Articles | Volume 10, issue 6
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Critical investigation of calculation methods for the elastic velocities in anisotropic ice polycrystals
Institut Langevin, CNRS, ESPCI ParisTech, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France
Poems, CNRS, ENSTA ParisTech, INRIA, 828 boulevard des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau, France
LGGE, CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes, 38041 Grenoble, France.
No articles found.
Baptiste Journaux, Thomas Chauve, Maurine Montagnat, Andrea Tommasi, Fabrice Barou, David Mainprice, and Léa Gest
The Cryosphere, 13, 1495–1511,Short summary
Ice mechanics is an important tool to better predict the response of glaciers or polar ice sheets to climate variations. Nevertheless our current predictive abilities are limited as the microscale mechanisms responsible for ice creep are poorly identified. We show in this study, using state-of-the-art experimental techniques, which recrystallization processes control ice deformation. This will allow realistic simulations, necessary to predict the long-term effects on ice landmasses.
Jilu Li, Jose A. Vélez González, Carl Leuschen, Ayyangar Harish, Prasad Gogineni, Maurine Montagnat, Ilka Weikusat, Fernando Rodriguez-Morales, and John Paden
The Cryosphere, 12, 2689–2705,Short summary
Ice properties inferred from multi-polarization measurements can provide insight into ice strain, viscosity, and ice flow. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets used a ground-based radar for multi-channel and multi-polarization measurements at the NEEM site. This paper describes the radar system, antenna configurations, data collection, and processing and analysis of this data set. Comparisons between the radar observations, simulations, and ice core fabric data are in very good agreement.
Thomas Chauve, Maurine Montagnat, Cedric Lachaud, David Georges, and Pierre Vacher
Solid Earth, 8, 943–953,Short summary
For the first time, digital image correlation was used to follow strain field development and evolution during micro-cracking, at the ductile-to-brittle transition in polycrystalline ice. Owing to the high-temperature conditions of the tests, dynamic recrystallization mechanisms (nucleation and sub-grain rotation) efficiently participate in the stress redistribution during and after crack opening, and even lead to local crack closure.
M. Montagnat, N. Azuma, D. Dahl-Jensen, J. Eichler, S. Fujita, F. Gillet-Chaulet, S. Kipfstuhl, D. Samyn, A. Svensson, and I. Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 8, 1129–1138,
Related subject area
Ice CoresUsing ice core measurements from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, to calibrate in situ cosmogenic 14C production rates by muonsDetection of ice core particles via deep neural networksDevelopment of crystal orientation fabric in the Dome Fuji ice core in East Antarctica: implications for the deformation regime in ice sheetsGas isotope thermometry in the South Pole and Dome Fuji ice cores provides evidence for seasonal rectification of ice core gas recordsChronostratigraphy of the Larsen blue-ice area in northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica, and its implications for paleoclimateA quantitative method of resolving annual precipitation for the past millennia from Tibetan ice coresRegional variability of diatoms in ice cores from the Antarctic Peninsula and Ellsworth Land, AntarcticaMicrostructure, micro-inclusions, and mineralogy along the EGRIP (East Greenland Ice Core Project) ice core – Part 2: Implications for palaeo-mineralogyMicrostructure, micro-inclusions, and mineralogy along the EGRIP ice core – Part 1: Localisation of inclusions and deformation patternsFractionation of O2∕N2 and Ar∕N2 in the Antarctic ice sheet during bubble formation and bubble–clathrate hydrate transition from precise gas measurements of the Dome Fuji ice coreDeep ice as a geochemical reactor: insights from iron speciation and mineralogy of dust in the Talos Dome ice core (East Antarctica)Two-dimensional impurity imaging in deep Antarctic ice cores: snapshots of three climatic periods and implications for high-resolution signal interpretationAcoustic velocity measurements for detecting the crystal orientation fabrics of a temperate ice coreBrief communication: New evidence further constraining Tibetan ice core chronologies to the HoloceneBrief communication: New radar constraints support presence of ice older than 1.5 Myr at Little Dome CPervasive diffusion of climate signals recorded in ice-vein ionic impuritiesRadiocarbon dating of alpine ice cores with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractionGiant dust particles at Nevado Illimani: a proxy of summertime deep convection over the Bolivian AltiplanoPhysical properties of shallow ice cores from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islandsStable water isotopes and accumulation rates in the Union Glacier region, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica, over the last 35 yearsMulti-tracer study of gas trapping in an East Antarctic ice coreVery old firn air linked to strong density layering at Styx Glacier, coastal Victoria Land, East AntarcticaApparent discrepancy of Tibetan ice core δ18O records may be attributed to misinterpretation of chronologyChallenges associated with the climatic interpretation of water stable isotope records from a highly resolved firn core from Adélie Land, coastal AntarcticaGlaciological characteristics in the Dome Fuji region and new assessment for “Oldest Ice”Age ranges of the Tibetan ice cores with emphasis on the Chongce ice cores, western Kunlun MountainsOn the similarity and apparent cycles of isotopic variations in East Antarctic snow pitsThe first luminescence dating of Tibetan glacier basal sedimentMethanesulfonic acid (MSA) migration in polar ice: data synthesis and theoryIs there 1.5-million-year-old ice near Dome C, Antarctica?Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modellingConstraints on post-depositional isotope modifications in East Antarctic firn from analysing temporal changes of isotope profilesA 125-year record of climate and chemistry variability at the Pine Island Glacier ice divide, AntarcticaCalibrated cryo-cell UV-LA-ICPMS elemental concentrations from the NGRIP ice core reveal abrupt, sub-annual variability in dust across the GI-21.2 interstadial periodLocation and distribution of micro-inclusions in the EDML and NEEM ice cores using optical microscopy and in situ Raman spectroscopyLinking pollen deposition and snow accumulation on the Alto dell'Ortles glacier (South Tyrol, Italy) for sub-seasonal dating of a firn temperate coreBromine, iodine and sodium in surface snow along the 2013 Talos Dome–GV7 traverse (northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica)A 60-year ice-core record of regional climate from Adélie Land, coastal AntarcticaRadiocarbon dating of glacier ice: overview, optimisation, validation and potentialSurface mass balance and water stable isotopes derived from firn cores on three ice rises, Fimbul Ice Shelf, AntarcticaAge of the Mt. Ortles ice cores, the Tyrolean Iceman and glaciation of the highest summit of South Tyrol since the Northern Hemisphere Climatic OptimumIce core evidence for a 20th century increase in surface mass balance in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East AntarcticaDispersion in deep polar firn driven by synoptic-scale surface pressure variabilityNon-climatic signal in ice core records: lessons from Antarctic megadunesA synthetic ice core approach to estimate ion relocation in an ice field site experiencing periodical melt: a case study on Lomonosovfonna, SvalbardA comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi-parametric approachSmall-scale disturbances in the stratigraphy of the NEEM ice core: observations and numerical model simulationsHalogen-based reconstruction of Russian Arctic sea ice area from the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya)Investigation of a deep ice core from the Elbrus western plateau, the Caucasus, RussiaEstimation and calibration of the water isotope differential diffusion length in ice core records
Michael N. Dyonisius, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Andrew M. Smith, Benjamin Hmiel, Peter D. Neff, Bin Yang, Quan Hua, Jochen Schmitt, Sarah A. Shackleton, Christo Buizert, Philip F. Place, James A. Menking, Ross Beaudette, Christina Harth, Michael Kalk, Heidi A. Roop, Bernhard Bereiter, Casey Armanetti, Isaac Vimont, Sylvia Englund Michel, Edward J. Brook, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Ray F. Weiss, and Joseph R. McConnell
The Cryosphere, 17, 843–863,Short summary
Cosmic rays that enter the atmosphere produce secondary particles which react with surface minerals to produce radioactive nuclides. These nuclides are often used to constrain Earth's surface processes. However, the production rates from muons are not well constrained. We measured 14C in ice with a well-known exposure history to constrain the production rates from muons. 14C production in ice is analogous to quartz, but we obtain different production rates compared to commonly used estimates.
Niccolò Maffezzoli, Eliza Cook, Willem G. M. van der Bilt, Eivind N. Støren, Daniela Festi, Florian Muthreich, Alistair W. R. Seddon, François Burgay, Giovanni Baccolo, Amalie R. F. Mygind, Troels Petersen, Andrea Spolaor, Sebastiano Vascon, Marcello Pelillo, Patrizia Ferretti, Rafael S. dos Reis, Jefferson C. Simões, Yuval Ronen, Barbara Delmonte, Marco Viccaro, Jørgen Peder Steffensen, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, and Carlo Barbante
The Cryosphere, 17, 539–565,Short summary
Multiple lines of research in ice core science are limited by manually intensive and time-consuming optical microscopy investigations for the detection of insoluble particles, from pollen grains to volcanic shards. To help overcome these limitations and support researchers, we present a novel methodology for the identification and autonomous classification of ice core insoluble particles based on flow image microscopy and neural networks.
Tomotaka Saruya, Shuji Fujita, Yoshinori Iizuka, Atsushi Miyamoto, Hiroshi Ohno, Akira Hori, Wataru Shigeyama, Motohiro Hirabayashi, and Kumiko Goto-Azuma
The Cryosphere, 16, 2985–3003,Short summary
Crystal orientation fabrics (COF) of the Dome Fuji ice core were investigated with an innovative method with unprecedentedly high statistical significance and dense depth coverage. The COF profile and its fluctuation were found to be highly dependent on concentrations of chloride ion and dust. The data suggest deformation of ice at the deepest zone is highly influenced by COF fluctuations that progressively develop from the near-surface firn toward the deepest zone within ice sheets.
