Articles | Volume 16, issue 6
| Highlight paper
24 Jun 2022
Research article | Highlight paper | 24 Jun 2022
Impact of freshwater runoff from the southwest Greenland Ice Sheet on fjord productivity since the late 19th century
Mimmi Oksman et al.
No articles found.
Eva Friis Møller, Asbjørn Christensen, Janus Larsen, Kenneth David Mankoff, Mads Hvid Ribergaard, Mikael Kristian Sejr, Philip Wallhead, and Marie Maar
Melt from the Greenland ice sheet and sea ice both influence light and nutrient availability in the Arctic coastal ocean. We use a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model to evaluate the relative importance of these processes for timing, distribution and magnitude of phytoplankton production in Disko Bay, West Greenland. Our study indicates that decreasing sea ice and more freshwater discharge can work synergistically and increase primary productivity of the coastal ocean around Greenland.
Anja Løkkegaard, Kenneth Mankoff, Christian Zdanowicz, Gary D. Clow, Martin P. Lüthi, Samuel Doyle, Henrik Thomsen, David Fisher, Joel Harper, Andy Aschwanden, Bo M. Vinther, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Harry Zekollari, Toby Meierbachtol, Ian McDowell, Neil Humphrey, Anne Solgaard, Nanna B. Karlsson, Shfaqat Abbas Khan, Benjamin Hills, Robert Law, Bryn Hubbard, Poul Christoffersen, Mylène Jacquemart, Robert S. Fausto, and William T. Colgan
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
This study presents a database compiling 85 ice temperature profiles from the Greenland ice sheet and peripheral ice caps. Ice viscosity and hence ice flow is highly sensitive to ice temperature. To highlight the value of the data base in evaluating ice flow simulations, profiles from the Greenland ice sheet are compared to a modeled temperature field. Re-occurring discrepancies between modeled and observed temperatures provide insight on the difficulties faced when simulating ice temperatures.
Inès N. Otosaka, Andrew Shepherd, Erik R. Ivins, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Charles Amory, Michiel van den Broeke, Martin Horwath, Ian Joughin, Michalea King, Gerhard Krinner, Sophie Nowicki, Tony Payne, Eric Rignot, Ted Scambos, Karen M. Simon, Benjamin Smith, Louise Sandberg Sørensen, Isabella Velicogna, Pippa Whitehouse, Geruo A, Cécile Agosta, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, Alejandro Blazquez, William Colgan, Marcus Engdahl, Xavier Fettweis, Rene Forsberg, Hubert Gallée, Alex Gardner, Lin Gilbert, Noel Gourmelen, Andreas Groh, Brian C. Gunter, Christopher Harig, Veit Helm, Shfaqat Abbas Khan, Hannes Konrad, Peter Langen, Benoit Lecavalier, Chia-Chun Liang, Bryant Loomis, Malcolm McMillan, Daniele Melini, Sebastian H. Mernild, Ruth Mottram, Jeremie Mouginot, Johan Nilsson, Brice Noël, Mark E. Pattle, William R. Peltier, Nadege Pie, Ingo Sasgen, Himanshu Save, Ki-Weon Seo, Bernd Scheuchl, Ernst Schrama, Ludwig Schröder, Sebastian B. Simonsen, Thomas Slater, Giorgio Spada, Tyler Sutterley, Bramha Dutt Vishwakarma, Jan Melchior van Wessem, David Wiese, Wouter van der Wal, and Bert Wouters
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
By measuring changes in the volume, gravitational attraction and ice flow of Greenland and Antarctica from space, we can monitor their mass gain and loss over time. Here, we present a new record of the Earth’s polar ice sheets mass balance produced by aggregating 50 satellite-based estimates of ice sheet mass change. This new assessment shows that the ice sheets have lost 7.5 trillion tonnes of ice between 1992 and 2020, contributing 21 mm to sea level rise.
