Articles | Volume 9, issue 2
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Configuration of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet at LGM based on a new synthesis of seabed imagery
Department of Geosciences/CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, 3810-193, Portugal
Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante, Sgonico, 34010, Italy
E. W. Domack
College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Florida 33701, USA
E. C. Pettit
Department of Geosciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775, USA
T. A. Scambos
National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
R. D. Larter
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, CB3 0ET, UK
Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, 27568, Germany
K. C. Yoo
Korean Polar Research Institute, Incheon, 406-840, Republic of Korea
Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, 27568, Germany
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204, USA
Departament d'Estratigrafia, Paleontologia i Geociències Marines/GRR Marine Geosciences, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
J. B. Anderson
Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251, USA
Departament d'Estratigrafia, Paleontologia i Geociències Marines/GRR Marine Geosciences, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
No articles found.
Jenna A. Epifanio, Edward J. Brook, Christo Buizert, Erin C. Pettit, Jon S. Edwards, John M. Fegyveresi, Todd A. Sowers, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, and Emma C. Kahle
The Cryosphere, 17, 4837–4851,Short summary
The total air content (TAC) of polar ice cores has long been considered a potential proxy for past ice sheet elevation. This study presents a high-resolution record of TAC from the South Pole ice core. The record reveals orbital- and millennial-scale variability that cannot be explained by elevation changes. The orbital- and millennial-scale changes are likely a product of firn grain metamorphism near the surface of the ice sheet, due to summer insolation changes or local accumulation changes.
Kelly A. Hogan, Katarzyna L. P. Warburton, Alastair G. C. Graham, Jerome A. Neufeld, Duncan R. Hewitt, Julian A. Dowdeswell, and Robert D. Larter
The Cryosphere, 17, 2645–2664,Short summary
Delicate sea floor ridges – corrugation ridges – that form by tidal motion at Antarctic grounding lines record extremely fast retreat of ice streams in the past. Here we use a mathematical model, constrained by real-world observations from Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica, to explore how corrugation ridges form. We identify
till extrusion, whereby deformable sediment is squeezed out from under the ice like toothpaste as it settles down at each low-tide position, as the most likely process.
Naomi E. Ochwat, Ted A. Scambos, Alison F. Banwell, Robert S. Anderson, Michelle L. Maclennan, Ghislain Picard, Julia A. Shates, Sebastian Marinsek, Liliana Margonari, Martin Truffer, and Erin C. Pettit
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
On the Antarctic Peninsula, there is a small bay that had sea ice fastened to the shoreline ('fast ice') for over a decade. The fast ice stabilized the glaciers that fed into the ocean. In January 2022 this fast ice broke away, using satellite data we found that this was because of low sea ice concentrations and a high long period ocean wave swell. We find that the glaciers have responded to this event by thinning, speeding up, and retreating by breaking off lots of icebergs at remarkable rates.
Allison P. Lepp, Lauren E. Miller, John B. Anderson, Matt O'Regan, Monica C. M. Winsborrow, James A. Smith, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Julia S. Wellner, Lindsay O. Prothro, and Evgeny A. Podolskiy
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
Shape and surface textures of silt-sized sediments are measured to connect marine sediment records with subglacial water flow. We find grain-shape alteration is greatest for glaciers in temperate settings and for which high-energy drainage events are implied, and that the surfaces of silt-sized sediments preserve evidence of glacial transport. Our results suggest grain shape and texture may reveal whether glaciers previously experienced temperate conditions with more abundant meltwater.
Inès N. Otosaka, Andrew Shepherd, Erik R. Ivins, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Charles Amory, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Martin Horwath, Ian Joughin, Michalea D. King, Gerhard Krinner, Sophie Nowicki, Anthony J. Payne, Eric Rignot, Ted Scambos, Karen M. Simon, Benjamin E. Smith, Louise S. Sørensen, Isabella Velicogna, Pippa L. Whitehouse, Geruo A, Cécile Agosta, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, Alejandro Blazquez, William Colgan, Marcus E. Engdahl, Xavier Fettweis, Rene Forsberg, Hubert Gallée, Alex Gardner, Lin Gilbert, Noel Gourmelen, Andreas Groh, Brian C. Gunter, Christopher Harig, Veit Helm, Shfaqat Abbas Khan, Christoph Kittel, Hannes Konrad, Peter L. Langen, Benoit S. Lecavalier, Chia-Chun Liang, Bryant D. Loomis, Malcolm McMillan, Daniele Melini, Sebastian H. Mernild, Ruth Mottram, Jeremie Mouginot, Johan Nilsson, Brice Noël, Mark E. Pattle, William R. Peltier, Nadege Pie, Mònica Roca, Ingo Sasgen, Himanshu V. Save, Ki-Weon Seo, Bernd Scheuchl, Ernst J. O. Schrama, Ludwig Schröder, Sebastian B. Simonsen, Thomas Slater, Giorgio Spada, Tyler C. Sutterley, Bramha Dutt Vishwakarma, Jan Melchior van Wessem, David Wiese, Wouter van der Wal, and Bert Wouters
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 1597–1616,Short summary
By measuring changes in the volume, gravitational attraction, and ice flow of Greenland and Antarctica from space, we can monitor their mass gain and loss over time. Here, we present a new record of the Earth’s polar ice sheet mass balance produced by aggregating 50 satellite-based estimates of ice sheet mass change. This new assessment shows that the ice sheets have lost (7.5 x 1012) t of ice between 1992 and 2020, contributing 21 mm to sea level rise.
Michelle L. Maclennan, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Christine A. Shields, Andrew O. Hoffman, Nander Wever, Megan Thompson-Munson, Andrew C. Winters, Erin C. Pettit, Theodore A. Scambos, and Jonathan D. Wille
The Cryosphere, 17, 865–881,Short summary
Atmospheric rivers are air masses that transport large amounts of moisture and heat towards the poles. Here, we use a combination of weather observations and models to quantify the amount of snowfall caused by atmospheric rivers in West Antarctica which is about 10 % of the total snowfall each year. We then examine a unique event that occurred in early February 2020, when three atmospheric rivers made landfall over West Antarctica in rapid succession, leading to heavy snowfall and surface melt.
Julian Gutt, Stefanie Arndt, David Keith Alan Barnes, Horst Bornemann, Thomas Brey, Olaf Eisen, Hauke Flores, Huw Griffiths, Christian Haas, Stefan Hain, Tore Hattermann, Christoph Held, Mario Hoppema, Enrique Isla, Markus Janout, Céline Le Bohec, Heike Link, Felix Christopher Mark, Sebastien Moreau, Scarlett Trimborn, Ilse van Opzeeland, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Fokje Schaafsma, Katharina Teschke, Sandra Tippenhauer, Anton Van de Putte, Mia Wege, Daniel Zitterbart, and Dieter Piepenburg
Biogeosciences, 19, 5313–5342,Short summary
Long-term ecological observations are key to assess, understand and predict impacts of environmental change on biotas. We present a multidisciplinary framework for such largely lacking investigations in the East Antarctic Southern Ocean, combined with case studies, experimental and modelling work. As climate change is still minor here but is projected to start soon, the timely implementation of this framework provides the unique opportunity to document its ecological impacts from the very onset.
Steven Y. J. Lai, David Amblas, Aaron Micallef, Thomas P. Gerber, and Hérve Capart
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESurfShort summary
The results support that strong scaling relationships exist in both laboratory-scale and field scale submarine canyon-fan systems. We propose that fault slip rate controls the convergence and merging speed of submarine canyon-fan systems, which in turn affects their number and spacing. We further propose a general rule to predict fan volumes by using canyon lengths.
Douglas I. Benn, Adrian Luckman, Jan A. Åström, Anna J. Crawford, Stephen L. Cornford, Suzanne L. Bevan, Thomas Zwinger, Rupert Gladstone, Karen Alley, Erin Pettit, and Jeremy Bassis
The Cryosphere, 16, 2545–2564,Short summary
Thwaites Glacier (TG), in West Antarctica, is potentially unstable and may contribute significantly to sea-level rise as global warming continues. Using satellite data, we show that Thwaites Eastern Ice Shelf, the largest remaining floating extension of TG, has started to accelerate as it fragments along a shear zone. Computer modelling does not indicate that fragmentation will lead to imminent glacier collapse, but it is clear that major, rapid, and unpredictable changes are underway.
