Articles | Volume 12, issue 5
Research article 18 May 2018
Research article | 18 May 2018
Variability of sea salts in ice and firn cores from Fimbul Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica
Carmen Paulina Vega et al.
No articles found.
Tiago Silva and Elisabeth Schlosser
Weather Clim. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for WCDShort summary
For the first time, a 25-yr climatology of temperature and humidity inversions for Neumayer Station, Antarctica, was presented that takes into account different levels of inversion occurrence and different weather situations. Distinct differences in inversion features and formation mechanisms were found depending on inversion level and weather situation. These findings will increase our understanding of the polar boundary layer and improve the current paleoclimatic interpretation of ice cores.
Max Thomas, Johannes C. Laube, Jan Kaiser, Samuel Allin, Patricia Martinerie, Robert Mulvaney, Anna Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Emmanuel Witrant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6857–6873,Short summary
CFC gases are destroying the Earth's life-protecting ozone layer. We improve understanding of CFC destruction by measuring the isotopic fingerprint of the carbon in the three most abundant CFCs. These are the first such measurements in the main region where CFCs are destroyed – the stratosphere. We reconstruct the atmospheric isotope histories of these CFCs back to the 1950s by measuring air extracted from deep snow and using a model. The model and the measurements are generally consistent.
Shugui Hou, Wangbin Zhang, Ling Fang, Theo M. Jenk, Shuangye Wu, Hongxi Pang, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 15, 2109–2114,Short summary
We present ages for two new ice cores reaching bedrock, from the Zangser Kangri (ZK) glacier in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau and the Shulenanshan (SLNS) glacier in the western Qilian Mountains. We estimated bottom ages of 8.90±0.57/0.56 ka and 7.46±1.46/1.79 ka for the ZK and SLNS ice core respectively, constraining the time range accessible by Tibetan ice cores to the Holocene.
David A. Lilien, Daniel Steinhage, Drew Taylor, Frédéric Parrenin, Catherine Ritz, Robert Mulvaney, Carlos Martín, Jie-Bang Yan, Charles O'Neill, Massimo Frezzotti, Heinrich Miller, Prasad Gogineni, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 15, 1881–1888,Short summary
We collected radar data between EDC, an ice core spanning ~800 000 years, and BELDC, the site chosen for a new
oldest icecore at nearby Little Dome C. These data allow us to identify 50 % older internal horizons than previously traced in the area. We fit a model to the ages of those horizons at BELDC to determine the age of deep ice there. We find that there is likely to be 1.5 Myr old ice ~265 m above the bed, with sufficient resolution to preserve desired climatic information.
Ling Fang, Theo M. Jenk, Thomas Singer, Shugui Hou, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 15, 1537–1550,Short summary
The interpretation of the ice-core-preserved signal requires a precise chronology. Radiocarbon (14C) dating of the water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) fraction has become an important dating tool. However, this method is restricted by the low concentration in the ice. In this work, we report first 14C dating results using the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fraction. The resulting ages are comparable in both fractions, but by using the DOC fraction the required ice mass can be reduced.
Elena Barbaro, Krystyna Koziol, Mats P. Björkman, Carmen P. Vega, Christian Zdanowicz, Tonu Martma, Jean-Charles Gallet, Daniel Kępski, Catherine Larose, Bartłomiej Luks, Florian Tolle, Thomas V. Schuler, Aleksander Uszczyk, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3163–3180,Short summary
This paper shows the most comprehensive seasonal snow chemistry survey to date, carried out in April 2016 across 22 sites on 7 glaciers across Svalbard. The dataset consists of the concentration, mass loading, spatial and altitudinal distribution of major ion species (Ca2+, K+, Na2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42−, Br−, Cl− and NO3−), together with its stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition (δ18O and δ2H) in the snowpack. This study was part of the larger Community Coordinated Snow Study in Svalbard.
Christian Zdanowicz, Jean-Charles Gallet, Mats P. Björkman, Catherine Larose, Thomas Schuler, Bartłomiej Luks, Krystyna Koziol, Andrea Spolaor, Elena Barbaro, Tõnu Martma, Ward van Pelt, Ulla Wideqvist, and Johan Ström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3035–3057,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) aerosols are soot-like particles which, when transported to the Arctic, darken snow surfaces, thus indirectly affecting climate. Information on BC in Arctic snow is needed to measure their impact and monitor the efficacy of pollution-reduction policies. This paper presents a large new set of BC measurements in snow in Svalbard collected between 2007 and 2018. It describes how BC in snow varies across the archipelago and explores some factors controlling these variations.
Sebastian Hellmann, Johanna Kerch, Ilka Weikusat, Andreas Bauder, Melchior Grab, Guillaume Jouvet, Margit Schwikowski, and Hansruedi Maurer
The Cryosphere, 15, 677–694,Short summary
We analyse the orientation of ice crystals in an Alpine glacier and compare this orientation with the ice flow direction. We found that the crystals orient in the direction of the largest stress which is in the flow direction in the upper parts of the glacier and in the vertical direction for deeper zones of the glacier. The grains cluster around this maximum stress direction, in particular four-point maxima, most likely as a result of recrystallisation under relatively warm conditions.
M. Reza Ershadi, Reinhard Drews, Carlos Martín, Olaf Eisen, Catherine Ritz, Hugh Corr, Julia Christmann, Ole Zeising, Angelika Humbert, and Robert Mulvaney
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
Radio-waves transmitted through the ice split up and inform us about the ice sheet interior and orientation of single ice crystals. This can be used to infer how ice flows and improve projections on how they will evolve in the future. Here we used an inverse approach and developed a new algorithm to infer ice properties from the observed radar data. We applied this technique to the radar data obtained at two EPICA drilling sites where the ice cores were used to validate our results.
Marie G. P. Cavitte, Duncan A. Young, Robert Mulvaney, Catherine Ritz, Jamin S. Greenbaum, Gregory Ng, Scott D. Kempf, Enrica Quartini, Gail R. Muldoon, John Paden, Massimo Frezzotti, Jason L. Roberts, Carly R. Tozer, Dustin M. Schroeder, and Donald D. Blankenship
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
We present a data set consisting of ice-penetrating radar internal stratigraphy: 26 internal reflecting horizons that cover the greater Dome C area, East Antarctica, the most extensive IRH data set to date in the region. This data set uses radar surveys collected over the space of 10 years, starting with an airborne international collaboration in 2008 to explore the region, up to the detailed ground based surveys in support of the Beyond EPICA – Oldest Ice (BE-OI) European project.
Guillaume Jouvet, Stefan Röllin, Hans Sahli, José Corcho, Lars Gnägi, Loris Compagno, Dominik Sidler, Margit Schwikowski, Andreas Bauder, and Martin Funk
The Cryosphere, 14, 4233–4251,Short summary
We show that plutonium is an effective tracer to identify ice originating from the early 1960s at the surface of a mountain glacier after a long time within the ice flow, giving unique information on the long-term former ice motion. Combined with ice flow modelling, the dating can be extended to the entire glacier, and we show that an airplane which crash-landed on the Gauligletscher in 1946 will likely soon be released from the ice close to the place where pieces have emerged in recent years.