Jacob D. Morgan, Christo Buizert, Tyler J. Fudge, Kenji Kawamura, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, and Cathy M. Trudinger
The Cryosphere, 16, 2947–2966,Short summary
The composition of air bubbles in Antarctic ice cores records information about past changes in properties of the snowpack. We find that, near the South Pole, thinner snowpack in the past is often due to steeper surface topography, in which faster winds erode the snow and deposit it in flatter areas. The slope and wind seem to also cause a seasonal bias in the composition of air bubbles in the ice core. These findings will improve interpretation of other ice cores from places with steep slopes.
Giyoon Lee, Jinho Ahn, Hyeontae Ju, Florian Ritterbusch, Ikumi Oyabu, Christo Buizert, Songyi Kim, Jangil Moon, Sambit Ghosh, Kenji Kawamura, Zheng-Tian Lu, Sangbum Hong, Chang Hee Han, Soon Do Hur, Wei Jiang, and Guo-Min Yang
The Cryosphere, 16, 2301–2324,Short summary
Blue-ice areas (BIAs) have several advantages for reconstructing past climate. However, the complicated ice flow in the area hinders constraining the age. We applied state-of-the-art techniques and found that the ages cover the last deglaciation period. Our study demonstrates that the BIA in northern Victoria Land may help reconstruct the past climate during the termination of the last glacial period.
Wangbin Zhang, Shugui Hou, Shuang-Ye Wu, Hongxi Pang, Sharon B. Sneed, Elena V. Korotkikh, Paul A. Mayewski, Theo M. Jenk, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 16, 1997–2008,Short summary
This study proposes a quantitative method to reconstruct annual precipitation records at the millennial timescale from the Tibetan ice cores through combining annual layer identification based on LA-ICP-MS measurement with an ice flow model. The reliability of this method is assessed by comparing our results with other reconstructed and modeled precipitation series for the Tibetan Plateau. The assessment shows that the method has a promising performance.
Dieter R. Tetzner, Claire S. Allen, and Elizabeth R. Thomas
The Cryosphere, 16, 779–798,Short summary
The presence of diatoms in Antarctic ice cores has been scarcely documented and poorly understood. Here we present a detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the diatom record preserved in a set of Antarctic ice cores. Our results reveal that the timing and amount of diatoms deposited present a strong geographical division. This study highlights the potential of the diatom record preserved in Antarctic ice cores to provide useful information about past environmental changes.
Nicolas Stoll, Maria Hörhold, Tobias Erhardt, Jan Eichler, Camilla Jensen, and Ilka Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 16, 667–688,Short summary
We mapped and analysed solid inclusion in the upper 1340 m of the EGRIP ice core with Raman spectroscopy and microstructure mapping, based on bulk dust content derived via continuous flow analysis. We observe a large variety in mineralogy throughout the core and samples. The main minerals are sulfates, especially gypsum, and terrestrial dust minerals, such as quartz, mica, and feldspar. A change in mineralogy occurs around 900 m depth indicating a climate-related imprint.
Nicolas Stoll, Jan Eichler, Maria Hörhold, Tobias Erhardt, Camilla Jensen, and Ilka Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 15, 5717–5737,Short summary
We did a systematic analysis of the location of inclusions in the EGRIP ice core, the first ice core from an ice stream. We combine this with crystal orientation and grain size data, enabling the first overview about the microstructure of this unique ice core. Micro-inclusions show a strong spatial variability and patterns (clusters or horizontal layers); roughly one-third is located at grain boundaries. More holistic approaches are needed to understand deformation processes in the ice better.
Ikumi Oyabu, Kenji Kawamura, Tsutomu Uchida, Shuji Fujita, Kyotaro Kitamura, Motohiro Hirabayashi, Shuji Aoki, Shinji Morimoto, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, and Jacob D. Morgan
The Cryosphere, 15, 5529–5555,Short summary
We present O2/N2 and Ar/N2 records from the Dome Fuji ice core through the bubbly ice, bubble–clathrate transition, and clathrate ice zones without gas-loss fractionation. The insolation signal is preserved through the clathrate formation. The relationship between Ar/Ν2 and Ο2/Ν2 suggests that the fractionation for the bubble–clathrate transition is mass independent, while the bubble close-off process involves a combination of mass-independent and mass-dependent fractionation for O2 and Ar.
Giovanni Baccolo, Barbara Delmonte, Elena Di Stefano, Giannantonio Cibin, Ilaria Crotti, Massimo Frezzotti, Dariush Hampai, Yoshinori Iizuka, Augusto Marcelli, and Valter Maggi
The Cryosphere, 15, 4807–4822,Short summary
As scientists are pushing efforts to recover deep ice cores to extend paleoclimatic reconstructions, it is now essential to explore deep ice. The latter was considered a relatively stable environment, but this view is changing. This study shows that the conditions of deep ice promote the interaction between soluble and insoluble impurities, favoring complex geochemical reactions that lead to the englacial dissolution and precipitation of specific minerals present in atmospheric mineral dust.