Molly O. Patterson, Richard H. Levy, Denise K. Kulhanek, Tina van de Flierdt, Huw Horgan, Gavin B. Dunbar, Timothy R. Naish, Jeanine Ash, Alex Pyne, Darcy Mandeno, Paul Winberry, David M. Harwood, Fabio Florindo, Francisco J. Jimenez-Espejo, Andreas Läufer, Kyu-Cheul Yoo, Osamu Seki, Paolo Stocchi, Johann P. Klages, Jae Il Lee, Florence Colleoni, Yusuke Suganuma, Edward Gasson, Christian Ohneiser, José-Abel Flores, David Try, Rachel Kirkman, Daleen Koch, and the SWAIS 2C Science Team
Sci. Dril., 30, 101–112,Short summary
How much of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet will melt and how quickly it will happen when average global temperatures exceed 2 °C is currently unknown. Given the far-reaching and international consequences of Antarctica’s future contribution to global sea level rise, the SWAIS 2C Project was developed in order to better forecast the size and timing of future changes.
Christian T. Wild, Karen E. Alley, Atsuhiro Muto, Martin Truffer, Ted A. Scambos, and Erin C. Pettit
The Cryosphere, 16, 397–417,Short summary
Thwaites Glacier has the potential to significantly raise Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise by the end of this century. Here, we use satellite measurements of surface elevation to show that its floating part is close to losing contact with an underwater ridge that currently acts to stabilize. We then use computer models of ice flow to simulate the predicted unpinning, which show that accelerated ice discharge into the ocean follows the breakup of the floating part.
Karen E. Alley, Christian T. Wild, Adrian Luckman, Ted A. Scambos, Martin Truffer, Erin C. Pettit, Atsuhiro Muto, Bruce Wallin, Marin Klinger, Tyler Sutterley, Sarah F. Child, Cyrus Hulen, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Michelle Maclennan, Eric Keenan, and Devon Dunmire
The Cryosphere, 15, 5187–5203,Short summary
We present a 20-year, satellite-based record of velocity and thickness change on the Thwaites Eastern Ice Shelf (TEIS), the largest remaining floating extension of Thwaites Glacier (TG). TG holds the single greatest control on sea-level rise over the next few centuries, so it is important to understand changes on the TEIS, which controls much of TG's flow into the ocean. Our results suggest that the TEIS is progressively destabilizing and is likely to disintegrate over the next few decades.
Ross Maguire, Nicholas Schmerr, Erin Pettit, Kiya Riverman, Christyna Gardner, Daniella N. DellaGiustina, Brad Avenson, Natalie Wagner, Angela G. Marusiak, Namrah Habib, Juliette I. Broadbeck, Veronica J. Bray, and Samuel H. Bailey
The Cryosphere, 15, 3279–3291,Short summary
In the last decade, airborne radar surveys have revealed the presence of lakes below the Greenland ice sheet. However, little is known about their properties, including their depth and the volume of water they store. We performed a ground-based geophysics survey in northwestern Greenland and, for the first time, were able to image the depth of a subglacial lake and estimate its volume. Our findings have implications for the thermal state and stability of the ice sheet in northwest Greenland.
Alan Huston, Nicholas Siler, Gerard H. Roe, Erin Pettit, and Nathan J. Steiger
The Cryosphere, 15, 1645–1662,Short summary
We simulate the past 1000 years of glacier length variability using a simple glacier model and an ensemble of global climate model simulations. Glaciers with long response times are more likely to record global climate changes caused by events like volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas emissions, while glaciers with short response times are more likely to record natural variability. This difference stems from differences in the frequency spectra of natural and forced temperature variability.
Romana Melis, Lucilla Capotondi, Fiorenza Torricella, Patrizia Ferretti, Andrea Geniram, Jong Kuk Hong, Gerhard Kuhn, Boo-Keun Khim, Sookwan Kim, Elisa Malinverno, Kyu Cheul Yoo, and Ester Colizza
J. Micropalaeontol., 40, 15–35,Short summary
Integrated micropaleontological (planktic and benthic foraminifera, diatoms, and silicoflagellates) analysis, together with textural and geochemical results of a deep-sea core from the Hallett Ridge (northwestern Ross Sea), provides new data for late Quaternary (23–2 ka) paleoenvironmental and paleoceanographic reconstructions of this region. Results allow us to identify three time intervals: the glacial–deglacial transition, the deglacial period, and the interglacial period.
Alia L. Khan, Heidi M. Dierssen, Ted A. Scambos, Juan Höfer, and Raul R. Cordero
The Cryosphere, 15, 133–148,Short summary
We present radiative forcing (RF) estimates by snow algae in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) region from multi-year measurements of solar radiation and ground-based hyperspectral characterization of red and green snow algae collected during a brief field expedition in austral summer 2018. Mean daily RF was double for green (~26 W m−2) vs. red (~13 W m−2) snow algae during the peak growing season, which is on par with midlatitude dust attributions capable of advancing snowmelt.
Tom A. Jordan, David Porter, Kirsty Tinto, Romain Millan, Atsuhiro Muto, Kelly Hogan, Robert D. Larter, Alastair G. C. Graham, and John D. Paden
The Cryosphere, 14, 2869–2882,Short summary
Linking ocean and ice sheet processes allows prediction of sea level change. Ice shelves form a floating buffer between the ice–ocean systems, but the water depth beneath is often a mystery, leaving a critical blind spot in our understanding of how these systems interact. Here, we use airborne measurements of gravity to reveal the bathymetry under the ice shelves flanking the rapidly changing Thwaites Glacier and adjacent glacier systems, providing new insights and data for future models.
Kelly A. Hogan, Robert D. Larter, Alastair G. C. Graham, Robert Arthern, James D. Kirkham, Rebecca L. Totten, Tom A. Jordan, Rachel Clark, Victoria Fitzgerald, Anna K. Wåhlin, John B. Anderson, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Frank O. Nitsche, Lauren Simkins, James A. Smith, Karsten Gohl, Jan Erik Arndt, Jongkuk Hong, and Julia Wellner
The Cryosphere, 14, 2883–2908,Short summary
The sea-floor geometry around the rapidly changing Thwaites Glacier is a key control on warm ocean waters reaching the ice shelf and grounding zone beyond. This area was previously unsurveyed due to icebergs and sea-ice cover. The International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration mapped this area for the first time in 2019. The data reveal troughs over 1200 m deep and, as this region is thought to have only ungrounded recently, provide key insights into the morphology beneath the grounded ice sheet.
Julie Z. Miller, David G. Long, Kenneth C. Jezek, Joel T. Johnson, Mary J. Brodzik, Christopher A. Shuman, Lora S. Koenig, and Ted A. Scambos
The Cryosphere, 14, 2809–2817,
Jan Erik Arndt, Robert D. Larter, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Simon H. Sørli, Matthias Forwick, James A. Smith, and Lukas Wacker
The Cryosphere, 14, 2115–2135,Short summary
We interpret landforms on the seabed and investigate sediment cores to improve our understanding of the past ice sheet development in this poorly understood part of Antarctica. Recent crack development of the Brunt ice shelf has raised concerns about its stability and the security of the British research station Halley. We describe ramp-shaped bedforms that likely represent ice shelf grounding and stabilization locations of the past that may reflect an analogue to the process going on now.
James D. Kirkham, Kelly A. Hogan, Robert D. Larter, Neil S. Arnold, Frank O. Nitsche, Nicholas R. Golledge, and Julian A. Dowdeswell
The Cryosphere, 13, 1959–1981,Short summary
A series of huge (500 m wide, 50 m deep) channels were eroded by water flowing beneath Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in the past. The channels are similar to canyon systems produced by floods of meltwater released beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet millions of years ago. The spatial extent of the channels formed beneath Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers demonstrates significant quantities of water, possibly discharged from trapped subglacial lakes, flowed beneath these glaciers in the past.
Dyre O. Dammann, Leif E. B. Eriksson, Son V. Nghiem, Erin C. Pettit, Nathan T. Kurtz, John G. Sonntag, Thomas E. Busche, Franz J. Meyer, and Andrew R. Mahoney
The Cryosphere, 13, 1861–1875,Short summary
We validate TanDEM-X interferometry as a tool for deriving iceberg subaerial morphology using Operation IceBridge data. This approach enables a volumetric classification of icebergs, according to volume relevant to iceberg drift and decay, freshwater contribution, and potential impact on structures. We find iceberg volumes to generally match within 7 %. These results suggest that TanDEM-X could pave the way for future interferometric systems of scientific and operational iceberg classification.
Robert D. Larter, Kelly A. Hogan, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, James A. Smith, Christine L. Batchelor, Matthieu Cartigny, Alex J. Tate, James D. Kirkham, Zoë A. Roseby, Gerhard Kuhn, Alastair G. C. Graham, and Julian A. Dowdeswell
The Cryosphere, 13, 1583–1596,Short summary
We present high-resolution bathymetry data that provide the most complete and detailed imagery of any Antarctic palaeo-ice stream bed. These data show how subglacial water was delivered to and influenced the dynamic behaviour of the ice stream. Our observations provide insights relevant to understanding the behaviour of modern ice streams and forecasting the contributions that they will make to future sea level rise.