Daniela Festi, Margit Schwikowski, Valter Maggi, Klaus Oeggl, and Theo Manuel Jenk
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TC
Jacinta Edebeli, Jürg C. Trachsel, Sven E. Avak, Markus Ammann, Martin Schneebeli, Anja Eichler, and Thorsten Bartels-Rausch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13443–13454,Short summary
Earth’s snow cover is very dynamic and can change its physical properties within hours, as is well known by skiers. Snow is also a well-known host of chemical reactions – the products of which impact air composition and quality. Here, we present laboratory experiments that show how the dynamics of snow make snow essentially inert with respect to gas-phase ozone with time despite its content of reactive chemicals. Impacts on polar atmospheric chemistry are discussed.
Dimitri Osmont, Sandra Brugger, Anina Gilgen, Helga Weber, Michael Sigl, Robin L. Modini, Christoph Schwörer, Willy Tinner, Stefan Wunderle, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 14, 3731–3745,Short summary
In this interdisciplinary case study, we were able to link biomass burning emissions from the June 2017 wildfires in Portugal to their deposition in the snowpack at Jungfraujoch, Swiss Alps. We analysed black carbon and charcoal in the snowpack, calculated backward trajectories, and monitored the fire evolution by remote sensing. Such case studies help to understand the representativity of biomass burning records in ice cores and how biomass burning tracers are archived in the snowpack.
Saeid Bagheri Dastgerdi, Melanie Behrens, Jean-Louis Bonne, Maria Hörhold, Gerrit Lohmann, Elisabeth Schlosser, and Martin Werner
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TC
Anders Svensson, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Jørgen Peder Steffensen, Thomas Blunier, Sune O. Rasmussen, Bo M. Vinther, Paul Vallelonga, Emilie Capron, Vasileios Gkinis, Eliza Cook, Helle Astrid Kjær, Raimund Muscheler, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Frank Wilhelms, Thomas F. Stocker, Hubertus Fischer, Florian Adolphi, Tobias Erhardt, Michael Sigl, Amaelle Landais, Frédéric Parrenin, Christo Buizert, Joseph R. McConnell, Mirko Severi, Robert Mulvaney, and Matthias Bigler
Clim. Past, 16, 1565–1580,Short summary
We identify signatures of large bipolar volcanic eruptions in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores during the last glacial period, which allows for a precise temporal alignment of the ice cores. Thereby the exact timing of unexplained, abrupt climatic changes occurring during the last glacial period can be determined in a global context. The study thus provides a step towards a full understanding of elements of the climate system that may also play an important role in the future.
Lisa Claire Orme, Xavier Crosta, Arto Miettinen, Dmitry V. Divine, Katrine Husum, Elisabeth Isaksson, Lukas Wacker, Rahul Mohan, Olivier Ther, and Minoru Ikehara
Clim. Past, 16, 1451–1467,Short summary
A record of past sea temperature in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, spanning the last 14 200 years, has been developed by analysis of fossil diatoms in marine sediment. During the late deglaciation the reconstructed temperature changes were highly similar to those over Antarctica, most likely due to a reorganisation of global ocean and atmospheric circulation. During the last 11 600 years temperatures gradually cooled and became increasingly variable.
Vojtěch Abraham, Sheila Hicks, Helena Svobodová-Svitavská, Elissaveta Bozilova, Sampson Panajiotidis, Mariana Filipova-Marinova, Christin Eldegard Jensen, Spassimir Tonkov, Irena Agnieszka Pidek, Joanna Święta-Musznicka, Marcelina Zimny, Eliso Kvavadze, Anna Filbrandt-Czaja, Martina Hättestrand, Nurgül Karlıoğlu Kılıç, Jana Kosenko, Maria Nosova, Elena Severova, Olga Volkova, Margrét Hallsdóttir, Laimdota Kalniņa, Agnieszka Noryśkiewicz, Bożena Noryśkiewicz, Heather Pardoe, Areti Christodoulou, Tiiu Koff, Sonia L. Fontana, Teija Alenius, Elisabeth Isaksson, Heikki Seppä, Siim Veski, Anna Pędziszewska, Martin Weiser, and Thomas Giesecke
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Pollen traps are plastic bottles recording the pollen rain during the whole year. We analysed them during the last four decades in different regions of Europe from Spitsbergen to Cyprus. The dataset is compared with current vegetation, environmental variables and fossil pollen rain. The relationship to the present vegetation patterns can be used as a tool of vegetation reconstruction in the past. The dataset is available in the Neotoma Palaeoecology Database.
Kévin Fourteau, Patricia Martinerie, Xavier Faïn, Christoph F. Schaller, Rebecca J. Tuckwell, Henning Löwe, Laurent Arnaud, Olivier Magand, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Johannes Freitag, Robert Mulvaney, Martin Schneebeli, and Vladimir Ya. Lipenkov
The Cryosphere, 13, 3383–3403,Short summary
Understanding gas trapping in polar ice is essential to study the relationship between greenhouse gases and past climates. New data of bubble closure, used in a simple gas-trapping model, show inconsistency with the final air content in ice. This suggests gas trapping is not fully understood. We also use a combination of high-resolution measurements to investigate the effect of polar snow stratification on gas trapping and find that all strata have similar pores, but that some close in advance.
Shugui Hou, Wangbin Zhang, Hongxi Pang, Shuang-Ye Wu, Theo M. Jenk, Margit Schwikowski, and Yetang Wang
The Cryosphere, 13, 1743–1752,Short summary
The apparent discrepancy between the Holocene δ18O records of the Guliya and the Chongce ice cores may be attributed to a possible misinterpretation of the Guliya ice core chronology.
Dimitri Osmont, Michael Sigl, Anja Eichler, Theo M. Jenk, and Margit Schwikowski
Clim. Past, 15, 579–592,Short summary
We present the first black carbon (BC) ice-core record from the Andes (Illimani, Bolivia). It spans the entire Holocene and reflects biomass burning emissions from the Amazon Basin, with high (low) concentrations during warm–dry (wet–cold) periods. The highest fire activity occurred during the Holocene Climatic Optimum (7000–3000 BCE). Recent BC levels, increasing since 1730 CE, do not exceed those of the Medieval Warm Period. The contribution from industrial and traffic emissions remains minor.
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Michael Sigl, Nerilie J. Abram, Jacopo Gabrieli, Theo M. Jenk, Dimitri Osmont, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 12, 3311–3331,Short summary
The fast retreat of Alpine glaciers since the mid-19th century documented in photographs is used as a symbol for the human impact on global climate, yet the key driving forces remain elusive. Here we argue that not industrial soot but volcanic eruptions were responsible for an apparently accelerated deglaciation starting in the 1850s. Our findings support a negligible role of human activity in forcing glacier recession at the end of the Little Ice Age, highlighting the role of natural drivers.
Dimitri Osmont, Isabel A. Wendl, Loïc Schmidely, Michael Sigl, Carmen P. Vega, Elisabeth Isaksson, and Margit Schwikowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12777–12795,Short summary
This study presents the first long-term and high-resolution refractory black carbon (rBC) ice core record from Svalbard, spanning the last 800 years. Our results show that rBC has had a predominant anthropogenic origin since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and that rBC concentrations have been declining in the last 40 years. We discuss the impact of 20th century snowmelt on our record. We reconstruct biomass burning trends prior to 1800 by using a multi-proxy approach.
