Articles | Volume 14, issue 3
The Cryosphere, 14, 967–984, 2020
The Cryosphere, 14, 967–984, 2020

Research article 16 Mar 2020

Research article | 16 Mar 2020

Spatial and temporal variations in glacier aerodynamic surface roughness during the melting season, as estimated at the August-one ice cap, Qilian mountains, China

Junfeng Liu et al.

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Cited articles

Albert, M. R. and Hawley, R. L.: Seasonal changes in snow surface roughness characteristics at Summit, Greenland: implications for snow and firn ventilation, Ann. Glaciol., 35, 510–514, doi:10.3189/172756402781816591, 2002. 
Andreas, E. L.: Parameterizing scalar transfer over snow and ice: A review, J. Hydrometeorol., 3, 417–432, 2002. 
Andreas, E. L., Persson, P. O. G., Jordan, R. E., Horst, T. W., Guest, P. S., Grachev, A. A., and Fairall, C. W.: Parameterizing turbulent exchange over sea ice in winter, J. Hydrometeorol., 11, 87–104, doi:10.1175/2009JHM1102.1, 2010. 
Arck, M., and Scherer, D.: Problems in the determination of sensible heat flux over snow, Geogr. Ann., 84, 157–169, doi:10.1111/1468-0459.00170, 2002. 
Betterton, M. D.: Formation of structure in snowfields: Penitentes, suncups, and dirt cones, Phys. Rev. E, 63, 056129, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.63.056129, 2000. 
Short summary
Glacier surface roughness during melting season was observed by manual and automatic photogrammetry. Surface roughness was larger at the snow and ice transition zone than in fully snow- or ice-covered areas. Persistent snowfall and rainfall both reduce surface roughness. High or rising turbulent heat as a component of surface energy balance tended to produce a smooth ice surface; low or decreasing turbulent heat tended to produce a rougher surface.