Bas Altena, Ted Scambos, Mark Fahnestock, and Andreas Kääb
The Cryosphere, 13, 795–814,Short summary
Many glaciers in southern Alaska and the Yukon experience changes in flow speed, which occur in episodes or sporadically. These flow changes can be measured with satellites, but the resulting raw velocity products are messy. Thus in this study we developed an automatic method to produce a synthesized velocity product over a large glacier region of roughly 600 km by 200 km. Velocities are at a monthly resolution and at 300 m resolution, making all kinds of glacier dynamics observable.
Joo-Eun Yoon, Kyu-Cheul Yoo, Alison M. Macdonald, Ho-Il Yoon, Ki-Tae Park, Eun Jin Yang, Hyun-Cheol Kim, Jae Il Lee, Min Kyung Lee, Jinyoung Jung, Jisoo Park, Jiyoung Lee, Soyeon Kim, Seong-Su Kim, Kitae Kim, and Il-Nam Kim
Biogeosciences, 15, 5847–5889,Short summary
Our paper provides an intensive overview of the artificial ocean iron fertilization (aOIF) experiments conducted over the last 25 years to test Martin’s hypothesis, discusses aOIF-related important unanswered open questions, suggests considerations for the design of future aOIF experiments to maximize their effectiveness, and introduces design guidelines for a future Korean Iron Fertilization Experiment in the Southern Ocean.
Lauren M. Simkins, Sarah L. Greenwood, and John B. Anderson
The Cryosphere, 12, 2707–2726,Short summary
Using thousands of grounding line landforms in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, we observe two distinct landform types associated with contrasting styles of grounding line retreat. We characterise landform morphology, examine factors that control landform morphology and distribution, and explore drivers of grounding line (in)stability. This study highlights the importance of understanding thresholds which may destabilise a system and of controls on grounding line retreat over a range of timescales.
Dominic A. Hodgson, Kelly Hogan, James M. Smith, James A. Smith, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Alastair G. C. Graham, Peter Fretwell, Claire Allen, Vicky Peck, Jan-Erik Arndt, Boris Dorschel, Christian Hübscher, Andrew M. Smith, and Robert Larter
The Cryosphere, 12, 2383–2399,Short summary
We studied the Coats Land ice margin, Antarctica, providing a multi-disciplinary geophysical assessment of the ice sheet configuration through its last advance and retreat; a description of the physical constraints on the stability of the past and present ice and future margin based on its submarine geomorphology and ice-sheet geometry; and evidence that once detached from the bed, the ice shelves in this region were predisposed to rapid retreat back to coastal grounding lines.
Jan Erik Arndt, Robert D. Larter, Peter Friedl, Karsten Gohl, Kathrin Höppner, and the Science Team of Expedition PS104
The Cryosphere, 12, 2039–2050,Short summary
The calving line location of the Pine Island Glacier did not show any trend within the last 70 years until calving in 2015 led to unprecedented retreat. In February 2017 we accessed this previously ice-shelf-covered area with RV Polarstern and mapped the sea-floor topography for the first time. Satellite imagery of the last decades show how the newly mapped shoals affected the ice shelf development and highlights that sea-floor topography is an important factor in initiating calving events.
Alex S. Gardner, Geir Moholdt, Ted Scambos, Mark Fahnstock, Stefan Ligtenberg, Michiel van den Broeke, and Johan Nilsson
The Cryosphere, 12, 521–547,Short summary
We map present-day Antarctic surface velocities from Landsat imagery and compare to earlier estimates from radar. Flow accelerations across the grounding lines of West Antarctica's Amundsen Sea Embayment, Getz Ice Shelf and the western Antarctic Peninsula, account for 89 % of the observed increase in ice discharge. In contrast, glaciers draining the East Antarctic have been remarkably stable. Our work suggests that patterns of mass loss are part of a longer-term phase of enhanced flow.
Yuribia P. Munoz and Julia S. Wellner
The Cryosphere, 12, 205–225,Short summary
We mapped submarine landforms in western Antarctic Peninsula bays. These landforms were formed by flowing ice and provide insight into the local controls on glacial ice advance and retreat. We combined data from various cruises to create seafloor maps. We conclude that the number of landforms found in the bays scales to the size of the bay, narrower bays tend to stabilize ice flow, and meltwater channels are abundant, and we hypothesize a recent glacial advance, likely the Little Ice Age.
Dieter Piepenburg, Alexander Buschmann, Amelie Driemel, Hannes Grobe, Julian Gutt, Stefanie Schumacher, Alexandra Segelken-Voigt, and Rainer Sieger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 461–469,Short summary
An ocean floor observation system (OFOS) was used to collect seabed imagery on two cruises of the RV Polarstern, ANT-XXIX/3 (PS81) to the Antarctic Peninsula from January to March 2013 and ANT-XXXI/2 (PS96) to the Weddell Sea from December 2015 to February 2016. We report on the image and data collections gathered during these cruises. Seabed images, including metadata, are available from the data publisher PANGAEA via https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.872719 (PS81) and https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.862097 (PS96).
Byeong-Hoon Kim, Choon-Ki Lee, Ki-Weon Seo, Won Sang Lee, and Ted Scambos
The Cryosphere, 10, 2971–2980,Short summary
Kamb Ice Stream (KIS) in Antarctica ceased rapid ice flow approximately 160 years ago, still influencing on the current mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. We identify two previously unknown subglacial lakes beneath the stagnated trunk of the KIS. Rapid fill-drain hydrologic events over several months indicate that the lakes are probably connected by a subglacial drainage network. Our findings support previously published conceptual models of the KIS shutdown.
Megan O'Sadnick, Malcolm Ingham, Hajo Eicken, and Erin Pettit
The Cryosphere, 10, 2923–2940,Short summary
Non-destructive in situ monitoring of sea-ice microstructure is of value to sea-ice research and operations but remains elusive to date. We relate in situ measurements of sea-ice dielectric properties at frequencies of 10 to 95 Hz to ice temperature, salinity, and microstructure. Results support the possible use of low-frequency electric measurements to monitor the seasonal evolution of brine volume fraction, pore volume, and connectivity of pore space in sea ice.
Anna Ruth W. Halberstadt, Lauren M. Simkins, Sarah L. Greenwood, and John B. Anderson
The Cryosphere, 10, 1003–1020,Short summary
Geomorphic features on the Ross Sea sea floor provide a record of ice-sheet behaviour during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat. Based on extensive mapping of these glacial landforms, a large embayment formed in the eastern Ross Sea. This was followed by complex, late-stage retreat in the western Ross Sea where banks stabilised the ice sheet. Physiography and sea floor geology act as regional controls on ice-sheet dynamics across the Ross Sea.
Mercè Cisneros, Isabel Cacho, Jaime Frigola, Miquel Canals, Pere Masqué, Belen Martrat, Marta Casado, Joan O. Grimalt, Leopoldo D. Pena, Giulia Margaritelli, and Fabrizio Lirer
Clim. Past, 12, 849–869,Short summary
We present a high-resolution multi-proxy study about the evolution of sea surface conditions along the last 2700 yr in the north-western Mediterranean Sea based on five sediment records from two different sites north of Minorca. The novelty of the results and the followed approach, constructing stack records from the studied proxies to preserve the most robust patterns, provides a special value to the study. This complex period appears to have significant regional changes in the climatic signal.
J. M. van Wessem, S. R. M. Ligtenberg, C. H. Reijmer, W. J. van de Berg, M. R. van den Broeke, N. E. Barrand, E. R. Thomas, J. Turner, J. Wuite, T. A. Scambos, and E. van Meijgaard
The Cryosphere, 10, 271–285,Short summary
This study presents the first high-resolution (5.5 km) modelled estimate of surface mass balance (SMB) over the period 1979–2014 for the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). Precipitation (snowfall and rain) largely determines the SMB, and is exceptionally high over the western mountain slopes, with annual values > 4 m water equivalent. Snowmelt is widespread over the AP, but only runs off into the ocean at some locations: the Larsen B,C, and Wilkins ice shelves, and along the north-western mountains.
A. Pope, T. A. Scambos, M. Moussavi, M. Tedesco, M. Willis, D. Shean, and S. Grigsby
The Cryosphere, 10, 15–27,Short summary
Liquid water stored on the surface of ice sheets and glaciers, such as that in surface (supraglacial) lakes, plays a key role in the glacial hydrological system. Multispectral remote sensing can be used to detect lakes and estimate their depth. Here, we use in situ data to assess lake depth retrieval using the recently launched Landsat 8. We validate Landsat 8-derived depths and provide suggestions for future applications. We apply our method to a case study are in Greenland for summer 2014.