Anina Gilgen, Carole Adolf, Sandra O. Brugger, Luisa Ickes, Margit Schwikowski, Jacqueline F. N. van Leeuwen, Willy Tinner, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11813–11829,Short summary
Microscopic charcoal particles are fire-specific tracers, which are presently the primary source for reconstructing past fire activity. In this study, we implement microscopic charcoal particles into a global aerosol–climate model to better understand the transport of charcoal on a large scale. We find that the model captures a significant portion of the spatial variability but fails to reproduce the extreme variability observed in the charcoal data.
Shugui Hou, Theo M. Jenk, Wangbin Zhang, Chaomin Wang, Shuangye Wu, Yetang Wang, Hongxi Pang, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 12, 2341–2348,Short summary
We present multiple lines of evidence indicating that the Chongce ice cores drilled from the northwestern Tibetan Plateau reaches back only to the early Holocene. This result is at least, 1 order of magnitude younger than the nearby Guliya ice core (~30 km away from the Chongce ice core drilling site) but similar to other Tibetan ice cores. Thus it is necessary to explore multiple dating techniques to confirm the age ranges of the Tibetan ice cores.
Emmanuel Le Meur, Olivier Magand, Laurent Arnaud, Michel Fily, Massimo Frezzotti, Marie Cavitte, Robert Mulvaney, and Stefano Urbini
The Cryosphere, 12, 1831–1850,Short summary
This paper presents surface mass balance measurements from both GPR and ice core data collected during a traverse in a so-far-unexplored area between the DC and Vostok stations. Results presented here will contribute to a better knowledge of the global mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet and thus help in constraining its contribution to sea level rise. Another novelty of the paper resides in the comprehensive error budget proposed for the method used for inferring accumulation rates.
Mackenzie M. Grieman, Murat Aydin, Elisabeth Isaksson, Margit Schwikowski, and Eric S. Saltzman
Clim. Past, 14, 637–651,Short summary
This study presents organic acid levels in an ice core from Svalbard over the past 800 years. These acids are produced from wildfire emissions and transported as aerosol. Organic acid levels are high early in the record and decline until the 20th century. Siberia and Europe are likely the primary source regions of the fire emissions. The data are similar to those from a Siberian ice core prior to 1400 CE. The timing of the divergence after 1400 CE is similar to a shift in North Atlantic climate.
Johannes P. Werner, Dmitry V. Divine, Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist, Tine Nilsen, and Pierre Francus
Clim. Past, 14, 527–557,Short summary
We present a new gridded Arctic summer temperature reconstruction back to the first millennium CE. Our method respects the age uncertainties of the data, which results in a more precise reconstruction.
The spatial average shows a millennium-scale cooling trend which is reversed in the mid-19th century. While temperatures in the 10th century were probably as warm as in the 20th century, the spatial coherence of the recent warm episodes seems unprecedented.
The spatial average shows a millennium-scale cooling trend which is reversed in the mid-19th century. While temperatures in the 10th century were probably as warm as in the 20th century, the spatial coherence of the recent warm episodes seems unprecedented.
Hans W. Linderholm, Marie Nicolle, Pierre Francus, Konrad Gajewski, Samuli Helama, Atte Korhola, Olga Solomina, Zicheng Yu, Peng Zhang, William J. D'Andrea, Maxime Debret, Dmitry V. Divine, Björn E. Gunnarson, Neil J. Loader, Nicolas Massei, Kristina Seftigen, Elizabeth K. Thomas, Johannes Werner, Sofia Andersson, Annika Berntsson, Tomi P. Luoto, Liisa Nevalainen, Saija Saarni, and Minna Väliranta
Clim. Past, 14, 473–514,Short summary
This paper reviews the current knowledge of Arctic hydroclimate variability during the past 2000 years. We discuss the current state, look into the future, and describe various archives and proxies used to infer past hydroclimate variability. We also provide regional overviews and discuss the potential of furthering our understanding of Arctic hydroclimate in the past. This paper summarises the hydroclimate-related activities of the Arctic 2k group.
Elisabeth Schlosser, F. Alexander Haumann, and Marilyn N. Raphael
The Cryosphere, 12, 1103–1119,Short summary
The atmospheric influence on the unusually early and strong decrease in Antarctic sea ice in the austral spring 2016 was investigated using data from the global forecast model of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. Weather situations related to warm, northerly flow conditions in the regions with large negative anomalies in sea ice extent and area were frequent and explain to a large part the observed melting. Additionally, oceanic influences might play a role.
Marie Nicolle, Maxime Debret, Nicolas Massei, Christophe Colin, Anne deVernal, Dmitry Divine, Johannes P. Werner, Anne Hormes, Atte Korhola, and Hans W. Linderholm
Clim. Past, 14, 101–116,Short summary
Arctic climate variability for the last 2 millennia has been investigated using statistical and signal analyses from North Atlantic, Siberia and Alaska regionally averaged records. A focus on the last 2 centuries shows a climate variability linked to anthropogenic forcing but also a multidecadal variability likely due to regional natural processes acting on the internal climate system. It is an important issue to understand multidecadal variabilities occurring in the instrumental data.
Barbara Stenni, Mark A. J. Curran, Nerilie J. Abram, Anais Orsi, Sentia Goursaud, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Raphael Neukom, Hugues Goosse, Dmitry Divine, Tas van Ommen, Eric J. Steig, Daniel A. Dixon, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Elisabeth Isaksson, Alexey Ekaykin, Martin Werner, and Massimo Frezzotti
Clim. Past, 13, 1609–1634,Short summary
Within PAGES Antarctica2k, we build an enlarged database of ice core water stable isotope records. We produce isotopic composites and temperature reconstructions since 0 CE for seven distinct Antarctic regions. We find a significant cooling trend from 0 to 1900 CE across all regions. Since 1900 CE, significant warming trends are identified for three regions. Only for the Antarctic Peninsula is this most recent century-scale trend unusual in the context of last-2000-year natural variability.
Elizabeth R. Thomas, J. Melchior van Wessem, Jason Roberts, Elisabeth Isaksson, Elisabeth Schlosser, Tyler J. Fudge, Paul Vallelonga, Brooke Medley, Jan Lenaerts, Nancy Bertler, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Daniel A. Dixon, Massimo Frezzotti, Barbara Stenni, Mark Curran, and Alexey A. Ekaykin
Clim. Past, 13, 1491–1513,Short summary
Regional Antarctic snow accumulation derived from 79 ice core records is evaluated as part of the PAGES Antarctica 2k working group. Our results show that surface mass balance for the total Antarctic ice sheet has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt dec-1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ~ 0.02 mm dec-1 since 1800 and ~ 0.04 mm dec-1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula.
Meri M. Ruppel, Joana Soares, Jean-Charles Gallet, Elisabeth Isaksson, Tõnu Martma, Jonas Svensson, Jack Kohler, Christina A. Pedersen, Sirkku Manninen, Atte Korhola, and Johan Ström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12779–12795,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) deposition enhances Arctic warming and melting. We present Svalbard ice core BC data from 2005 to 2015, comparing the results with chemical transport model data. The ice core and modelled BC deposition trends clearly deviate from measured and observed atmospheric concentration trends, and thus meteorological processes such as precipitation and scavenging efficiency seem to have a stronger influence on the BC deposition trend than BC emission or atmospheric concentration trends.