Mads Dømgaard, Kristian Kjellerup Kjeldsen, Flora Huiban, Jonathan Lee Carrivick, Shfaqat Abbas Khan, and Anders Anker Bjørk
Sudden releases of meltwater from glacier-dammed lakes can influence ice flow, cause flooding hazards and landscape changes. This study presents a record of 14 drainages from 2007–2021 from a lake in West Greenland. The time series reveals how the lake fluctuates between releasing large and small amounts of drainage water which is caused by a weakening of the damming glacier following the large events. We also find a shift in the water drainage route which increases the risk of flooding hazards.
Joseph A. MacGregor, Winnie Chu, William T. Colgan, Mark A. Fahnestock, Denis Felikson, Nanna B. Karlsson, Sophie M. J. Nowicki, and Michael Studinger
The Cryosphere, 16, 3033–3049,Short summary
Where the bottom of the Greenland Ice Sheet is frozen and where it is thawed is not well known, yet knowing this state is increasingly important to interpret modern changes in ice flow there. We produced a second synthesis of knowledge of the basal thermal state of the ice sheet using airborne and satellite observations and numerical models. About one-third of the ice sheet’s bed is likely thawed; two-fifths is likely frozen; and the remainder is too uncertain to specify.
William Colgan, Agnes Wansing, Kenneth Mankoff, Mareen Lösing, John Hopper, Keith Louden, Jörg Ebbing, Flemming G. Christiansen, Thomas Ingeman-Nielsen, Lillemor Claesson Liljedahl, Joseph A. MacGregor, Árni Hjartarson, Stefan Bernstein, Nanna B. Karlsson, Sven Fuchs, Juha Hartikainen, Johan Liakka, Robert S. Fausto, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Anders Bjørk, Jens-Ove Naslund, Finn Mørk, Yasmina Martos, Niels Balling, Thomas Funck, Kristian K. Kjeldsen, Dorthe Petersen, Ulrik Gregersen, Gregers Dam, Tove Nielsen, Shfaqat A. Khan, and Anja Løkkegaard
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2209–2238,Short summary
We assemble all available geothermal heat flow measurements collected in and around Greenland into a new database. We use this database of point measurements, in combination with other geophysical datasets, to model geothermal heat flow in and around Greenland. Our geothermal heat flow model is generally cooler than previous models of Greenland, especially in southern Greenland. It does not suggest any high geothermal heat flows resulting from Icelandic plume activity over 50 million years ago.
Teodora Pados-Dibattista, Christof Pearce, Henrieka Detlef, Jørgen Bendtsen, and Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz
Clim. Past, 18, 103–127,Short summary
We carried out foraminiferal, stable isotope, and sedimentological analyses of a marine sediment core retrieved from the Northeast Greenland shelf. This region is highly sensitive to climate variability because it is swept by the East Greenland Current, which is the main pathway for sea ice and cold waters that exit the Arctic Ocean. The palaeoceanographic reconstruction reveals significant variations in the water masses and in the strength of the East Greenland Current over the last 9400 years.
Kenneth D. Mankoff, Xavier Fettweis, Peter L. Langen, Martin Stendel, Kristian K. Kjeldsen, Nanna B. Karlsson, Brice Noël, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Anne Solgaard, William Colgan, Jason E. Box, Sebastian B. Simonsen, Michalea D. King, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, Signe Bech Andersen, and Robert S. Fausto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5001–5025,Short summary
We estimate the daily mass balance and its components (surface, marine, and basal mass balance) for the Greenland ice sheet. Our time series begins in 1840 and has annual resolution through 1985 and then daily from 1986 through next week. Results are operational (updated daily) and provided for the entire ice sheet or by commonly used regions or sectors. This is the first input–output mass balance estimate to include the basal mass balance.
Robert S. Fausto, Dirk van As, Kenneth D. Mankoff, Baptiste Vandecrux, Michele Citterio, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, Signe B. Andersen, William Colgan, Nanna B. Karlsson, Kristian K. Kjeldsen, Niels J. Korsgaard, Signe H. Larsen, Søren Nielsen, Allan Ø. Pedersen, Christopher L. Shields, Anne M. Solgaard, and Jason E. Box
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3819–3845,Short summary
The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) has been measuring climate and ice sheet properties since 2007. Here, we present our data product from weather and ice sheet measurements from a network of automatic weather stations mainly located in the melt area of the ice sheet. Currently the PROMICE automatic weather station network includes 25 instrumented sites in Greenland.