R. Pedrosa-Pàmies, C. Parinos, A. Sanchez-Vidal, A. Gogou, A. Calafat, M. Canals, I. Bouloubassi, and N. Lampadariou
Biogeosciences, 12, 7379–7402,Short summary
A multi-proxy approach is applied in surface sediments collected from deep slopes and basins (1018-4087 m depth) of the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean Sea. This study sheds new light on the sources and transport mechanisms along with the impact of preservation vs. diagenetic processes on the composition of sedimentary organic matter in the deep basins of the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean Sea.
J. S. Wellner
Sci. Dril., 18, 11–11,
T. A. Scambos, E. Berthier, T. Haran, C. A. Shuman, A. J. Cook, S. R. M. Ligtenberg, and J. Bohlander
The Cryosphere, 8, 2135–2145,Short summary
This study of one of the most rapidly changing glacier regions on earth -- the Antarctic Peninsula -- uses two types of satellite data to measure the rates of ice loss in detail for the individual glaciers. The satellite data is laser altimetry from ICESat and stereo image DEM differences. The results show that 24..9 ± 7.8 billion tons of ice are lost from the region north of 66°S on the peninsula each year. The majority of the data cover 2003-2008.
B. Dorschel, J. Gutt, D. Piepenburg, M. Schröder, and J. E. Arndt
Biogeosciences, 11, 3797–3817,
M. Higueras, P. Kerhervé, A. Sanchez-Vidal, A. Calafat, W. Ludwig, M. Verdoit-Jarraya, S. Heussner, and M. Canals
Biogeosciences, 11, 157–172,
K. Kawamura, J. P. Severinghaus, M. R. Albert, Z. R. Courville, M. A. Fahnestock, T. Scambos, E. Shields, and C. A. Shuman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11141–11155,
A. Rumín-Caparrós, A. Sanchez-Vidal, A. Calafat, M. Canals, J. Martín, P. Puig, and R. Pedrosa-Pàmies
Biogeosciences, 10, 3493–3505,
J. Martín, X. Durrieu de Madron, P. Puig, F. Bourrin, A. Palanques, L. Houpert, M. Higueras, A. Sanchez-Vidal, A. M. Calafat, M. Canals, S. Heussner, N. Delsaut, and C. Sotin
Biogeosciences, 10, 3221–3239,
A. Dell'Anno, A. Pusceddu, C. Corinaldesi, M. Canals, S. Heussner, L. Thomsen, and R. Danovaro
Biogeosciences, 10, 2945–2957,
A. Pusceddu, M. Mea, M. Canals, S. Heussner, X. Durrieu de Madron, A. Sanchez-Vidal, S. Bianchelli, C. Corinaldesi, A. Dell'Anno, L. Thomsen, and R. Danovaro
Biogeosciences, 10, 2659–2670,
M. Stabholz, X. Durrieu de Madron, M. Canals, A. Khripounoff, I. Taupier-Letage, P. Testor, S. Heussner, P. Kerhervé, N. Delsaut, L. Houpert, G. Lastras, and B. Dennielou
Biogeosciences, 10, 1097–1116,
F. O. Nitsche, K. Gohl, R. D. Larter, C.-D. Hillenbrand, G. Kuhn, J. A. Smith, S. Jacobs, J. B. Anderson, and M. Jakobsson
The Cryosphere, 7, 249–262,
Related subject area
AntarcticMass changes of the northern Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet derived from repeat bi-static synthetic aperture radar acquisitions for the period 2013–2017The evolution of future Antarctic surface melt using PISM-dEBM-simpleCharacteristics and rarity of the strong 1940s westerly wind event over the Amundsen Sea, West AntarcticaSensitivity of the MAR regional climate model snowpack to the parameterization of the assimilation of satellite-derived wet-snow masks on the Antarctic PeninsulaStratigraphic noise and its potential drivers across the plateau of Dronning Maud Land, East AntarcticaModes of Antarctic tidal grounding line migration revealed by Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) laser altimetryEvaluating the impact of enhanced horizontal resolution over the Antarctic domain using a variable-resolution Earth system modelStatistically parameterizing and evaluating a positive degree-day model to estimate surface melt in Antarctica from 1979 to 2022Extensive and anomalous grounding line retreat at Vanderford Glacier, Vincennes Bay, Wilkes Land, East AntarcticaWidespread slowdown in thinning rates of West Antarctic ice shelvesInsights on the vulnerability of Antarctic glaciers from the ISMIP6 ice sheet model ensemble and associated uncertaintySouthern Ocean polynyas and dense water formation in a high-resolution, coupled Earth system modelSeasonal variability in Antarctic ice shelf velocities forced by sea surface height variationsRevisiting temperature sensitivity: how does Antarctic precipitation change with temperature?A decade-plus of Antarctic sea ice thickness and volume estimates from CryoSat-2 using a physical model and waveform fittingContrasting sea ice drift and deformation between winter and spring in the Antarctic marginal ice zoneLocal spatial variability in the occurrence of summer precipitation in the Sør Rondane Mountains, AntarcticaEvaluation of four calving laws for Antarctic ice shelvesAnnual evolution of the ice–ocean interaction beneath landfast ice in Prydz Bay, East AntarcticaSignature of the stratosphere-troposphere coupling on recent record-breaking Antarctic sea ice anomaliesCharacteristics of the 1979–2020 Antarctic firn layer simulated with IMAU-FDM v1.2ACosmogenic-nuclide data from Antarctic nunataks can constrain past ice sheet instabilitiesExploring ice sheet model sensitivity to ocean thermal forcing and basal sliding using the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM)High mid-Holocene accumulation rates over West Antarctica inferred from a pervasive ice-penetrating radar reflectorThe response of sea ice and high-salinity shelf water in the Ross Ice Shelf Polynya to cyclonic atmosphere circulationsMultidecadal Variability and Predictability of Antarctic Sea Ice in GFDL SPEAR_LO ModelSeasonal and interannual variability of the landfast ice mass balance between 2009 and 2018 in Prydz Bay, East AntarcticaAntarctic sea ice regime shift associated with decreasing zonal symmetry in the Southern Annular ModeEnglacial Architecture of Lambert Glacier, East AntarcticaEvolution of the dynamics, area, and ice production of the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica, 2016–2021Megadunes in Antarctica: migration and characterization from remote and in situ observationsSlowdown of Shirase Glacier, East Antarctica, caused by strengthening alongshore windsModulation of the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic sea ice extent by sea ice processes and feedbacks with the ocean and the atmosphereTimescales of outlet-glacier flow with negligible basal friction: theory, observations and modelingIce Sheet and Sea Ice Ultrawideband Microwave radiometric Airborne eXperiment (ISSIUMAX) in Antarctica: first results from Terra Nova BayAntarctic contribution to future sea level from ice shelf basal melt as constrained by ice discharge observationsAnthropogenic and internal drivers of wind changes over the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica, during the 20th and 21st centuriesThe sensitivity of satellite microwave observations to liquid water in the Antarctic snowpackNew 10Be exposure ages improve Holocene ice sheet thinning history near the grounding line of Pope Glacier, AntarcticaInfluence of fast ice on future ice shelf melting in the Totten Glacier area, East AntarcticaA comparison between Envisat and ICESat sea ice thickness in the Southern OceanAntarctic surface climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model version 2 during the satellite era and into the future (1979–2100)An indicator of sea ice variability for the Antarctic marginal ice zoneInverting ice surface elevation and velocity for bed topography and slipperiness beneath Thwaites GlacierHysteretic evolution of ice rises and ice rumples in response to variations in sea levelVariability in Antarctic surface climatology across regional climate models and reanalysis datasetsSensitivity of the Ross Ice Shelf to environmental and glaciological controlsHigh-resolution subglacial topography around Dome Fuji, Antarctica, based on ground-based radar surveys over 30 yearsPhysical and mechanical properties of winter first-year ice in the Antarctic marginal ice zone along the Good Hope LineCosmogenic nuclide dating of two stacked ice masses: Ong Valley, Antarctica
Thorsten Seehaus, Christian Sommer, Thomas Dethinne, and Philipp Malz
The Cryosphere, 17, 4629–4644,Short summary
Existing mass budget estimates for the northern Antarctic Peninsula (>70° S) are affected by considerable limitations. We carried out the first region-wide analysis of geodetic mass balances throughout this region (coverage of 96.4 %) for the period 2013–2017 based on repeat pass bi-static TanDEM-X acquisitions. A total mass budget of −24.1±2.8 Gt/a is revealed. Imbalanced high ice discharge, particularly at former ice shelf tributaries, is the main driver of overall ice loss.