Elisabeth Schlosser, Anna Dittmann, Barbara Stenni, Jordan G. Powers, Kevin W. Manning, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Mauro Valt, Anselmo Cagnati, Paolo Grigioni, and Claudio Scarchilli
The Cryosphere, 11, 2345–2361,Short summary
To derive paleotemperatures from ice cores we must know all processes involved in ice formation. At the Antarctic base Dome C, a unique precipitation data set plus stable water isotope data enabled us to study atmospheric processes influencing isotope ratios of precipitation in detail. Meteorological data from both automatic weather station and an atmospheric model were used to investigate how different atmospheric flow patterns determine the precipitation parameters used in paleoclimatology.
Pascal Bohleber, Leo Sold, Douglas R. Hardy, Margit Schwikowski, Patrick Klenk, Andrea Fischer, Pascal Sirguey, Nicolas J. Cullen, Mariusz Potocki, Helene Hoffmann, and Paul Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 11, 469–482,Short summary
Our study is the first to use ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to investigate ice thickness and internal layering at Kilimanjaro’s largest ice body, the Northern Ice Field (NIF). For monitoring the ongoing ice loss, our ice thickness soundings allowed us to estimate the total ice volume remaining at NIF's southern portion. Englacial GPR reflections indicate undisturbed layers within NIF's center and provide a first link between age information obtained from ice coring and vertical wall sampling.
Rune Strand Ødegård, Atle Nesje, Ketil Isaksen, Liss Marie Andreassen, Trond Eiken, Margit Schwikowski, and Chiara Uglietti
The Cryosphere, 11, 17–32,Short summary
Despite numerous spectacular archaeological discoveries worldwide related to melting ice, governing processes related to ice patch development are still largely unexplored. We present new results from Jotunheimen in central southern Norway showing that the Juvfonne ice patch has existed continuously since ca. 7600 cal years BP. This is the oldest dating of ice in mainland Norway. Moss mats along the margin of Juvfonne in 2014 were covered by the expanding ice patch about 2000 years ago.
Chiara Uglietti, Alexander Zapf, Theo Manuel Jenk, Michael Sigl, Sönke Szidat, Gary Salazar, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 10, 3091–3105,Short summary
A meaningful interpretation of the climatic history contained in ice cores requires a precise chronology. For dating the older and deeper part of the glaciers, radiocarbon analysis can be used when organic matter such as plant or insect fragments are found in the ice. Since this happens rarely, a complementary dating tool, based on radiocarbon dating of the insoluble fraction of carbonaceous aerosols entrapped in the ice, allows for ice dating between 200 and more than 10 000 years.
Carmen P. Vega, Elisabeth Schlosser, Dmitry V. Divine, Jack Kohler, Tõnu Martma, Anja Eichler, Margit Schwikowski, and Elisabeth Isaksson
The Cryosphere, 10, 2763–2777,Short summary
Surface mass balance and water stable isotopes from firn cores on three ice rises at Fimbul Ice Shelf are reported. The results suggest that the ice rises are suitable sites for the retrieval of longer firn and ice cores. The first deuterium excess data for the area suggests a possible role of seasonal moisture transport changes on the annual isotopic signal. Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns most likely provide the dominant influence on water stable isotope ratios at the sites.
Paolo Gabrielli, Carlo Barbante, Giuliano Bertagna, Michele Bertó, Daniel Binder, Alberto Carton, Luca Carturan, Federico Cazorzi, Giulio Cozzi, Giancarlo Dalla Fontana, Mary Davis, Fabrizio De Blasi, Roberto Dinale, Gianfranco Dragà, Giuliano Dreossi, Daniela Festi, Massimo Frezzotti, Jacopo Gabrieli, Stephan P. Galos, Patrick Ginot, Petra Heidenwolf, Theo M. Jenk, Natalie Kehrwald, Donald Kenny, Olivier Magand, Volkmar Mair, Vladimir Mikhalenko, Ping Nan Lin, Klaus Oeggl, Gianni Piffer, Mirko Rinaldi, Ulrich Schotterer, Margit Schwikowski, Roberto Seppi, Andrea Spolaor, Barbara Stenni, David Tonidandel, Chiara Uglietti, Victor Zagorodnov, Thomas Zanoner, and Piero Zennaro
The Cryosphere, 10, 2779–2797,Short summary
New ice cores were extracted from Alto dell'Ortles, the highest glacier of South Tyrol in the Italian Alps, to check whether prehistoric ice, which is coeval to the famous 5300-yr-old Tyrolean Iceman, is still preserved in this region. Dating of the ice cores confirms the hypothesis and indicates the drilling site has been glaciated since the end of the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum (7000 yrs BP). We also infer that an unprecedented acceleration of the glacier flow has recently begun.
Barbara Stenni, Claudio Scarchilli, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Elisabeth Schlosser, Virginia Ciardini, Giuliano Dreossi, Paolo Grigioni, Mattia Bonazza, Anselmo Cagnati, Daniele Karlicek, Camille Risi, Roberto Udisti, and Mauro Valt
The Cryosphere, 10, 2415–2428,Short summary
Here, we focus on the Concordia Station, central East Antarctic plateau, providing a multi-year record (2008–2010) of daily precipitation types identified from crystal morphologies, precipitation amounts and isotopic composition. Relationships between local meteorological data and precipitation oxygen isotope composition are investigated. Our dataset is available for in-depth model evaluation at the synoptic scale.
Anna Dittmann, Elisabeth Schlosser, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Jordan G. Powers, Kevin W. Manning, Martin Werner, and Koji Fujita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6883–6900,Short summary
For a better understanding of the stable water isotope data from ice cores, recent time periods have to be analysed, where both measurements and model simulations are available. This was done for Dome Fuji by combining observations, synoptic analysis, back trajectories, and isotopic modelling. It was found that a more northerly moisture source does not necessarily mean a larger temperature difference between source area and deposition site and thus precipitation more depleted in heavy isotopes.
Carmen P. Vega, Veijo A. Pohjola, Emilie Beaudon, Björn Claremar, Ward J. J. van Pelt, Rickard Pettersson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Tõnu Martma, Margit Schwikowski, and Carl E. Bøggild
The Cryosphere, 10, 961–976,Short summary
To quantify post-depositional relocation of major ions by meltwater in snow and firn at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, consecutive ice cores drilled at this site were used to construct a synthetic core. The relocation length of most of the ions was on the order of 1 m between 2007 and 2010. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution.
Elisabeth Schlosser, Barbara Stenni, Mauro Valt, Anselmo Cagnati, Jordan G. Powers, Kevin W. Manning, Marilyn Raphael, and Michael G. Duda
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4757–4770,Short summary
Striking differences in the atmospheric flow and thus weather conditions in 2009 and 2010 at the Antarctic deep ice core drilling site Dome C were investigated using a mesoscale atmospheric model and precipitation measurements, and implications for interpretation of ice cores are discussed. Stable isotope ratios are commonly used to derive paleotemperatures and are strongly influenced by the prevailing atmospheric flow regime, namely a strong zonal flow or a highly meriodional flow.
C. Müller-Tautges, A. Eichler, M. Schwikowski, G. B. Pezzatti, M. Conedera, and T. Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1029–1043,Short summary
The paper focuses on the determination and interpretation of historic records of organic compounds in an ice core from Grenzgletscher in the southern Swiss Alps, covering the time period from 1942 to 1993. The resulting long-term records of organic species were found to be influenced by the forest fire history in southern Switzerland, anthropogenic emissions, as well as changing mineral dust transport to the drilling site.