Anne Solgaard, Anders Kusk, John Peter Merryman Boncori, Jørgen Dall, Kenneth D. Mankoff, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, Signe B. Andersen, Michele Citterio, Nanna B. Karlsson, Kristian K. Kjeldsen, Niels J. Korsgaard, Signe H. Larsen, and Robert S. Fausto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3491–3512,Short summary
The PROMICE Ice Velocity product is a time series of Greenland Ice Sheet ice velocity mosaics spanning September 2016 to present. It is derived from Sentinel-1 SAR data and has a spatial resolution of 500 m. Each mosaic spans 24 d (two Sentinel-1 cycles), and a new one is posted every 12 d (every Sentinel-1A cycle). The spatial comprehensiveness and temporal consistency make the product ideal for monitoring and studying ice-sheet-wide ice discharge and dynamics of glaciers.
Alix G. Cage, Anna J. Pieńkowski, Anne Jennings, Karen Luise Knudsen, and Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz
J. Micropalaeontol., 40, 37–60,Short summary
Morphologically similar benthic foraminifera taxa are difficult to separate, resulting in incorrect identifications, complications understanding species-specific ecological preferences, and flawed reconstructions of past environments. Here we provide descriptions and illustrated guidelines on how to separate some key Arctic–North Atlantic species to circumvent taxonomic confusion, improve understanding of ecological affinities, and work towards more accurate palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.
Kenneth D. Mankoff, Brice Noël, Xavier Fettweis, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, William Colgan, Ken Kondo, Kirsty Langley, Shin Sugiyama, Dirk van As, and Robert S. Fausto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2811–2841,Short summary
This work partitions regional climate model (RCM) runoff from the MAR and RACMO RCMs to hydrologic outlets at the ice margin and coast. Temporal resolution is daily from 1959 through 2019. Spatial grid is ~ 100 m, resolving individual streams. In addition to discharge at outlets, we also provide the streams, outlets, and basin geospatial data, as well as a script to query and access the geospatial or time series discharge data from the data files.
Katrine Elnegaard Hansen, Jacques Giraudeau, Lukas Wacker, Christof Pearce, and Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz
Clim. Past, 16, 1075–1095,Short summary
In this study, we present RainNet, a deep convolutional neural network for radar-based precipitation nowcasting, which was trained to predict continuous precipitation intensities at a lead time of 5 min. RainNet significantly outperformed the benchmark models at all lead times up to 60 min. Yet an undesirable property of RainNet predictions is the level of spatial smoothing. Obviously, RainNet learned an optimal level of smoothing to produce a nowcast at 5 min lead time.
Kenneth D. Mankoff, Anne Solgaard, William Colgan, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, Shfaqat Abbas Khan, and Robert S. Fausto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1367–1383,Short summary
We have produced an open and reproducible estimate of Greenland Ice Sheet solid ice discharge from 1986 to 2020. Our results show three modes at the the total ice sheet scale: steady discharge from 1986 through 2000, increasing discharge from 2000 through 2005, and steady discharge from 2005 through 2019. The behavior of individual sectors and glaciers is more complicated. This work was done to provide a 100 % reproducible estimate to help constrain mass balance and sea-level-rise estimates.
Mark J. Hopwood, Dustin Carroll, Thorben Dunse, Andy Hodson, Johnna M. Holding, José L. Iriarte, Sofia Ribeiro, Eric P. Achterberg, Carolina Cantoni, Daniel F. Carlson, Melissa Chierici, Jennifer S. Clarke, Stefano Cozzi, Agneta Fransson, Thomas Juul-Pedersen, Mie H. S. Winding, and Lorenz Meire
The Cryosphere, 14, 1347–1383,Short summary
Here we compare and contrast results from five well-studied Arctic field sites in order to understand how glaciers affect marine biogeochemistry and marine primary production. The key questions are listed as follows. Where and when does glacial freshwater discharge promote or reduce marine primary production? How does spatio-temporal variability in glacial discharge affect marine primary production? And how far-reaching are the effects of glacial discharge on marine biogeochemistry?