Pascal Bohleber, Marco Roman, Martin Šala, Barbara Delmonte, Barbara Stenni, and Carlo Barbante
The Cryosphere, 15, 3523–3538,Short summary
Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) offers micro-destructive, micrometer-scale impurity analysis of ice cores. For improved understanding of the LA-ICP-MS signals, novel 2D impurity imaging is applied to selected glacial and interglacial samples of Antarctic deep ice cores. This allows evaluating the 2D impurity distribution in relation to ice crystal features and assessing implications for investigating highly thinned climate proxy signals in deep polar ice.
Sebastian Hellmann, Melchior Grab, Johanna Kerch, Henning Löwe, Andreas Bauder, Ilka Weikusat, and Hansruedi Maurer
The Cryosphere, 15, 3507–3521,Short summary
In this study, we analyse whether ultrasonic measurements on ice core samples could be employed to derive information about the particular ice crystal orientation in these samples. We discuss if such ultrasonic scans of ice core samples could provide similarly detailed results as the established methods, which usually destroy the ice samples. Our geophysical approach is minimally invasive and could support the existing methods with additional and (semi-)continuous data points along the ice core.
Shugui Hou, Wangbin Zhang, Ling Fang, Theo M. Jenk, Shuangye Wu, Hongxi Pang, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 15, 2109–2114,Short summary
We present ages for two new ice cores reaching bedrock, from the Zangser Kangri (ZK) glacier in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau and the Shulenanshan (SLNS) glacier in the western Qilian Mountains. We estimated bottom ages of 8.90±0.57/0.56 ka and 7.46±1.46/1.79 ka for the ZK and SLNS ice core respectively, constraining the time range accessible by Tibetan ice cores to the Holocene.
David A. Lilien, Daniel Steinhage, Drew Taylor, Frédéric Parrenin, Catherine Ritz, Robert Mulvaney, Carlos Martín, Jie-Bang Yan, Charles O'Neill, Massimo Frezzotti, Heinrich Miller, Prasad Gogineni, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 15, 1881–1888,Short summary
We collected radar data between EDC, an ice core spanning ~800 000 years, and BELDC, the site chosen for a new
oldest icecore at nearby Little Dome C. These data allow us to identify 50 % older internal horizons than previously traced in the area. We fit a model to the ages of those horizons at BELDC to determine the age of deep ice there. We find that there is likely to be 1.5 Myr old ice ~265 m above the bed, with sufficient resolution to preserve desired climatic information.
Felix S. L. Ng
The Cryosphere, 15, 1787–1810,Short summary
Current theory predicts climate signals in the vein chemistry of ice cores to migrate, hampering their dating. I show that the Gibbs–Thomson effect, which has been overlooked, causes fast diffusion that prevents signals from surviving into deep ice. Hence the deep climatic peaks in Antarctic and Greenlandic ice must be due to impurities in the ice matrix (outside veins) and safe from migration. These findings reset our understanding of postdepositional changes of ice-core climate signals.
Ling Fang, Theo M. Jenk, Thomas Singer, Shugui Hou, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 15, 1537–1550,Short summary
The interpretation of the ice-core-preserved signal requires a precise chronology. Radiocarbon (14C) dating of the water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) fraction has become an important dating tool. However, this method is restricted by the low concentration in the ice. In this work, we report first 14C dating results using the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fraction. The resulting ages are comparable in both fractions, but by using the DOC fraction the required ice mass can be reduced.
Filipe G. L. Lindau, Jefferson C. Simões, Barbara Delmonte, Patrick Ginot, Giovanni Baccolo, Chiara I. Paleari, Elena Di Stefano, Elena Korotkikh, Douglas S. Introne, Valter Maggi, Eduardo Garzanti, and Sergio Andò
The Cryosphere, 15, 1383–1397,Short summary
Information about the past climate variability in tropical South America is stored in the snow layers of the tropical Andean glaciers. Here we show evidence that the presence of very large aeolian mineral dust particles at Nevado Illimani (Bolivia) is strictly controlled by the occurrence of summer storms in the Bolivian Altiplano. Therefore, based on the snow dust content and its composition of stable water isotopes, we propose a new proxy for information on previous summer storms.
Elizabeth Ruth Thomas, Guisella Gacitúa, Joel B. Pedro, Amy Constance Faith King, Bradley Markle, Mariusz Potocki, and Dorothea Elisabeth Moser
The Cryosphere, 15, 1173–1186,Short summary
Here we present the first-ever radar and ice core data from the sub-Antarctic islands of Bouvet Island, Peter I Island, and Young Island. These islands have the potential to record past climate in one of the most data-sparse regions on earth. Despite their northerly location, surface melting is generally low, and the upper layer of the ice at most sites is undisturbed. We estimate that a 100 m ice core drilled on these islands could capture climate over the past 100–200 years.