J. Gabbi, M. Huss, A. Bauder, F. Cao, and M. Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1385–1400,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities in snow and ice increase the absorption of solar radiation and thus enhance melting. We investigated the effect of Saharan dust and black carbon on the mass balance of an Alpine glacier over 1914-2014. Snow impurities increased melt by 15-19% depending on the location on the glacier. From the accumulation area towards the equilibrium line, the effect of impurities increased as more frequent years with negative mass balance led to a re-exposure of dust-enriched layers.
I. A. Wendl, A. Eichler, E. Isaksson, T. Martma, and M. Schwikowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7287–7300,Short summary
Nitrate and ammonium ice core records from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, indicated anthropogenic pollution from Eurasia as major source during the 20th century. In pre-industrial times nitrate is correlated with methane sulfonate, which we explain with a fertilising effect, presumably triggered by enhanced atmospheric nitrogen input to the ocean. Eurasia was likely the main source area also of pre-industrial nitrate, but for ammonium, biogenic emissions from Siberian boreal forests were dominant.
S. Kang, F. Wang, U. Morgenstern, Y. Zhang, B. Grigholm, S. Kaspari, M. Schwikowski, J. Ren, T. Yao, D. Qin, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1213–1222,
L. Sold, M. Huss, A. Eichler, M. Schwikowski, and M. Hoelzle
The Cryosphere, 9, 1075–1087,Short summary
This study presents a method for estimating annual accumulation rates on a temperate Alpine glacier based on the interpretation of internal reflection horizons in helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. In combination with a simple model for firn densification and refreezing of meltwater, GPR can be used not only to complement existing mass balance monitoring programmes but also to retrospectively extend newly initiated time series.
S. Altnau, E. Schlosser, E. Isaksson, and D. Divine
The Cryosphere, 9, 925–944,Short summary
The first comprehensive study of a set of 76 firn cores in Dronning Maud Land was carried out. The δ18O of both the plateau and the ice shelf cores exhibit a slight positive trend over the second half of the 20th century. The SMB has a negative trend in the ice shelf cores, but increases on the plateau. Comparison with meteorological data revealed that for the ice shelf regions, atmospheric dynamic effects are more important, while on the plateau, thermodynamic effects predominate.
Y.-L. Zhang, R.-J. Huang, I. El Haddad, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, P. Zotter, C. Bozzetti, K. R. Daellenbach, F. Canonaco, J. G. Slowik, G. Salazar, M. Schwikowski, J. Schnelle-Kreis, G. Abbaszade, R. Zimmermann, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, and S. Szidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1299–1312,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols using radiocarbon and other organic markers measurements during 2013 winter haze episodes was conducted at four megacities in China. Our results demonstrate that fossil emissions predominate EC with a mean contribution of 75±8%, whereas non-fossil sources account for 55±10% of OC; and the increment of TC on heavily polluted days was mainly driven by the increase of secondary OC from both fossil-fuel and non-fossil emissions.
P. Zotter, V. G. Ciobanu, Y. L. Zhang, I. El-Haddad, M. Macchia, K. R. Daellenbach, G. A. Salazar, R.-J. Huang, L. Wacker, C. Hueglin, A. Piazzalunga, P. Fermo, M. Schwikowski, U. Baltensperger, S. Szidat, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13551–13570,
M. M. Ruppel, E. Isaksson, J. Ström, E. Beaudon, J. Svensson, C. A. Pedersen, and A. Korhola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11447–11460,
A. Spolaor, P. Vallelonga, J. Gabrieli, T. Martma, M. P. Björkman, E. Isaksson, G. Cozzi, C. Turetta, H. A. Kjær, M. A. J. Curran, A. D. Moy, A. Schönhardt, A.-M. Blechschmidt, J. P. Burrows, J. M. C. Plane, and C. Barbante
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9613–9622,
I. A. Wendl, J. A. Menking, R. Färber, M. Gysel, S. D. Kaspari, M. J. G. Laborde, and M. Schwikowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2667–2681,
S. Kaspari, T. H. Painter, M. Gysel, S. M. Skiles, and M. Schwikowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8089–8103,
I. Mariani, A. Eichler, T. M. Jenk, S. Brönnimann, R. Auchmann, M. C. Leuenberger, and M. Schwikowski
Clim. Past, 10, 1093–1108,
A. Spolaor, J. Gabrieli, T. Martma, J. Kohler, M. B. Björkman, E. Isaksson, C. Varin, P. Vallelonga, J. M. C. Plane, and C. Barbante
The Cryosphere, 7, 1645–1658,
T. Papina, T. Blyakharchuk, A. Eichler, N. Malygina, E. Mitrofanova, and M. Schwikowski
Clim. Past, 9, 2399–2411,
M. Schwikowski, M. Schläppi, P. Santibañez, A. Rivera, and G. Casassa
The Cryosphere, 7, 1635–1644,
S. Brönnimann, I. Mariani, M. Schwikowski, R. Auchmann, and A. Eichler
Clim. Past, 9, 2013–2022,
W. J. J. van Pelt, J. Oerlemans, C. H. Reijmer, R. Pettersson, V. A. Pohjola, E. Isaksson, and D. Divine
The Cryosphere, 7, 987–1006,
Related subject area
Discipline: Snow | Subject: Snow ChemistryBrief communication: Spatial and temporal variations in surface snow chemistry along a traverse from coastal East Antarctica to the ice sheet summit (Dome A)Brief communication: An alternative method for estimating the scavenging efficiency of black carbon by meltwater over sea iceQuantifying the light absorption and source attribution of insoluble light-absorbing particles on Tibetan Plateau glaciers between 2013 and 2015Mercury in the Arctic tundra snowpack: temporal and spatial concentration patterns and trace gas exchanges
Guitao Shi, Hongmei Ma, Zhengyi Hu, Zhenlou Chen, Chunlei An, Su Jiang, Yuansheng Li, Tianming Ma, Jinhai Yu, Danhe Wang, Siyu Lu, Bo Sun, and Meredith G. Hastings
The Cryosphere, 15, 1087–1095,Short summary
It is important to understand atmospheric chemistry over Antarctica under a changing climate. Thus snow collected on a traverse from the coast to Dome A was used to investigate variations in snow chemistry. The non-sea-salt fractions of K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ are associated with terrestrial inputs, and nssCl− is from HCl. In general, proportions of non-sea-salt fractions of ions to the totals are higher in the interior areas than on the coast, and the proportions are higher in summer than in winter.
Tingfeng Dou, Zhiheng Du, Shutong Li, Yulan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Mingju Hao, Chuanjin Li, Biao Tian, Minghu Ding, and Cunde Xiao
The Cryosphere, 13, 3309–3316,Short summary
The meltwater scavenging coefficient (MSC) determines the BC enrichment in the surface layer of melting snow and therefore modulates the BC-snow-albedo feedbacks. This study presents a new method for MSC estimation over the sea-ice area in Arctic. Using this new method, we analyze the spatial variability of MSC in the western Arctic and demonstrate that the value in Canada Basin (23.6 % ± 2.1 %) ≈ that in Greenland (23.0 % ± 12.5 %) > that in Chukchi Sea (17.9 % ± 5.0 %) > that in Elson Lagoon (14.5 % ± 2.6 %).