Julius Garbe, Maria Zeitz, Uta Krebs-Kanzow, and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere, 17, 4571–4599,Short summary
We adopt the novel surface module dEBM-simple in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) to investigate the impact of atmospheric warming on Antarctic surface melt and long-term ice sheet dynamics. As an enhancement compared to traditional temperature-based melt schemes, the module accounts for changes in ice surface albedo and thus the melt–albedo feedback. Our results underscore the critical role of ice–atmosphere feedbacks in the future sea-level contribution of Antarctica on long timescales.
Gemma K. O'Connor, Paul R. Holland, Eric J. Steig, Pierre Dutrieux, and Gregory J. Hakim
The Cryosphere, 17, 4399–4420,Short summary
Glaciers in West Antarctica are rapidly melting, but the causes are unknown due to limited observations. A leading hypothesis is that an unusually large wind event in the 1940s initiated the ocean-driven melting. Using proxy reconstructions (e.g., using ice cores) and climate model simulations, we find that wind events similar to the 1940s event are relatively common on millennial timescales, implying that ocean variability or climate trends are also necessary to explain the start of ice loss.
Thomas Dethinne, Quentin Glaude, Ghislain Picard, Christoph Kittel, Patrick Alexander, Anne Orban, and Xavier Fettweis
The Cryosphere, 17, 4267–4288,Short summary
We investigate the sensitivity of the regional climate model
Modèle Atmosphérique Régional(MAR) to the assimilation of wet-snow occurrence estimated by remote sensing datasets. The assimilation is performed by nudging the MAR snowpack temperature. The data assimilation is performed over the Antarctic Peninsula for the 2019–2021 period. The results show an increase in the melt production (+66.7 %) and a decrease in surface mass balance (−4.5 %) of the model for the 2019–2020 melt season.
Nora Hirsch, Alexandra Zuhr, Thomas Münch, Maria Hörhold, Johannes Freitag, Remi Dallmayr, and Thomas Laepple
The Cryosphere, 17, 4207–4221,Short summary
Stable water isotopes from firn cores provide valuable information on past climates, yet their utility is hampered by stratigraphic noise, i.e. the irregular deposition and wind-driven redistribution of snow. We found stratigraphic noise on the Antarctic Plateau to be related to the local accumulation rate, snow surface roughness and slope inclination, which can guide future decisions on sampling locations and thus increase the resolution of climate reconstructions from low-accumulation areas.
Bryony I. D. Freer, Oliver J. Marsh, Anna E. Hogg, Helen Amanda Fricker, and Laurie Padman
The Cryosphere, 17, 4079–4101,Short summary
We develop a method using ICESat-2 data to measure how Antarctic grounding lines (GLs) migrate across the tide cycle. At an ice plain on the Ronne Ice Shelf we observe 15 km of tidal GL migration, the largest reported distance in Antarctica, dominating any signal of long-term migration. We identify four distinct migration modes, which provide both observational support for models of tidal ice flexure and GL migration and insights into ice shelf–ocean–subglacial interactions in grounding zones.
Rajashree Tri Datta, Adam Herrington, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, David P. Schneider, Luke Trusel, Ziqi Yin, and Devon Dunmire
The Cryosphere, 17, 3847–3866,Short summary
Precipitation over Antarctica is one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in sea level rise estimates. Earth system models (ESMs) are a valuable tool for these estimates but typically run at coarse spatial resolutions. Here, we present an evaluation of the variable-resolution CESM2 (VR-CESM2) for the first time with a grid designed for enhanced spatial resolution over Antarctica to achieve the high resolution of regional climate models while preserving the two-way interactions of ESMs.
Yaowen Zheng, Nicholas R. Golledge, Alexandra Gossart, Ghislain Picard, and Marion Leduc-Leballeur
The Cryosphere, 17, 3667–3694,Short summary
Positive degree-day (PDD) schemes are widely used in many Antarctic numerical ice sheet models. However, the PDD approach has not been systematically explored for its application in Antarctica. We have constructed a novel grid-cell-level spatially distributed PDD (dist-PDD) model and assessed its accuracy. We suggest that an appropriately parameterized dist-PDD model can be a valuable tool for exploring Antarctic surface melt beyond the satellite era.
Hannah J. Picton, Chris R. Stokes, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, Dana Floricioiu, and Lukas Krieger
The Cryosphere, 17, 3593–3616,Short summary
This study provides an overview of recent ice dynamics within Vincennes Bay, Wilkes Land, East Antarctica. This region was recently discovered to be vulnerable to intrusions of warm water capable of driving basal melt. Our results show extensive grounding-line retreat at Vanderford Glacier, estimated at 18.6 km between 1996 and 2020. This supports the notion that the warm water is able to access deep cavities below the Vanderford Ice Shelf, potentially making Vanderford Glacier unstable.
Fernando S. Paolo, Alex S. Gardner, Chad A. Greene, Johan Nilsson, Michael P. Schodlok, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, and Helen A. Fricker
The Cryosphere, 17, 3409–3433,Short summary
We report on a slowdown in the rate of thinning and melting of West Antarctic ice shelves. We present a comprehensive assessment of the Antarctic ice shelves, where we analyze at a continental scale the changes in thickness, flow, and basal melt over the past 26 years. We also present a novel method to estimate ice shelf change from satellite altimetry and a time-dependent data set of ice shelf thickness and basal melt rates at an unprecedented resolution.
Hélène Seroussi, Vincent Verjans, Sophie Nowicki, Antony J. Payne, Heiko Goelzer, William H. Lipscomb, Ayako Abe Ouchi, Cécile Agosta, Torsten Albrecht, Xylar Asay-Davis, Alice Barthel, Reinhard Calov, Richard Cullather, Christophe Dumas, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi, Rupert Gladstone, Nicholas R. Golledge, Jonathan M. Gregory, Ralf Greve, Tore Hatterman, Matthew J. Hoffman, Angelika Humbert, Philippe Huybrechts, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Thomas Kleiner, Eric Larour, Gunter R. Leguy, Daniel P. Lowry, Chistopher M. Little, Mathieu Morlighem, Frank Pattyn, Tyler Pelle, Stephen F. Price, Aurélien Quiquet, Ronja Reese, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Andrew Shepherd, Erika Simon, Robin S. Smith, Fiametta Straneo, Sainan Sun, Luke D. Trusel, Jonas Van Breedam, Peter Van Katwyk, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, Ricarda Winkelmann, Chen Zhao, Tong Zhang, and Thomas Zwinger
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Mass loss from Antarctica is a key contributor to sea level rise over the 21st century and the associated uncertainty dominates sea level projections. We highlight here the Antarctic glaciers showing the largest changes and we quantify the main sources of uncertainty in their future evolution using an ensemble of ice flow models. We show that on top of Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, Totten and Moscow University glaciers show rapid changes and a strong sensitivity to warmer ocean conditions.
Hyein Jeong, Adrian K. Turner, Andrew F. Roberts, Milena Veneziani, Stephen F. Price, Xylar S. Asay-Davis, Luke P. Van Roekel, Wuyin Lin, Peter M. Caldwell, Hyo-Seok Park, Jonathan D. Wolfe, and Azamat Mametjanov
The Cryosphere, 17, 2681–2700,Short summary
We find that E3SM-HR reproduces the main features of the Antarctic coastal polynyas. Despite the high amount of coastal sea ice production, the densest water masses are formed in the open ocean. Biases related to the lack of dense water formation are associated with overly strong atmospheric polar easterlies. Our results indicate that the large-scale polar atmospheric circulation must be accurately simulated in models to properly reproduce Antarctic dense water formation.
Cyrille Mosbeux, Laurie Padman, Emilie Klein, Peter D. Bromirski, and Helen A. Fricker
The Cryosphere, 17, 2585–2606,Short summary
Antarctica's ice shelves (the floating extension of the ice sheet) help regulate ice flow. As ice shelves thin or lose contact with the bedrock, the upstream ice tends to accelerate, resulting in increased mass loss. Here, we use an ice sheet model to simulate the effect of seasonal sea surface height variations and see if we can reproduce observed seasonal variability of ice velocity on the ice shelf. When correctly parameterised, the model fits the observations well.
Lena Nicola, Dirk Notz, and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere, 17, 2563–2583,Short summary
For future sea-level projections, approximating Antarctic precipitation increases through temperature-scaling approaches will remain important, as coupled ice-sheet simulations with regional climate models remain computationally expensive, especially on multi-centennial timescales. We here revisit the relationship between Antarctic temperature and precipitation using different scaling approaches, identifying and explaining regional differences.