Flor Vermassen, Nanna Andreasen, David J. Wangner, Nicolas Thibault, Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz, Rebecca Jackson, Sabine Schmidt, Kurt H. Kjær, and Camilla S. Andresen
Clim. Past, 15, 1171–1186,Short summary
By studying microfossils from sediments in Upernavik Fjord we investigate the role of ocean warming on the retreat of Upernavik Isstrøm during the past ~90 years. The reconstruction of Atlantic-derived waters shows a pattern similar to that of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, corroborating previous studies. The response of Upernavik Isstrøm to ocean forcing has been variable in the past, but the current retreat may be temporarily tempered by cooling bottom waters in the coming decade.
Kenneth D. Mankoff, William Colgan, Anne Solgaard, Nanna B. Karlsson, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, Dirk van As, Jason E. Box, Shfaqat Abbas Khan, Kristian K. Kjeldsen, Jeremie Mouginot, and Robert S. Fausto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 769–786,Short summary
We have produced an open and reproducible estimate of Greenland Ice Sheet solid ice discharge from 1986 through 2017. Our results show three modes at the total ice-sheet scale: steady discharge from 1986 through 2000, increasing discharge from 2000 through 2005, and steady discharge from 2005 through 2017. The behavior of individual sectors and glaciers is more complicated. This work was done to provide a 100 % reproducible estimate to help constrain mass balance and sea-level rise estimates.
Baptiste Vandecrux, Michael MacFerrin, Horst Machguth, William T. Colgan, Dirk van As, Achim Heilig, C. Max Stevens, Charalampos Charalampidis, Robert S. Fausto, Elizabeth M. Morris, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Lora Koenig, Lynn N. Montgomery, Clément Miège, Sebastian B. Simonsen, Thomas Ingeman-Nielsen, and Jason E. Box
The Cryosphere, 13, 845–859,Short summary
The perennial snow, or firn, on the Greenland ice sheet each summer stores part of the meltwater formed at the surface, buffering the ice sheet’s contribution to sea level. We gathered observations of firn air content, indicative of the space available in the firn to retain meltwater, and find that this air content remained stable in cold regions of the firn over the last 65 years but recently decreased significantly in western Greenland.
Andrea Fischel, Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz, and Bent Vad Odgaard
J. Micropalaeontol., 37, 499–518,Short summary
Benthic foraminifera often colonize marine underwater vegetation in tropical regions. We studied these so-called epiphytic foraminifera in a shallow bay in the Bahamas. Here the foraminifera differed between types of vegetation, but sedimentological processes seem to be the main controller of the dead foraminifera in the sediment. This indicates that in carbonate platform regions, epiphytic foraminifera should only be used cautiously as direct indicators of past in situ marine vegetation.
Konstanze Haubner, Jason E. Box, Nicole J. Schlegel, Eric Y. Larour, Mathieu Morlighem, Anne M. Solgaard, Kristian K. Kjeldsen, Signe H. Larsen, Eric Rignot, Todd K. Dupont, and Kurt H. Kjær
The Cryosphere, 12, 1511–1522,Short summary
We investigate the effect of neglecting calving on Upernavik Isstrøm, West Greenland, between 1849 and 2012. Our simulation is forced with observed terminus positions in discrete time steps and is responsive to the prescribed ice front changes. Simulated frontal retreat is needed to obtain a realistic ice surface elevation and velocity evolution of Upernavik. Using the prescribed terminus position change we gain insight to mass loss partitioning during different time periods.
