Articles | Volume 15, issue 5
The Cryosphere, 15, 2211–2234, 2021
The Cryosphere, 15, 2211–2234, 2021

Research article 10 May 2021

Research article | 10 May 2021

Climate change and Northern Hemisphere lake and river ice phenology from 1931–2005

Andrew M. W. Newton and Donal J. Mullan

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Cited articles

Assel, R., Cronk, K., and Norton, D.: Recent trends in Laurentian Great Lakes ice cover, Climatic Change, 57, 185–204,, 2003. 
Assel, R. A. and Robertson, D. M.: Changes in winter air temperatures near Lake Michigan, 1851–1993, as determined from regional lake-ice records, Limnol. Oceanogr., 40, 165–176,, 1995. 
Bai, X., Wang, J., Sellinger, C., Clites, A., and Assel, R.: Interannual variability of Great Lakes ice cover and its relationship to NAO and ENSO, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 117, C03002,, 2012. 
Batima, P., Batnasan, N., and Bolormaa, B.: Trends in River and Lake Ice in Mongolia, AIACC Work. Pap., available at: (last access: 15 August 2019), 2004. 
Beltaos, S. and Burrell, B. C.: Climatic change and river ice breakup, Can. J. Civil Eng., 30, 145–155,, 2003. 
Short summary
This paper investigates changes in the dates of ice freeze-up and breakup for 678 Northern Hemisphere lakes and rivers from 1931–2005. From 3510 time series, the results show that breakup dates have gradually occurred earlier through time, whilst freeze-up trends have tended to be significantly more variable. These data combined show that the number of annual open-water days has increased through time for most sites, with the magnitude of change at its largest in more recent years.