Xin Wang, Hailun Wei, Jun Liu, Baiqing Xu, Mo Wang, Mingxia Ji, and Hongchun Jin
The Cryosphere, 13, 309–324,Short summary
A large survey on measuring optical and chemical properties of insoluble light-absorbing impurities (ILAPs) from seven glaciers was conducted on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 2013–2015. The results indicated that the mixing ratios of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and iron (Fe) all showed a tendency to decrease from north to south, and the industrial pollution (33.1 %), biomass and biofuel burning (29.4 %), and soil dust (37.5 %) were the major sources of the ILAPs on the TP.
Yannick Agnan, Thomas A. Douglas, Detlev Helmig, Jacques Hueber, and Daniel Obrist
The Cryosphere, 12, 1939–1956,Short summary
In this study, we investigated mercury dynamics in an interior arctic tundra at Toolik Field Station (200 km from the Arctic Ocean) during two full snow seasons. We continuously measured atmospheric, snow gas phase, and soil pores mercury concentrations. We observed consistent concentration declines from the atmosphere to snowpack to soils, indicating that soils are continuous sinks of mercury. We suggest that interior arctic snowpacks may be negligible sources of mercury.
Abram, N. J., Wolff, E. W., and Curran, M. A. J.: A review of sea ice proxy information from polar ice cores, Quat. Sci. Rev., 79, 168–183, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.01.011, 2013.
Benassai, S., Becagli, S., Gragnani, R., Magand, O., Proposito, M., Ilaria, F., Traversi, R., and Udisti, R.: Sea-spray deposition in Antarctic coastal and plateau areas from ITASE traverses, Ann. Glaciol., 41, 32–40, 2005.
Curran, M., van Ommen, T., and Morgan, V.: Seasonal characteristics of the major ions in the high-accumulation dome Summit South ice core, Law Dome, Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 27, 385–390, 1998.
ClimateDataGuide: ERA40 reanalysis data, available at: https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/era40, last access: 10 May 2018.
Divine, D. V., Isaksson, E., Kaczmarska, M., Godtliebsen, F., Oerter, H., Schlosser, E., Johnsen, S. J., van den Broeke, M., and van de Wal, R. S. W.: Tropical Pacific – High Latitude South Atlantic Teleconnections as Seen in the δ18O Variability in Antarctic Coastal Ice Cores, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D11112, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010475, 2009.
Domine, F., Sparapani, R., Ianniello, A., and Beine, H. J.: The origin of sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2259–2271, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-4-2259-2004, 2004.
Fischer, H., Siggaard-Andersen, M. -L., Ruth, U., Röthlisberger, R., and Wolff, E.: Glacial/interglacial changes in mineral dust and sea-salt records in polar ice cores: Sources, transport and deposition, Rev. Geophys., 45, RG1002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005RG000192, 2007.
Goel, V., Brown, J., and Matsuoka, K.: Glaciological settings and recent mass balance of Blåskimen Island in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 11, 2883–2896, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-11-2883-2017, 2017.
Hall, J. S. and Wolff, E. W.: Causes of seasonal and daily variations in aerosol seasalt concentrations at a coastal Antarctic station, Atmos. Environ., 32, 3669–3677. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1352-2310(98)00090-9, 1998.
Huang, J. and Jaeglé, L.: Wintertime enhancements of sea salt aerosol in polar regions consistent with a sea ice source from blowing snow, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3699–3712, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-3699-2017, 2017.
Inoue, M., Curran, M. A. J., Moy, A. D., van Ommen, T. D., Fraser, A. D., Phillips, H. E., and Goodwin, I. D.: A glaciochemical study of 120 m ice core from Mill Island, East Antarctica, Clim. Past, 13, 437–453, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-13-437-2017, 2017.
Isaksson, E. and Melvold, K.: Trends and patterns in the recent accumulation and oxygen isotopes in coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica: interpretations from shallow ice cores, Ann. Glaciol., 35, 175–180, 2002.
Jourdain, B. and Legrand, M.: Year-round records of bulk and size- segregated aerosol composition and HCl and HNO3 levels in the Dumont d'Urville (coastal Antarctica) atmosphere: Implications for sea-salt aerosol fractionation in the winter and summer, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4645, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002471, 2002.
Jourdain, B., Preunkert, S., Cerri, O., Castebrunet, H., Udisti, R., and Legrand, M.: Year-round record of size-segregated aerosol composition in central Antarctica (Concordia station): Implications for the degree of fractionation of sea-salt particles, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D14308, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009584, 2008.
Kaczmarska, M., Isaksson, E., Karlöf, L., Winther, J.-G., Kohler, J., Godtliebsen, F., Ringstad Olsen, L., Hofstede, C. M., Van Den Broeke, M. R., Van De Wal, R. S. W., and Gundestrup, N.: Accumulation variability derived from an ice core from coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol. 39, 339–345, 2004.
Kaczmarska, M., Isaksson, E., Karlöf, L., Brandt, O., Winther, J.-G., Van De Wal, R., Van Den Broeke, M. R., and Johnsen, S.: Ice core melt features in relation to Antarctic coastal climate, Antarc. Science, 18, 271–278, 2006.
Kärkäs, E., Martma, T., and Sonninen, E.: Physical properties and stratigraphy of surface snow in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, Polar Res., 24, 55–67, 2005.
Kreutz, K. J., Mayewski, P. A., Whitlow, S. I., and Twickler, M. S.: Limited migration of soluble ionic species in a Siple Dome, Antarctica, ice core, edited by: Budd, W. F., Ann. Glaciol., 27, 371–377, 1998.
Langley, K., Kohler, J., Sinisalo, A., Øyan, M. J., Hamran, S. E., Hattermann, T., Matsuoka, K., Nøst, O. A., and Isaksson E.: Low melt rates with seasonal variability at the base of Fimbul Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, revealed by in situ interferometric radar measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8138–8146, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061782, 2014.
Legrand, M. R. and Delmas, R. J.: Formation of HCl in the Antarctic atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 93, 7153–7168, 1988.
Legrand, M. and Pasteur, E. C.: Methane sulfonic acid to non-sea-salt sulfate ratio in coastal Antarctic aerosol and surface snow, J. Gephys. Res., 103, 10991–11006, 1998.
Legrand, M., Feniet-Saigne, C., Saltzman, E. S., and Germain, C.: Spatial and temporal variations of methanesulfonic acid and non sea salt sulfate in Antarctic ice, J. Atmos. Chem., 14, 245–260, 1992.
Levine, J. G., Yang, X., Jones, A. E., and Wolff, E. W.: Sea salt as an ice core proxy for past sea ice extent: A process-based model study, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 5737–5756, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020925, 2014.
Littot, G. C., Mulvaney, R., Röthlisberger, R., Udisti, R., Wolff, E. W., Castellano, E., De Angelis, M., Hansson, M. E., Sommer, S., and Steffensen, J. P.: Comparison of analytical methods used for measuring major ions in the EPICA Dome C (Antarctica) ice core, Ann. Glaciol., 35, 299–305, 2002.
Lunde, T.: On the snow accumulation in Dronning Maud Land. Den Norske Antarktischspedisjonen 1956–60, Scientific Results No. 1, Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter,Norsk Polarintitutt, Oslo, 123, 48 pp., 1961.
Lutgens, F. K. and Tarbuck, E. J.: Essentials of Geology, 11th Ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 554 pp., 2012.
Massom, R. A., Eicken, H., Haas, C., Jeffries, M. O., Drinkwater, M. R., Sturm, M., Worby, A. P., Wu, X. R., Lytle, V. I., Ushio, S., Morris, K., Reid, P. A., Warren, S. G., and Allison, I.: Snow on Antarctic sea ice, Rev. Geophys., 39, 413–445. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000rg000085, 2001.