Steven Fons, Nathan Kurtz, and Marco Bagnardi
The Cryosphere, 17, 2487–2508,Short summary
Antarctic sea ice thickness is an important quantity in the Earth system. Due to the thick and complex snow cover on Antarctic sea ice, estimating the thickness of the ice pack is difficult using traditional methods in radar altimetry. In this work, we use a waveform model to estimate the freeboard and snow depth of Antarctic sea ice from CryoSat-2 and use these values to calculate sea ice thickness and volume between 2010 and 2021 and showcase how the sea ice pack has changed over this time.
Ashleigh Womack, Alberto Alberello, Marc de Vos, Alessandro Toffoli, Robyn Verrinder, and Marcello Vichi
Synoptic events have a significant influence on the evolution of Antarctic sea ice. However, our current understanding of the interactions between cyclones and sea ice remains limited. Using two ensembles of buoys, deployed in the north-eastern Weddell Sea region during winter and spring of 2019, we show how the evolution and spatial pattern of sea ice drift and deformation in the Antarctic MIZ were affected by the balance between atmospheric and oceanic forcing and the local ice conditions.
Alfonso Ferrone, Étienne Vignon, Andrea Zonato, and Alexis Berne
In austral summer 2019/2020, three K-band Doppler profilers were deployed across the Sør Rondane Mountains, south of the Belgian base Princess Elisabeth Antarctica. Their measurements, along with atmospheric simulations and reanalysis, have been used to study the spatial variability of precipitation over the region, as well as investigate the interaction between the complex terrain and the typical flow associated with precipitating systems.
Joel Alexander Wilner, Mathieu Morlighem, and Gong Cheng
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
We use numerical modeling to study iceberg calving off of ice shelves in Antarctica. We examine four widely used mathematical descriptions of calving ("calving laws"), under the assumption that Antarctic ice shelf front positions should be in steady state under the current climate forcing. We quantify how well each of these calving laws replicates the observed front positions. Our results suggest that the eigencalving and von Mises laws are most suitable for Antarctic ice shelves.
Haihan Hu, Jiechen Zhao, Petra Heil, Zhiliang Qin, Jingkai Ma, Fengming Hui, and Xiao Cheng
The Cryosphere, 17, 2231–2244,Short summary
The oceanic characteristics beneath sea ice significantly affect ice growth and melting. The high-frequency and long-term observations of oceanic variables allow us to deeply investigate their diurnal and seasonal variation and evaluate their influences on sea ice evolution. The large-scale sea ice distribution and ocean circulation contributed to the seasonal variation of ocean variables, revealing the important relationship between large-scale and local phenomena.
Raúl R. Cordero, Sarah Feron, Alessandro Damiani, Pedro J. Llanillo, Jorge Carrasco, Alia L. Khan, Richard Bintanja, Zutao Ouyang, and Gino Casassa
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Our results suggest that the unprecedented interannual variability seen in recent years in Antarctica has led to the emergence of the signal of the polar vortex dynamics in Antarctic sea ice changes. Often coupled with the polar vortex, the strength of the westerly winds drives the baffling rise and fall of sea ice cover around Antarctica. We found the signature of the stratosphere-troposphere coupling on recent all-time records (highs and lows) in the sea ice around Antarctica.
Sanne B. M. Veldhuijsen, Willem Jan van de Berg, Max Brils, Peter Kuipers Munneke, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
The Cryosphere, 17, 1675–1696,Short summary
Firn is the transition of snow to glacier ice and covers 99 % of the Antarctic ice sheet. Knowledge about the firn layer and its variability is important, as it impacts satellite-based estimates of ice sheet mass change. Also, firn contains pores in which nearly all of the surface melt is retained. Here, we improve a semi-empirical firn model and simulate the firn characteristics for the period 1979–2020. We evaluate the performance with field and satellite measures and test its sensitivity.
Anna Ruth W. Halberstadt, Greg Balco, Hannah Buchband, and Perry Spector
The Cryosphere, 17, 1623–1643,Short summary
This paper explores the use of multimillion-year exposure ages from Antarctic bedrock outcrops to benchmark ice sheet model predictions and thereby infer ice sheet sensitivity to warm climates. We describe a new approach for model–data comparison, highlight an example where observational data are used to distinguish end-member models, and provide guidance for targeted sampling around Antarctica that can improve understanding of ice sheet response to climate warming in the past and future.
Mira Berdahl, Gunter Leguy, William H. Lipscomb, Nathan M. Urban, and Matthew J. Hoffman
The Cryosphere, 17, 1513–1543,Short summary
Contributions to future sea level from the Antarctic Ice Sheet remain poorly constrained. One reason is that ice sheet model initialization methods can have significant impacts on how the ice sheet responds to future forcings. We investigate the impacts of two key parameters used during model initialization. We find that these parameter choices alone can impact multi-century sea level rise by up to 2 m, emphasizing the need to carefully consider these choices for sea level rise predictions.
Julien A. Bodart, Robert G. Bingham, Duncan A. Young, Joseph A. MacGregor, David W. Ashmore, Enrica Quartini, Andrew S. Hein, David G. Vaughan, and Donald D. Blankenship
The Cryosphere, 17, 1497–1512,Short summary
Estimating how West Antarctica will change in response to future climatic change depends on our understanding of past ice processes. Here, we use a reflector widely visible on airborne radar data across West Antarctica to estimate accumulation rates over the past 4700 years. By comparing our estimates with current atmospheric data, we find that accumulation rates were 18 % greater than modern rates. This has implications for our understanding of past ice processes in the region.
Xiaoqiao Wang, Zhaoru Zhang, Michael S. Dinniman, Petteri Uotila, Xichen Li, and Meng Zhou
The Cryosphere, 17, 1107–1126,Short summary
The bottom water of the global ocean originates from high-salinity water formed in polynyas in the Southern Ocean where sea ice coverage is low. This study reveals the impacts of cyclones on sea ice and water mass formation in the Ross Ice Shelf Polynya using numerical simulations. Sea ice production is rapidly increased caused by enhancement in offshore wind, promoting high-salinity water formation in the polynya. Cyclones also modulate the transport of this water mass by wind-driven currents.
Yushi Morioka, Liping Zhang, Thomas Delworth, Xiaosong Yang, Fanrong Zeng, Masami Nonaka, and Swadhin Behera
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Antarctic sea ice extent shows decadal variations with its decrease in the 1980s and increase after the 2000s until 2015. Here we show that our climate model can predict the sea ice decrease by simulating deep convection in the Southern Ocean and the sea ice increase by capturing the surface wind variability. These results suggest that accurate simulation and prediction of subsurface ocean and atmosphere conditions are important for those of Antarctic sea ice variability on a decadal timescale.
Na Li, Ruibo Lei, Petra Heil, Bin Cheng, Minghu Ding, Zhongxiang Tian, and Bingrui Li
The Cryosphere, 17, 917–937,Short summary
The observed annual maximum landfast ice (LFI) thickness off Zhongshan (Davis) was 1.59±0.17 m (1.64±0.08 m). Larger interannual and local spatial variabilities for the seasonality of LFI were identified at Zhongshan, with the dominant influencing factors of air temperature anomaly, snow atop, local topography and wind regime, and oceanic heat flux. The variability of LFI properties across the study domain prevailed at interannual timescales, over any trend during the recent decades.
Serena Schroeter, Terence J. O'Kane, and Paul A. Sandery
The Cryosphere, 17, 701–717,Short summary
Antarctic sea ice has increased over much of the satellite record, but we show that the early, strongly opposing regional trends diminish and reverse over time, leading to overall negative trends in recent decades. The dominant pattern of atmospheric flow has changed from strongly east–west to more wave-like with enhanced north–south winds. Sea surface temperatures have also changed from circumpolar cooling to regional warming, suggesting recent record low sea ice will not rapidly recover.
Rebecca J. Sanderson, Kate Winter, S. Louise Callard, Felipe Napoleoni, Neil Ross, Tom A. Jordan, and Robert G. Bingham
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Ice penetrating radar allows us to explore the internal structure of glaciers and ice sheets, to constrain past and present ice flow conditions. In this paper, we examine englacial layers within the Lambert Glacier in East Antarctica using a quantitative layer tracing tool. Analysis reveals that the ice flow here has been relatively stable, but evidence for former fast flow along a tributary suggest that changes have occurred in the past and could change again in the future.
Grant J. Macdonald, Stephen F. Ackley, Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, and Adrià Blanco-Cabanillas
The Cryosphere, 17, 457–476,Short summary
Polynyas are key sites of sea ice production, biological activity, and carbon sequestration. The Amundsen Sea Polynya is of particular interest due to its size and location. By analyzing radar imagery and climate and sea ice data products, we evaluate variations in the dynamics, area, and ice production of the Amundsen Sea Polynya. In particular, we find the local seafloor topography and associated grounded icebergs play an important role in the polynya dynamics, influencing ice production.