Kirstin Hoffmann, Francisco Fernandoy, Hanno Meyer, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Marcelo Aliaga, Dieter Tetzner, Johannes Freitag, Thomas Opel, Jorge Arigony-Neto, Christian Florian Göbel, Ricardo Jaña, Delia Rodríguez Oroz, Rebecca Tuckwell, Emily Ludlow, Joseph R. McConnell, and Christoph Schneider
The Cryosphere, 14, 881–904,
Kévin Fourteau, Patricia Martinerie, Xavier Faïn, Christoph F. Schaller, Rebecca J. Tuckwell, Henning Löwe, Laurent Arnaud, Olivier Magand, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Johannes Freitag, Robert Mulvaney, Martin Schneebeli, and Vladimir Ya. Lipenkov
The Cryosphere, 13, 3383–3403,Short summary
Understanding gas trapping in polar ice is essential to study the relationship between greenhouse gases and past climates. New data of bubble closure, used in a simple gas-trapping model, show inconsistency with the final air content in ice. This suggests gas trapping is not fully understood. We also use a combination of high-resolution measurements to investigate the effect of polar snow stratification on gas trapping and find that all strata have similar pores, but that some close in advance.
Youngjoon Jang, Sang Bum Hong, Christo Buizert, Hun-Gyu Lee, Sang-Young Han, Ji-Woong Yang, Yoshinori Iizuka, Akira Hori, Yeongcheol Han, Seong Joon Jun, Pieter Tans, Taejin Choi, Seong-Joong Kim, Soon Do Hur, and Jinho Ahn
The Cryosphere, 13, 2407–2419,Short summary
We can learn how human activity altered atmospheric air from the interstitial air in the porous snow layer (firn) on top of glaciers. However, old firn air (> 55 years) was observed only at sites where surface temperatures and snow accumulation rates are very low, such as the South Pole. In this study, we report an unusually old firn air with CO2 age of 93 years from Styx Glacier, near the Ross Sea coast in Antarctica. We hypothesize that the large snow density variations increase firn air ages.
Shugui Hou, Wangbin Zhang, Hongxi Pang, Shuang-Ye Wu, Theo M. Jenk, Margit Schwikowski, and Yetang Wang
The Cryosphere, 13, 1743–1752,Short summary
The apparent discrepancy between the Holocene δ18O records of the Guliya and the Chongce ice cores may be attributed to a possible misinterpretation of the Guliya ice core chronology.
Sentia Goursaud, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Vincent Favier, Suzanne Preunkert, Michel Legrand, Bénédicte Minster, and Martin Werner
The Cryosphere, 13, 1297–1324,Short summary
We report new water stable isotope records from the first highly resolved firn core drilled in Adélie Land and covering 1998–2014. Using an updated database, we show that mean values are in line with the range of coastal values. Statistical analyses show no relationship between our record and local surface air temperature. Atmospheric back trajectories and isotopic simulations suggest that water stable isotopes in Adélie provide a fingerprint of the variability of atmospheric dynamics.
Nanna B. Karlsson, Tobias Binder, Graeme Eagles, Veit Helm, Frank Pattyn, Brice Van Liefferinge, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 12, 2413–2424,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the probability that the Dome Fuji region in East Antarctica contains ice more than 1.5 Ma old. The retrieval of a continuous ice-core record extending beyond 1 Ma is imperative to understand why the frequency of ice ages changed from 40 to 100 ka approximately 1 Ma ago. We use a new radar dataset to improve the ice thickness maps, and apply a thermokinematic model to predict basal temperature and age of the ice. Our results indicate several areas of interest.
Shugui Hou, Theo M. Jenk, Wangbin Zhang, Chaomin Wang, Shuangye Wu, Yetang Wang, Hongxi Pang, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 12, 2341–2348,Short summary
We present multiple lines of evidence indicating that the Chongce ice cores drilled from the northwestern Tibetan Plateau reaches back only to the early Holocene. This result is at least, 1 order of magnitude younger than the nearby Guliya ice core (~30 km away from the Chongce ice core drilling site) but similar to other Tibetan ice cores. Thus it is necessary to explore multiple dating techniques to confirm the age ranges of the Tibetan ice cores.
Thomas Laepple, Thomas Münch, Mathieu Casado, Maria Hoerhold, Amaelle Landais, and Sepp Kipfstuhl
The Cryosphere, 12, 169–187,Short summary
We explain why snow pits across different sites in East Antarctica show visually similar isotopic variations. We argue that the similarity and the apparent cycles of around 20 cm in the δD and δ18O variations are the result of a seasonal cycle in isotopes, noise, for example from precipitation intermittency, and diffusion. The near constancy of the diffusion length across many ice-coring sites explains why the structure and cycle length is largely independent of the accumulation conditions.