Ulrich Kotthoff, Jeroen Groeneveld, Jeanine L. Ash, Anne-Sophie Fanget, Nadine Quintana Krupinski, Odile Peyron, Anna Stepanova, Jonathan Warnock, Niels A. G. M. Van Helmond, Benjamin H. Passey, Ole Rønø Clausen, Ole Bennike, Elinor Andrén, Wojciech Granoszewski, Thomas Andrén, Helena L. Filipsson, Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz, Caroline P. Slomp, and Thorsten Bauersachs
Biogeosciences, 14, 5607–5632,Short summary
We present reconstructions of paleotemperature, paleosalinity, and paleoecology from the Little Belt (Site M0059) over the past ~ 8000 years and evaluate the applicability of numerous proxies. Conditions were lacustrine until ~ 7400 cal yr BP. A transition to brackish–marine conditions then occurred within ~ 200 years. Salinity proxies rarely allowed quantitative estimates but revealed congruent results, while quantitative temperature reconstructions differed depending on the proxies used.
Martin Bartels, Jürgen Titschack, Kirsten Fahl, Rüdiger Stein, Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz, Claude Hillaire-Marcel, and Dierk Hebbeln
Clim. Past, 13, 1717–1749,Short summary
Multi-proxy analyses (i.a., benthic foraminiferal assemblages and sedimentary properties) of a marine record from Woodfjorden at the northern Svalbard margin (Norwegian Arctic) illustrate a significant contribution of relatively warm Atlantic water to the destabilization of tidewater glaciers, especially during the deglaciation and early Holocene (until ~ 7800 years ago), whereas its influence on glacier activity has been fading during the last 2 millennia, enabling glacier readvances.
Kristian Kjellerup Kjeldsen, Reimer Wilhelm Weinrebe, Jørgen Bendtsen, Anders Anker Bjørk, and Kurt Henrik Kjær
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 589–600,Short summary
Here we present bathymetric and hydrographic measurements from two fjords in southeastern Greenland surveyed in 2014, leading to improved knowledge of the fjord morphology and an assessment of the variability in water masses in the fjords systems. Data were collected as part of a larger field campaign in which we targeted marine and terrestrial observations to assess the long-term behavior of the Greenland ice sheet and provide linkages to modern observations.
Kenneth D. Mankoff and Slawek M. Tulaczyk
The Cryosphere, 11, 303–317,Short summary
There may be a ~ 7-fold increases in heat at the bed of Greenland by the end of the century due to increased runoff. The impact this will have on the ice is uncertain, but recent results indicate more heat may reduced glacier velocity near the margin, and accelerate it in the interior. We used existing model output of Greenland surface melt, ice sheet surface, and basal topography. All code needed to recreate the results, using free software, is included.
S. A. Khan, K. K. Kjeldsen, K. H. Kjær, S. Bevan, A. Luckman, A. Aschwanden, A. A. Bjørk, N. J. Korsgaard, J. E. Box, M. van den Broeke, T. M. van Dam, and A. Fitzner
The Cryosphere, 8, 1497–1507,
W. Colgan, S. Luthcke, W. Abdalati, and M. Citterio
The Cryosphere, 7, 1901–1914,
Related subject area
Discipline: Other | Subject: Ocean InteractionsReversal of ocean gyres near ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea caused by the interaction of sea ice and windModeling intensive ocean–cryosphere interactions in Lützow-Holm Bay, East AntarcticaDrivers for Atlantic-origin waters abutting GreenlandImpact of West Antarctic ice shelf melting on Southern Ocean hydrographyIce island thinning: rates and model calibration with in situ observations from Baffin Bay, NunavutQuantifying iceberg calving fluxes with underwater noiseModeling the effect of Ross Ice Shelf melting on the Southern Ocean in quasi-equilibrium
Yixi Zheng, David P. Stevens, Karen J. Heywood, Benjamin G. M. Webber, and Bastien Y. Queste
The Cryosphere, 16, 3005–3019,Short summary
New observations reveal the Thwaites gyre in a habitually ice-covered region in the Amundsen Sea for the first time. This gyre rotates anticlockwise, despite the wind here favouring clockwise gyres like the Pine Island Bay gyre – the only other ocean gyre reported in the Amundsen Sea. We use an ocean model to suggest that sea ice alters the wind stress felt by the ocean and hence determines the gyre direction and strength. These processes may also be applied to other gyres in polar oceans.