Giacomo Traversa, Davide Fugazza, and Massimo Frezzotti
The Cryosphere, 17, 427–444,Short summary
Megadunes are fields of huge snow dunes present in Antarctica and on other planets, important as they present mass loss on the leeward side (glazed snow), on a continent characterized by mass gain. Here, we studied megadunes using remote data and measurements acquired during past field expeditions. We quantified their physical properties and migration and demonstrated that they migrate against slope and wind. We further proposed automatic detections of the glazed snow on their leeward side.
Bertie W. J. Miles, Chris R. Stokes, Adrian Jenkins, Jim R. Jordan, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 17, 445–456,Short summary
Satellite observations have shown that the Shirase Glacier catchment in East Antarctica has been gaining mass over the past 2 decades, a trend largely attributed to increased snowfall. Our multi-decadal observations of Shirase Glacier show that ocean forcing has also contributed to some of this recent mass gain. This has been caused by strengthening easterly winds reducing the inflow of warm water underneath the Shirase ice tongue, causing the glacier to slow down and thicken.
Hugues Goosse, Sofia Allende Contador, Cecilia M. Bitz, Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Clare Eayrs, Thierry Fichefet, Kenza Himmich, Pierre-Vincent Huot, François Klein, Sylvain Marchi, François Massonnet, Bianca Mezzina, Charles Pelletier, Lettie Roach, Martin Vancoppenolle, and Nicole P. M. van Lipzig
The Cryosphere, 17, 407–425,Short summary
Using idealized sensitivity experiments with a regional atmosphere–ocean–sea ice model, we show that sea ice advance is constrained by initial conditions in March and the retreat season is influenced by the magnitude of several physical processes, in particular by the ice–albedo feedback and ice transport. Atmospheric feedbacks amplify the response of the winter ice extent to perturbations, while some negative feedbacks related to heat conduction fluxes act on the ice volume.
Johannes Feldmann and Anders Levermann
The Cryosphere, 17, 327–348,Short summary
Here we present a scaling relation that allows the comparison of the timescales of glaciers with geometric similarity. According to the relation, thicker and wider glaciers on a steeper bed slope have a much faster timescale than shallower, narrower glaciers on a flatter bed slope. The relation is supported by observations and simplified numerical simulations. We combine the scaling relation with a statistical analysis of the topography of 13 instability-prone Antarctic outlet glaciers.
Marco Brogioni, Mark J. Andrews, Stefano Urbini, Kenneth C. Jezek, Joel T. Johnson, Marion Leduc-Leballeur, Giovanni Macelloni, Stephen F. Ackley, Alexandra Bringer, Ludovic Brucker, Oguz Demir, Giacomo Fontanelli, Caglar Yardim, Lars Kaleschke, Francesco Montomoli, Leung Tsang, Silvia Becagli, and Massimo Frezzotti
The Cryosphere, 17, 255–278,Short summary
In 2018 the first Antarctic campaign of UWBRAD was carried out. UWBRAD is a new radiometer able to collect microwave spectral signatures over 0.5–2 GHz, thus outperforming existing similar sensors. It allows us to probe thicker sea ice and ice sheet down to the bedrock. In this work we tried to assess the UWBRAD potentials for sea ice, glaciers, ice shelves and buried lakes. We also highlighted the wider range of information the spectral signature can provide to glaciological studies.
Eveline C. van der Linden, Dewi Le Bars, Erwin Lambert, and Sybren Drijfhout
The Cryosphere, 17, 79–103,Short summary
The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) is the largest uncertainty in future sea level estimates. The AIS mainly loses mass through ice discharge, the transfer of land ice into the ocean. Ice discharge is triggered by warming ocean water (basal melt). New future estimates of AIS sea level contributions are presented in which basal melt is constrained with ice discharge observations. Despite the different methodology, the resulting projections are in line with previous multimodel assessments.
Paul R. Holland, Gemma K. O'Connor, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, Pierre Dutrieux, Kaitlin A. Naughten, Eric J. Steig, David P. Schneider, Adrian Jenkins, and James A. Smith
The Cryosphere, 16, 5085–5105,Short summary
The Antarctic Ice Sheet is losing ice, causing sea-level rise. However, it is not known whether human-induced climate change has contributed to this ice loss. In this study, we use evidence from climate models and palaeoclimate measurements (e.g. ice cores) to suggest that the ice loss was triggered by natural climate variations but is now sustained by human-forced climate change. This implies that future greenhouse-gas emissions may influence sea-level rise from Antarctica.
Ghislain Picard, Marion Leduc-Leballeur, Alison F. Banwell, Ludovic Brucker, and Giovanni Macelloni
The Cryosphere, 16, 5061–5083,Short summary
Using a snowpack radiative transfer model, we investigate in which conditions meltwater can be detected from passive microwave satellite observations from 1.4 to 37 GHz. In particular, we determine the minimum detectable liquid water content, the maximum depth of detection of a buried wet snow layer and the risk of false alarm due to supraglacial lakes. These results provide information for the developers of new, more advanced satellite melt products and for the users of the existing products.
Jonathan R. Adams, Joanne S. Johnson, Stephen J. Roberts, Philippa J. Mason, Keir A. Nichols, Ryan A. Venturelli, Klaus Wilcken, Greg Balco, Brent Goehring, Brenda Hall, John Woodward, and Dylan H. Rood
The Cryosphere, 16, 4887–4905,Short summary
Glaciers in West Antarctica are experiencing significant ice loss. Geological data provide historical context for ongoing ice loss in West Antarctica, including constraints on likely future ice sheet behaviour in response to climatic warming. We present evidence from rare isotopes measured in rocks collected from an outcrop next to Pope Glacier. These data suggest that Pope Glacier thinned faster and sooner after the last ice age than previously thought.
Guillian Van Achter, Thierry Fichefet, Hugues Goosse, and Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro
The Cryosphere, 16, 4745–4761,Short summary
We investigate the changes in ocean–ice interactions in the Totten Glacier area between the last decades (1995–2014) and the end of the 21st century (2081–2100) under warmer climate conditions. By the end of the 21st century, the sea ice is strongly reduced, and the ocean circulation close to the coast is accelerated. Our research highlights the importance of including representations of fast ice to simulate realistic ice shelf melt rate increase in East Antarctica under warming conditions.
Jinfei Wang, Chao Min, Robert Ricker, Qian Shi, Bo Han, Stefan Hendricks, Renhao Wu, and Qinghua Yang
The Cryosphere, 16, 4473–4490,Short summary
The differences between Envisat and ICESat sea ice thickness (SIT) reveal significant temporal and spatial variations. Our findings suggest that both overestimation of Envisat sea ice freeboard, potentially caused by radar backscatter originating from inside the snow layer, and the AMSR-E snow depth biases and sea ice density uncertainties can possibly account for the differences between Envisat and ICESat SIT.
Devon Dunmire, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Rajashree Tri Datta, and Tessa Gorte
The Cryosphere, 16, 4163–4184,Short summary
Earth system models (ESMs) are used to model the climate system and the interactions of its components (atmosphere, ocean, etc.) both historically and into the future under different assumptions of human activity. The representation of Antarctica in ESMs is important because it can inform projections of the ice sheet's contribution to sea level rise. Here, we compare output of Antarctica's surface climate from an ESM with observations to understand strengths and weaknesses within the model.
The Cryosphere, 16, 4087–4106,Short summary
The marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Antarctic is the largest in the world ocean. Antarctic sea ice has large year-to-year changes, and the MIZ represents its most variable component. Processes typical of the MIZ have also been observed in fully ice-covered ocean and are not captured by existing diagnostics. A new statistical method has been shown to address previous limitations in assessing the seasonal cycle of MIZ extent and to provide a probability map of sea ice state in the Southern Ocean.
Helen Ockenden, Robert G. Bingham, Andrew Curtis, and Daniel Goldberg
The Cryosphere, 16, 3867–3887,Short summary
Hills and valleys hidden under the ice of Thwaites Glacier have an impact on ice flow and future ice loss, but there are not many three-dimensional observations of their location or size. We apply a mathematical theory to new high-resolution observations of the ice surface to predict the bed topography beneath the ice. There is a good correlation with ice-penetrating radar observations. The method may be useful in areas with few direct observations or as a further constraint for other methods.
A. Clara J. Henry, Reinhard Drews, Clemens Schannwell, and Vjeran Višnjević
The Cryosphere, 16, 3889–3905,Short summary
We used a 3D, idealised model to study features in coastal Antarctica called ice rises and ice rumples. These features regulate the rate of ice flow into the ocean. We show that when sea level is raised or lowered, the size of these features and the ice flow pattern can change. We find that the features depend on the ice history and do not necessarily fully recover after an equal increase and decrease in sea level. This shows that it is important to initialise models with accurate ice geometry.