Zhu Zhang, Shugui Hou, and Shuangwen Yi
The Cryosphere, 12, 163–168,Short summary
We provide the first luminescence dating of the basal sediment of the Chongce ice cap in the western Kunlun Mountains on the north-western Tibetan Plateau (TP), which gives an upper constraint for the age of the bottom ice at the drilling site. The age is more than 1 order of magnitude younger than the previously suggested age of the basal ice of the nearby Guliya ice cap (~ 40 km away from the Chongce ice cap). This work provides an important step towards better understanding the TP ice cores.
Matthew Osman, Sarah B. Das, Olivier Marchal, and Matthew J. Evans
The Cryosphere, 11, 2439–2462,Short summary
We combine a synthesis of 22 ice core records and a model of soluble impurity transport to investigate the enigmatic, post-depositional migration of methanesulfonic acid in polar ice. Our findings suggest that migration may be universal across coastal regions of Greenland and Antarctica, though it is mitigated at sites with higher accumulation and (or) lower impurity content. Records exhibiting severe migration may still be useful for inferring decadal and lower-frequency climate variability.
Frédéric Parrenin, Marie G. P. Cavitte, Donald D. Blankenship, Jérôme Chappellaz, Hubertus Fischer, Olivier Gagliardini, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Olivier Passalacqua, Catherine Ritz, Jason Roberts, Martin J. Siegert, and Duncan A. Young
The Cryosphere, 11, 2427–2437,Short summary
The oldest dated deep ice core drilled in Antarctica has been retrieved at EPICA Dome C (EDC), reaching ~ 800 000 years. Obtaining an older palaeoclimatic record from Antarctica is one of the greatest challenges of the ice core community. Here, we estimate the age of basal ice in the Dome C area. We find that old ice (> 1.5 Myr) likely exists in two regions a few tens of kilometres away from EDC:
Little Dome C Patchand
Olivier Passalacqua, Catherine Ritz, Frédéric Parrenin, Stefano Urbini, and Massimo Frezzotti
The Cryosphere, 11, 2231–2246,Short summary
As the Dome C region is a key area for oldest-ice research, we need to better constrain the geothermal flux (GF) so that past basal melt rates are well constrained. Our inverse heat model significantly reduces the confidence intervals of the GF regional field around Dome C, which ranges from 48 to 60 mW m−2. Radar echoes need to be interpreted knowing the time lag of the climate signal to reach the bed. Several old-ice targets are confirmed and a new one is suggested, in which the GF is very low.
Thomas Münch, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Johannes Freitag, Hanno Meyer, and Thomas Laepple
The Cryosphere, 11, 2175–2188,Short summary
The importance of post-depositional changes for the temperature interpretation of water isotopes is poorly constrained by observations. Here, for the first time, temporal isotope changes in the open-porous firn are directly analysed using a large array of shallow isotope profiles. By this, we can reject the possibility of post-depositional change beyond diffusion and densification as the cause of the discrepancy between isotope and local temperature variations at Kohnen Station, East Antarctica.
Franciele Schwanck, Jefferson C. Simões, Michael Handley, Paul A. Mayewski, Jeffrey D. Auger, Ronaldo T. Bernardo, and Francisco E. Aquino
The Cryosphere, 11, 1537–1552,Short summary
The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is more susceptible to marine influences than the East Antarctica Ice Sheet (EAIS). During recent decades, rapid changes have occurred in the WAIS sector, including flow velocity acceleration, retraction of ice streams, and mass loss. In this study, we use an ice core located near the Pine Island Glacier ice divide to reconstruct mineral dust and marine aerosol transport and the influence of climate variables on the elemental concentration.
Damiano Della Lunga, Wolfgang Müller, Sune Olander Rasmussen, Anders Svensson, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 11, 1297–1309,Short summary
In our study we combined the wealth of information provided by Greenland ice cores with an ultra-high-resolution technique well known in geoscience (laser ablation). Our set-up was developed and applied to investigate the variability in concentration of ions across a rapid climatic change from the oldest part of the last glaciation, showing that concentrations drop abruptly from cold to warm periods, representing a shift in atmospheric transport that happens even faster than previously thought.
Jan Eichler, Ina Kleitz, Maddalena Bayer-Giraldi, Daniela Jansen, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Wataru Shigeyama, Christian Weikusat, and Ilka Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 11, 1075–1090,Short summary
This study contributes to investigations of the effect of impurities on ice microstructure and flow properties. For the first time we mapped over 5000 micro-inclusions in four samples from the EDML and NEEM polar ice cores. The particle distributions show no correlation with grain boundaries and thus we conclude that particle pinning plays only a secondary role for the microstructure evolution. Alternative mechanisms are discussed.
