wide average. Our findings support the use of sparse stake networks for effectively measuring interannual variability in winter balance on glaciers.
Caitlyn Florentine, Joel Harper, Daniel Fagre, Johnnie Moore, and Erich Peitzsch
The Cryosphere, 12, 2109–2122,
Martina Barandun, Matthias Huss, Ryskul Usubaliev, Erlan Azisov, Etienne Berthier, Andreas Kääb, Tobias Bolch, and Martin Hoelzle
The Cryosphere, 12, 1899–1919,Short summary
In this study, we used three independent methods (in situ measurements, comparison of digital elevation models and modelling) to reconstruct the mass change from 2000 to 2016 for three glaciers in the Tien Shan and Pamir. Snow lines observed on remote sensing images were used to improve conventional modelling by constraining a mass balance model. As a result, glacier mass changes for unmeasured years and glaciers can be better assessed. Substantial mass loss was confirmed for the three glaciers.
Helmut Rott, Wael Abdel Jaber, Jan Wuite, Stefan Scheiblauer, Dana Floricioiu, Jan Melchior van Wessem, Thomas Nagler, Nuno Miranda, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
The Cryosphere, 12, 1273–1291,Short summary
We analysed volume change, mass balance and ice flow of glaciers draining into the Larsen A and Larsen B embayments on the Antarctic Peninsula for 2011 to 2013 and 2013 to 2016. The mass balance is based on elevation change measured by the radar satellite mission TanDEM-X and on the mass budget method. The glaciers show continuing losses in ice mass, which is a response to ice shelf break-up. After 2013 the downwasting of glaciers slowed down, coinciding with years of persistent sea ice cover.
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High-Asia glaciers have been observed to be retreating the fastest in the southeastern Tibeten Plateau, where vast amounts of glacier and snow feed the streamflow of the Brahmaputra. Here, we provide the first monthly glacier and snow mass balance during 2002–2017 based on satellite gravimetry. The results confirm previous long-term decreases but reveal strong seasonal variations. This work helps resolve previous divergent model estimates and underlines the importance of meltwater.
High-Asia glaciers have been observed to be retreating the fastest in the southeastern Tibeten...