Matsuoka, K., Hindmarsh, R. C. A., Moholdt, G., Bentley, M. J., Pritchard, H. D., Brown, J., Conway, H., Drews, R., Durand, G., Goldberg, D., Hattermann, T., Kingslake, J., Lenaerts, J. T. M., Martín, C., Mulvaney, R., Nicholls, K., Pattyn, F., Ross, N., Scambos, T., and Whitehouse, P.: Antarctic ice rises and rumples: Their properties and significance for ice-sheet dynamics and evolution, Earth Sci. Rev., 150, 724–745, 2015.
Melvold, K.: Impact of recent climate on glacier mass balance: studies on Kongsvegen, Svalbard and Jutulstraumen, Antarctica, DSc thesis, University of Oslo, Department of Geography Report 13, 1999.
Melvold, K., Hagen, J. O., Pinglot, J. F., and Gundestrup, N.: Large spatial variation in accumulation rate in Jutulstraumen ice stream, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 27, 231–238, 1998.
Minikin, A., Legrand, M., Hall, J., Wagenbach, D., Kleefeld, C., Wolff, E., Pasteur, E. C., and Ducroz, F.: Sulfur-containing species (sulfate and methanesulfonate) in coastal Antarctic aerosol and precipitation, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10975–10990, 1998.
Mulvaney R. and Wolff, E. W.: Evidence for Winter/Spring Denitrification of the Stratosphere in the Nitrate Record of Antarctic Firn Cores, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 5213–5220, 1993.
Mulvaney, R., Coulson, G. F. J., and Corr, H. F. J.: The fractionation of sea salt and acids during transport across an Antarctic ice shelf, Tellus, 45, 179–187, 1993.
Neethling, D. C.: Snow accumulation on the Fimbul ice shelf, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, International Association of Scientific Hydrology Publication 86 (Symposium at Hanover 1968 – Antarctic Glaciological Exploration (ISAGE)), 390–404, 1970.
Palmer, A. S., Morgan, V. I., Curran, M. A. J., van Ommen, T. D., and Mayewski, P. A.: Antarctic volcanic flux ratios from Law Dome ice cores, Ann. Glaciol., 35, 329–332, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756402781816771, 2002.
Pasteris, D. R., McConnell, J. R., Das, S. B., Criscitiello, A. S., Evans, M. J., Maselli, O. J., Sigl, M., and Layman, L.: Seasonally resolved ice core records from West Antarctica indicate a sea ice source of sea-salt aerosol and a biomass burning source of ammonium, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 9168–9182, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020720, 2014.
Paterson, W. S. B.: The Physics of Glaciers, 3rd Edn., Butterworth-Heinemann, Birlington, 469 pp., 1994.
Petit J. R., Jouzel J., Raynaud D., Barkov N. I., Barnola J. M., Basile, I., Bender, M., Chappellaz, J., Davis, M., Delaygue, G., Delmotte, M., Kotlyakov, V. M., Legrand, M., Lipenkov, V. Y., Lorius, C., Pépin, L., Ritz, C., Saltzman E., and Stievenard, M.: Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420000 years from the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica, Nature, 399, 429–436, 1999.
Philippe, M., Tison, J.-L., Fjøsne, K., Hubbard, B., Kjær, H. A., Lenaerts, J. T. M., Drews, R., Sheldon, S. G., De Bondt, K., Claeys, P., and Pattyn, F.: Ice core evidence for a 20th century increase in surface mass balance in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 10, 2501–2516, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-2501-2016, 2016.
Plummer, C. T., Curran, M. A. J., van Ommen, T. D., Rasmussen, S. O., Moy, A. D., Vance, T. R., Clausen, H. B., Vinther, B. M., and Mayewski, P. A.: An independently dated 2000-yr volcanic record from Law Dome, East Antarctica, including a new perspective on the dating of the 1450s CE eruption of Kuwae, Vanuatu, Clim. Past, 8, 1929–1940, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-8-1929-2012, 2012.
Quantarctica, MODIS Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA), available at: http://quantarctica.npolar.no/, last access: 12 December 2017.
Rankin, A. M. and Wolff, E. W.: Frost flowers: Implications for tropospheric chemistry and ice core interpretation, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4683, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002492, 2002.
Rankin, A. M. and Wolff, E. W.: A year-long record of size-segregated aerosol composition at Halley, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 4775, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003jd003993, 2003.
Rankin, A. M., Auld, V., and Wolff, E. W.: Frost flowers as a source of fractionated sea salt aerosol in the polar regions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3469–3472, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL011771, 2000.
Rankin, A. M., Wolff, E. W., and Mulvaney, R.: A reinterpretation of sea-salt records in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores?, Ann. Glaciol., 39, 276–282, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756404781814681, 2004.
Rhodes, R. H., Yang, X., Wolff, E. W., McConnell, J. R., and Frey, M. M.: Sea ice as a source of sea salt aerosol to Greenland ice cores: a model-based study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9417–9433, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-9417-2017, 2017.
Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., and Scheuchl, B.: Ice flow of the Antarctic ice sheet, Science, 333, 1427–1430, 2011.
Röthlisberger, R., Mulvaney, R., Wolff, E., Hutterli, M., Bigler, M., De Angelis, M., Hansson, M., Steffensen, J. P., and Udisti, R.: Limited dechlorination of sea-salt aerosols during the last glacial period: Evidence from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C ice core, J. Geophys Res., 108, 4526, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003jd003604, 2003.
Rolstad, C., Whillans, I. M., Hagen, J. O., and Isaksson, E.: Large-scale force budget of an outlet glacier: Jutulstraumen, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 30, 35–41, 2000.
Roscoe, H. K., Brooks, B., Jackson, A. V., Smith, M. H., Walker, S. J., Obbard, R. W., and Wolff. E. W.: Frost flowers in the laboratory: Growth, characteristics, aerosol, and the underlying sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D12301, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD015144, 2011.
Savarino, J., Kaiser, J., Morin, S., Sigman, D. M., and Thiemens, M. H.: Nitrogen and oxygen isotopic constraints on the origin of atmospheric nitrate in coastal Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1925–1945, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-1925-2007, 2007.
Schlosser, E., Duda, M. G., Powers, J. G., and Manning, K. H.: The precipitation regime of Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, derived from AMPS (Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System) Archive Data, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D24108, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD009968, 2008.
Schlosser, E., Anschütz, H., Isaksson, I., Martma, T., Divine, D., and Nøst, O.-A.: Surface mass balance and stable oxygen isotope ratios from shallow firn cores on Fimbulisen, East Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 53, 70–78, https://doi.org/10.3189/2012AoG60A102, 2012.
Seguin, A. M., Norman, A.-L., and Barrie, L.: Evidence of sea ice source in aerosol sulfate loading and size distribution in the Canadian High Arctic from isotopic analysis, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 1087–1096, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020461, 2014.
Sinisalo, A., Anschütz, H., Aasen, A. T., Langley, K., von Deschwanden, A., Kohler, J. Matsuoka, K., Hamran, S. E., Øyan, M. J., Schlosser, E., Hagen, J. O., Nøst, O. A., and Isaksson, E.: Surface mass balance on Fimbul ice shelf, East Antarctica: Comparison of field measurements and large-scale studies, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 11625–11635, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50875, 2013.