Daniela Festi, Luca Carturan, Werner Kofler, Giancarlo dalla Fontana, Fabrizio de Blasi, Federico Cazorzi, Edith Bucher, Volkmar Mair, Paolo Gabrielli, and Klaus Oeggl
The Cryosphere, 11, 937–948,Short summary
We propose a sub-seasonal timescale based on pollen analyses for a Mt. Ortles firn core. The method can be applied to all types of glaciers, provided the proximity of the pollen source and a negligible time lag between pollen production and its deposition on the glacier. By combining pollen dating with a mass balance model we found evidence that pollen grains are resilient to downward transport by percolating water and that pollen shows a high potential for inferring past climatic conditions.
Niccolò Maffezzoli, Andrea Spolaor, Carlo Barbante, Michele Bertò, Massimo Frezzotti, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 11, 693–705,Short summary
Sea ice is a crucial parameter within Earth's climate system. Understanding its dynamics and its response to other climatic variables is therefore of primary importance in view of a warming climate and sea ice decline. In this work we investigate some features of a chemical parameter in ice cores, bromine enrichment, which is linked to sea ice and can therefore be used to reconstruct sea ice in the past.
Sentia Goursaud, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Vincent Favier, Susanne Preunkert, Michel Fily, Hubert Gallée, Bruno Jourdain, Michel Legrand, Olivier Magand, Bénédicte Minster, and Martin Werner
The Cryosphere, 11, 343–362,Short summary
Uncertainty of sea level changes is a challenge. As Antarctica is the biggest water reservoir, it is necessary to know how it will contribute. To be able to simulate it, an understanding of past climate is to be achieved, for instance, by studying the ice cores. As climate change is different in different regions, observations are needed all over the continent. Studying an ice core in Adélie Land, we can conclude that there are no changes there at decadal scale over the period 1947–2007.
Chiara Uglietti, Alexander Zapf, Theo Manuel Jenk, Michael Sigl, Sönke Szidat, Gary Salazar, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 10, 3091–3105,Short summary
A meaningful interpretation of the climatic history contained in ice cores requires a precise chronology. For dating the older and deeper part of the glaciers, radiocarbon analysis can be used when organic matter such as plant or insect fragments are found in the ice. Since this happens rarely, a complementary dating tool, based on radiocarbon dating of the insoluble fraction of carbonaceous aerosols entrapped in the ice, allows for ice dating between 200 and more than 10 000 years.
Carmen P. Vega, Elisabeth Schlosser, Dmitry V. Divine, Jack Kohler, Tõnu Martma, Anja Eichler, Margit Schwikowski, and Elisabeth Isaksson
The Cryosphere, 10, 2763–2777,Short summary
Surface mass balance and water stable isotopes from firn cores on three ice rises at Fimbul Ice Shelf are reported. The results suggest that the ice rises are suitable sites for the retrieval of longer firn and ice cores. The first deuterium excess data for the area suggests a possible role of seasonal moisture transport changes on the annual isotopic signal. Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns most likely provide the dominant influence on water stable isotope ratios at the sites.
Paolo Gabrielli, Carlo Barbante, Giuliano Bertagna, Michele Bertó, Daniel Binder, Alberto Carton, Luca Carturan, Federico Cazorzi, Giulio Cozzi, Giancarlo Dalla Fontana, Mary Davis, Fabrizio De Blasi, Roberto Dinale, Gianfranco Dragà, Giuliano Dreossi, Daniela Festi, Massimo Frezzotti, Jacopo Gabrieli, Stephan P. Galos, Patrick Ginot, Petra Heidenwolf, Theo M. Jenk, Natalie Kehrwald, Donald Kenny, Olivier Magand, Volkmar Mair, Vladimir Mikhalenko, Ping Nan Lin, Klaus Oeggl, Gianni Piffer, Mirko Rinaldi, Ulrich Schotterer, Margit Schwikowski, Roberto Seppi, Andrea Spolaor, Barbara Stenni, David Tonidandel, Chiara Uglietti, Victor Zagorodnov, Thomas Zanoner, and Piero Zennaro
The Cryosphere, 10, 2779–2797,Short summary
New ice cores were extracted from Alto dell'Ortles, the highest glacier of South Tyrol in the Italian Alps, to check whether prehistoric ice, which is coeval to the famous 5300-yr-old Tyrolean Iceman, is still preserved in this region. Dating of the ice cores confirms the hypothesis and indicates the drilling site has been glaciated since the end of the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum (7000 yrs BP). We also infer that an unprecedented acceleration of the glacier flow has recently begun.
Morgane Philippe, Jean-Louis Tison, Karen Fjøsne, Bryn Hubbard, Helle A. Kjær, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Reinhard Drews, Simon G. Sheldon, Kevin De Bondt, Philippe Claeys, and Frank Pattyn
The Cryosphere, 10, 2501–2516,Short summary
The reconstruction of past snow accumulation rates is crucial in the context of recent climate change and sea level rise. We measured ~ 250 years of snow accumulation using a 120 m ice core drilled in coastal East Antarctica, where such long records are very scarce. This study is the first to show an increase in snow accumulation, beginning in the 20th and particularly marked in the last 50 years, thereby confirming model predictions of increased snowfall associated with climate change.