Kazuya Kusahara, Daisuke Hirano, Masakazu Fujii, Alexander D. Fraser, and Takeshi Tamura
The Cryosphere, 15, 1697–1717,Short summary
We used an ocean–sea ice–ice shelf model with a 2–3 km horizontal resolution to investigate ocean–ice shelf/glacier interactions in Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. The numerical model reproduced the observed warm water intrusion along the deep trough in the bay. We examined in detail (1) water mass changes between the upper continental slope and shelf regions and (2) the fast-ice role in the ocean conditions and basal melting at the Shirase Glacier tongue.
Laura C. Gillard, Xianmin Hu, Paul G. Myers, Mads Hvid Ribergaard, and Craig M. Lee
The Cryosphere, 14, 2729–2753,Short summary
Greenland's glaciers in contact with the ocean drain the majority of the ice sheet (GrIS). Deep troughs along the shelf branch into fjords, connecting glaciers with ocean waters. The heat from the ocean entering deep troughs may then accelerate the mass loss. Onshore heat transport through troughs was investigated with an ocean model. Processes that drive the delivery of ocean heat respond differently by region to increasing GrIS meltwater, mean circulation, and filtering out of storms.
Yoshihiro Nakayama, Ralph Timmermann, and Hartmut H. Hellmer
The Cryosphere, 14, 2205–2216,Short summary
Previous studies have shown accelerations of West Antarctic glaciers, implying that basal melt rates of these glaciers were small and increased in the middle of the 20th century. We conduct coupled sea ice–ice shelf–ocean simulations with different levels of ice shelf melting from West Antarctic glaciers. This study reveals how far and how quickly glacial meltwater from ice shelves in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas propagates downstream into the Ross Sea and along the East Antarctic coast.
Anna J. Crawford, Derek Mueller, Gregory Crocker, Laurent Mingo, Luc Desjardins, Dany Dumont, and Marcel Babin
The Cryosphere, 14, 1067–1081,Short summary
Large tabular icebergs (
ice islands) are symbols of climate change as well as marine hazards. We measured thickness along radar transects over two visits to a 14 km2 Arctic ice island and left automated equipment to monitor surface ablation and thickness over 1 year. We assess variation in thinning rates and calibrate an ice–ocean melt model with field data. Our work contributes to understanding ice island deterioration via logistically complex fieldwork in a remote environment.
Oskar Glowacki and Grant B. Deane
The Cryosphere, 14, 1025–1042,Short summary
Marine-terminating glaciers are shrinking rapidly in response to the warming climate and thus provide large quantities of fresh water to the ocean system. However, accurate estimates of ice loss at the ice–ocean boundary are difficult to obtain. Here we demonstrate that ice mass loss from iceberg break-off (calving) can be measured by analyzing the underwater noise generated as icebergs impact the sea surface.
The Cryosphere, 12, 3033–3044,Short summary
Numerical experiments have been performed to study the effect of basal melting of the Ross Ice Shelf on the ocean southward of 35° S. It is shown that the melt rate averaged over the entire Ross Ice Shelf is 0.253 m year-1, which is associated with a freshwater flux of 3150 m3 s-1. The extra freshwater flux decreases the salinity in the Southern Ocean substantially, leading to anomalies in circulation, sea ice, and heat transport in certain parts of the ocean.
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Justification of handling editor: The paper presents a multi-proxy study of fjord productivity in Greenland. The link between paleo records and modern climate is notable.
Justification of handling editor: The paper presents a multi-proxy study of fjord productivity...
One of the questions facing the cryosphere community today is how increasing runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet impacts marine ecosystems. To address this, long-term data are essential. Here, we present multi-site records of fjord productivity for SW Greenland back to the 19th century. We show a link between historical freshwater runoff and productivity, which is strongest in the inner fjord – influenced by marine-terminating glaciers – where productivity has increased since the late 1990s.
One of the questions facing the cryosphere community today is how increasing runoff from the...