Sofen, E. D., Alexander, B., Steig, E. J., Thiemens, M. H., Kunasek, S. A., Amos, H. M., Schauer, A. J., Hastings, M. G., Bautista, J., Jackson, T. L., Vogel, L. E., McConnell, J. R., Pasteris, D. R., and Saltzman, E. S.: WAIS Divide ice core suggests sustained changes in the atmospheric formation pathways of sulfate and nitrate since the 19th century in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5749–5769, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-5749-2014, 2014.
Stenni, B., Curran, M. A. J., Abram, N. J., Orsi, A., Goursaud, S., Masson-Delmotte, V., Neukom, R., Goosse, H., Divine, D., van Ommen, T., Steig, E. J., Dixon, D. A., Thomas, E. R., Bertler, N. A. N., Isaksson, E., Ekaykin, A., Werner, M., and Frezzotti, M.: Antarctic climate variability on regional and continental scales over the last 2000 years, Clim. Past, 13, 1609–1634, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-13-1609-2017, 2017.
Swithinbank, C. W. M.: Glaciology. I. The morphology of the ice shelves of western Dronning Maud Land. Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949–52, Scientific Results, Norsk Polarinstitutt, Oslo, Vol. 3, A, 1–37, 1957.
Summerhayes, C. P. and Thorpe, S. A. Oceanography: An Illustrated Guide, Wiley, New York, chap. 11, 165–181, 1996.
Thomas, E. R., van Wessem, J. M., Roberts, J., Isaksson, E., Schlosser, E., Fudge, T. J., Vallelonga, P., Medley, B., Lenaerts, J., Bertler, N., van den Broeke, M. R., Dixon, D. A., Frezzotti, M., Stenni, B., Curran, M., and Ekaykin, A. A.: Regional Antarctic snow accumulation over the past 1000 years, Clim. Past, 13, 1491–1513, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-13-1491-2017, 2017.
Twickler M. and Whitlow S.: Appendix B. Guide for the collection and analysis of ITASE snow and firn samples, in: Mayewski P. A. and Goodwin I. D. (compilers): International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition: 200 years of past Antarctic climate and environmental change. Science and implementation plan, 1996: report from the ITASE Workshop, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 23 August 1996, Bern: Past Global Changes, 1997.
Udisti, R., Dayan, U., Becagli, S., Busetto, M., Frosini, D., Legrand, M., Lucarelli, F., Preunkert, S., Severi, M., Traversi, R., and Vitale, V.: Sea spray aerosol in central Antarctica. Present atmospheric behaviour and implications for paleoclimatic reconstructions, Atmos. Environ., 52, 109–120, 2012.
Uppala, S. M., Kållberg, P. W., Simmons, A. J., Andrae, U., Da Costa Bechtold, V., Fiorino, M., Gibson, J. K., Haseler, J., Hernandez, A., Kelly, G. A., Li, X., Onogi, K., Saarinen, S., Sokka, N., Allan, R. P., Andersson, E., Arpe, K., Balmaseda, M. A., Beljaars, A. C. M., Van De Berg, L., Bidlot, J., Bormann, N., Caires, S., Chevallier, F., Dethof, A., Dragosavac, M., Fisher, M., Fuentes, M., Hagemann, S., Hólm, E., Hoskins, B. J., Isaksen, L., Janssen, P. A. E. M., Jenne, R., Mcnally, A. P., Mahfouf, J.-F., Morcrette, J.-J., Rayner, N. A., Saunders, R. W., Simon, P., Sterl, A., Trenberth, K. E., Untch, A., Vasiljevic, D., Viterbo, P., and Woollen, J.: The ERA-40 Re-Analysis, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2961–3012, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.04.176, 2005.
Vega, C. P., Schlosser, E., Divine, D. V., Kohler, J., Martma, T., Eichler, A., Schwikowski, M., and Isaksson, E.: Surface mass balance and water stable isotopes derived from firn cores on three ice rises, Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 10, 2763–2777, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-2763-2016, 2016.
Vega, C. P., Isaksson, E., Schlosser, E., Divine, D., Martma, T., Mulvaney, R., Eichler, A., and Schwikowski-Gigar, M.: Major ions in Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica, available at: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.889018, last access: 10 May 2018.
Vinje, T. E.: Frift av Trolltunga i Weddellhavet, Norsk Polarinstitutt. Arbok, 213 pp., 1975.
Wagenbach, D., Graf, W., Minikin, A., Trefzer, U., Kipfstuhl, J., Oerter, H., and Blindow, N.: Reconniassance of chemical and isotopic firn properties on top of Berkner-Island, Antarctica, in: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Antarctic Glaciology, edited by: Morris, E. M., Ann. Glaciol., 20, 307–312, 1994.
Wagenbach, D., Ducroz, F., Mulvaney, R., Keck, L., Minikin, A., Legrand, M., Hall, J. S., and Wolff, E. W.: Sea-salt aerosol in coastal Antarctic regions, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10961–10974, 1998.
Wagnon, P., Delmas, R. J., and Legrand, M.: Loss of volatile acid species from upper firn layers at Vostok, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 3423–3431, 1999.
Weller, R. and Wagenbach, D.: Year-round chemical aerosol records in continental Antarctica obtained by automatic sampling, Tellus, 59, 755–765, 2007.
Weller, R., Wagenbach, D., Legrand, M., Elsässer, C., Tian-Kunze, X., and König-Langlo, G.: Continuous 25-yr aerosol records at coastal Antarctica – I: inter-annual variability of ionic compounds and links to climate indices, Tellus, 63, 901–919, 2011.
Wendl, I.: High resolution records of black carbon and other aerosol constituents from the Lomonosovfonna 2009 ice core, PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland, 210 pp., 2014.
Wendl, I. A., Eichler, A., Isaksson, E., Martma, T., and Schwikowski, M.: 800-year ice-core record of nitrogen deposition in Svalbard linked to ocean productivity and biogenic emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7287–7300, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-7287-2015, 2015
Wolff, E. W., Jones, A. E., Bauguitte, S. J.-B., and Salmon, R. A.: The interpretation of spikes and trends in concentration of nitrate in polar ice cores, based on evidence from snow and atmospheric measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5627–5634, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-5627-2008, 2008.
Yang, X., Pyle, J. A., and Cox, R. A.: Sea salt aerosol production and bromine release: Role of snow on sea ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L16815, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034536, 2008.
Yang, X., Pyle, J. A., Cox, R. A., Theys, N., and Van Roozendael, M.: Snow-sourced bromine and its implications for polar tropospheric ozone, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7763–7773, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-7763-2010, 2010.
Yang, X., Neděla, V., Runštuk, J., Ondrušková, G., Krausko, J., Vetráková, L., and Heger, D.: Evaporating brine from frost flowers with electron microscopy and implications for atmospheric chemistry and sea-salt aerosol formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6291–6303, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-6291-2017, 2017.
Ions were measured in firn and ice cores from Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica, to evaluate sea-salt loads. A significant sixfold increase in sea salts was found in the S100 core after 1950s which suggests that it contains a more local sea-salt signal, dominated by processes during sea-ice formation in the neighbouring waters. In contrast, firn cores from three ice rises register the larger-scale signal of atmospheric flow conditions and transport of sea-salt aerosols produced over open water.
Ions were measured in firn and ice cores from Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica, to evaluate sea-salt...