Christo Buizert and Jeffrey P. Severinghaus
The Cryosphere, 10, 2099–2111,Short summary
The upper 50–100 m of the world's ice sheets consists of the firn layer, a porous layer of snow that is slowly compacted by overlying snow. Understanding air movement inside the firn is critical for ice core climate reconstructions. Buizert and Severinghaus identify and describe a new mechanism of firn air movement. High- and low-pressure systems force air movement in the firn that drives strong mixing, called dispersion. Dispersion is the main mechanism for air mixing in the deep firn.
Alexey Ekaykin, Lutz Eberlein, Vladimir Lipenkov, Sergey Popov, Mirko Scheinert, Ludwig Schröder, and Alexey Turkeev
The Cryosphere, 10, 1217–1227,
Carmen P. Vega, Veijo A. Pohjola, Emilie Beaudon, Björn Claremar, Ward J. J. van Pelt, Rickard Pettersson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Tõnu Martma, Margit Schwikowski, and Carl E. Bøggild
The Cryosphere, 10, 961–976,Short summary
To quantify post-depositional relocation of major ions by meltwater in snow and firn at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, consecutive ice cores drilled at this site were used to construct a synthetic core. The relocation length of most of the ions was on the order of 1 m between 2007 and 2010. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution.
Thomas Goossens, Célia J. Sapart, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Trevor Popp, Saïda El Amri, and Jean-Louis Tison
The Cryosphere, 10, 553–567,Short summary
This first multi-parametric analysis of the basal ice layer of the NEEM ice core reveals that its formation does not result from a mixing process between local relict ice and the deepest ice layers of the advancing ice sheet during its growth phase. Instead, it is shown that the basal sequence partly originates from melting and refreezing processes acting at the ice/bedrock interface under a well-developed ice sheet. These have partially destroyed the paleoclimatic records of the ice.
D. Jansen, M.-G. Llorens, J. Westhoff, F. Steinbach, S. Kipfstuhl, P. D. Bons, A. Griera, and I. Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 10, 359–370,Short summary
In this study we present examples of typical small-scale folds observed in the NEEM ice core, North Greenland, and discuss their characteristics. Numerical modelling of viscoplastic deformation and dynamic recrystallisation was used to improve the understanding of the formation of the observed structures under simple shear boundary conditions. We conclude that the folds originate from bands of grains with a tilted lattice relative to the strong lattice preferred orientation below 1500 m depth.
A. Spolaor, T. Opel, J. R. McConnell, O. J. Maselli, G. Spreen, C. Varin, T. Kirchgeorg, D. Fritzsche, A. Saiz-Lopez, and P. Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 10, 245–256,Short summary
The role of sea ice in the Earth climate system is still under debate, although it is known to influence albedo, ocean circulation, and atmosphere-ocean heat and gas exchange. Here we present a reconstruction of 1950 to 1998 AD sea ice in the Laptev Sea based on the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic) and halogen measurements. The results suggest a connection between bromine and sea ice, as well as a connection between iodine concentration in snow and summer sea ice.
V. Mikhalenko, S. Sokratov, S. Kutuzov, P. Ginot, M. Legrand, S. Preunkert, I. Lavrentiev, A. Kozachek, A. Ekaykin, X. Faïn, S. Lim, U. Schotterer, V. Lipenkov, and P. Toropov
The Cryosphere, 9, 2253–2270,Short summary
For the first time an ice core unaffected by melting was recovered from the western Elbrus plateau in the Caucasus. The preserved chemical and isotopic data are considered a source of paleo-climate information for southern/eastern Europe. Considerable snow accumulation (about 1500mm w.e.) and high sampling resolution allowed seasonal variability to be obtained in climate signals, covering a time period of about 200 years. Ice flow models suggest that the basal ice age can be more than 600 years.
G. van der Wel, H. Fischer, H. Oerter, H. Meyer, and H. A. J. Meijer
The Cryosphere, 9, 1601–1616,Short summary
The diffusion of the stable water isotope signal during firnification of snow is a temperature-dependent process. Therefore, past local temperatures can be derived from the differential diffusion length. In this paper we develop a new method for determining this quantity and compare it with the existing method. Both methods are applied to a large number of synthetic data sets to assess the precision and accuracy of the reconstruction and to a section of the Antarctic EDML ice core record.
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Crystallographic texture evolution with depth along ice cores can be evaluated using borehole sonic logging measurements. These measurements provide the velocities of elastic waves that depend on the ice polycrystal anisotropy and can further be related to the ice texture. To do so, elastic velocities need to be inverted from a modeling approach that relate elastic velocities to ice texture. The present paper presents a critical analysis of the different methods used for the inversion.
Crystallographic texture evolution with depth along ice cores can be evaluated using borehole...