Jeremy Carter, Amber Leeson, Andrew Orr, Christoph Kittel, and J. Melchior van Wessem
The Cryosphere, 16, 3815–3841,Short summary
Climate models provide valuable information for studying processes such as the collapse of ice shelves over Antarctica which impact estimates of sea level rise. This paper examines variability across climate simulations over Antarctica for fields including snowfall, temperature and melt. Significant systematic differences between outputs are found, occurring at both large and fine spatial scales across Antarctica. Results are important for future impact assessments and model development.
Francesca Baldacchino, Mathieu Morlighem, Nicholas R. Golledge, Huw Horgan, and Alena Malyarenko
The Cryosphere, 16, 3723–3738,Short summary
Understanding how the Ross Ice Shelf will evolve in a warming world is important to the future stability of Antarctica. It remains unclear what changes could drive the largest mass loss in the future and where places are most likely to trigger larger mass losses. Sensitivity maps are modelled showing that the RIS is sensitive to changes in environmental and glaciological controls at regions which are currently experiencing changes. These regions need to be monitored in a warming world.
Shun Tsutaki, Shuji Fujita, Kenji Kawamura, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Kotaro Fukui, Hideaki Motoyama, Yu Hoshina, Fumio Nakazawa, Takashi Obase, Hiroshi Ohno, Ikumi Oyabu, Fuyuki Saito, Konosuke Sugiura, and Toshitaka Suzuki
The Cryosphere, 16, 2967–2983,Short summary
We constructed an ice thickness map across the Dome Fuji region, East Antarctica, from improved radar data and previous data that had been collected since the late 1980s. The data acquired using the improved radar systems allowed basal topography to be identified with higher accuracy. The new ice thickness data show the bedrock topography, particularly the complex terrain of subglacial valleys and highlands south of Dome Fuji, with substantially high detail.
Sebastian Skatulla, Riesna R. Audh, Andrea Cook, Ehlke Hepworth, Siobhan Johnson, Doru C. Lupascu, Keith MacHutchon, Rutger Marquart, Tommy Mielke, Emmanuel Omatuku, Felix Paul, Tokoloho Rampai, Jörg Schröder, Carina Schwarz, and Marcello Vichi
The Cryosphere, 16, 2899–2925,Short summary
First-year sea ice has been sampled at the advancing outer edge of the Antarctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) along the Good Hope Line. Ice cores were extracted from five pancake ice floes and subsequently analysed for their physical and mechanical properties. Of particular interest was elucidating the transition of ice composition within the MIZ in terms of differences in mechanical stiffness and strength properties as linked to physical and textural characteristics at early-stage ice formation.
Marie Bergelin, Jaakko Putkonen, Greg Balco, Daniel Morgan, Lee B. Corbett, and Paul R. Bierman
The Cryosphere, 16, 2793–2817,Short summary
Glacier ice contains information on past climate and can help us understand how the world changes through time. We have found and sampled a buried ice mass in Antarctica that is much older than most ice on Earth and difficult to date. Therefore, we developed a new dating application which showed the ice to be 3 million years old. Our new dating solution will potentially help to date other ancient ice masses since such old glacial ice could yield data on past environmental conditions on Earth.
Amblas, D., Urgeles, R., Canals, M., Calafat, A. M., Robesco, M., Camerlenghi, A., Estrada, F., De Batist, M., and Hughes-Clarke, J. E.: Relationship between continental rise development and palaeo-ice sheet dynamics, Northern Antarctic Peninsula Pacific margin, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 25, 933–944, 2006.
Andrews, J. T.: On the reconstruction of pleistocene ice sheets: a review, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 1, 1–30, 1982.
Arndt, J. E., Schenke, H. W., Jakobsson, M., Nitsche, F. O., Buys, G., Goleby, B., Rebesco, M., Bohoyo, F., Hong, J., Black, J., Greku, R., Udintsev, G., Barrios, F., Reynoso-Peralta, W., Taisei, M., and Wigley, R.: The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Version 1.0 – a new bathymetric compilation covering circum-Antarctic waters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 3111–3117, 2013.
Banfield, L. A. and Anderson, J. B.: Seismic facies investgation of the late Quaternary glacial history of Bransfield Basin, Antarctica, in: Geology and Seismic Stratigraphy of the Antarctic Margin, edited by: Cooper, A. K., Barker, P. F., and Brancolini, G., Antarct. Res. Ser. 68, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 123–140, 1995.
Barker, P. F.: The Cenozoic subduction history of the Pacific margin of the Antarctic Peninsula: ridge crest-trench interactions, J. Geol. Soc., 139, 787–801, 1982.
Bentley, M. J. and Anderson, J. B.: Glacial and marine geological evidence for the ice sheet configuration in the Weddell Sea-Antarctic Peninsula region during the Last Glacial Maximum, Antarct. Sci., 10, 309–325, 1998.
Boulton, G. S.: Sedimentary and sea level changes during glacial cycles and their control on glacimarine facies architecture, in: Glacimarine Environments: Processes and Sediments, edited by: Dowdeswell, J. A. and Scourse, J. D., Geological Society Special Publication 53, The Geological Society, London, 15–52, 1990.
Brisbourne, A. M., Smith, A. M., King, E. C., Nicholls, K. W., Holland, P. R., and Makinson, K.: Seabed topography beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf from seismic soundings, The Cryosphere, 8, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-8-1-2014, 2014.
Bueler, E., Lingle, C. S., Kallen-Brown, J. A., Covey, D., and Bowman, L. N.: Exact solutions and verification of numerical models for isothermal ice sheets, J. Glaciol., 51, 291–306, 2005.
Camerlenghi, A., Domack, E. W., Rebesco, M., Gilbert, R., Ishman, S., Leventer, A., Brachfeld, S., and Drake, A.: Glacial morphology and post-glacial contourites in northern Prince Gustav Channel (NW Weddell Sea, Antarctica), Mar. Geophys. Res., 22, 417–443, 2001.
Canals, M., Urgeles, R., and Calafat, A. M.: Deep sea-floor evidence of past ice streams off the Antarctic Peninsula, Geology, 28, 31–34, 2000.
Canals, M., Casamor, J. L., Urgeles, R., Calafat, A. M., Domack, E. W., Baraza, J., Farran, M., and De Batist, M.: Seafloor evidence of a subglacial sedimentary system off the northern Antarctic Peninsula, Geology, 30, 603–606, 2002.
Canals, M., Calafat, A. M., Camerlenghi, A., De Batist, M., Urgeles, R., Farran, M., Geletti, R., Versteeg,W., Amblas, D., Rebesco, M., Casamor, J. L., Sànchez, A., Willmott, V., Lastras, G., and Imbo, Y.: Uncovering the footprint of former ice streams off Antarctica, EOS, 84, 97–108, 2003.
Clark, C. D.: Mega-sclae glacial lineations and cross-cutting ice-flow landforms, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 18, 1–29, 1993.
Clark, C. D., Tulaczyk, S., Stokes, C. R., and Canals, M.: A groove-ploughing theory for the production of mega-scale glacial lineations, and implications for ice-stream mechanics, J. Glaciol., 49, 240–256, 2003.
Conway, H., Catania, G., Raymond, C. F., and Gades, A. M.: Switch of flow direction in an Antarctic ice stream, Nature, 419, 465–467, 2002.
Cuffey, K. M. and Paterson, W. S. B. (Eds.): The Physics of Glaciers, Elsevier Inc., Oxford, UK, 2010.
Curry, P. and Pudsey, C. J.: New Quaternary sedimentary records from near the Larcen C and former Larsen B ice shelves; evidence for Holocene stability, Antarct. Sci., 19, 355–364, 2007.
Davies, B. J., Hambrey, M. J., Smellie, J. L., Carrivick, J. L., and Glasser, N. F.: Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet evolution during the Cenozoic Era, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 31, 30–66, 2012.
Domack, E. W., Canals, M., Camerlenghi, A., Gilbert, R., Amblas, D., Wilmott, V., Calafat, A. M., Urgeles, R., DeBatist, M., Casamor, J. L., and Rebesco, M.: Complete swath map coverage of the Gerlache Boyd Strait paleo ice stream: an example of collaborative seafloor mapping in the Antarctic Peninsula, XXVIII SCAR Open Science Conference, Bremen, Germany, 26–28 July 2004, Abstract S11/P08, 2004.
Domack, E., Duran, D., Leventer, A., Ishman, S., Doane, S., McCallum, S., Amblas, D., Ring, J., Gilbert, R., and Prentice, M.: Stability of the Larsen B ice shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula during the Holocene epoch, Nature, 436, 681–685, 2005.
Domack, E., Amblas, D., Gilbert, R., Brachfeld, S., Camerlenghi, A., Robesco, M., Canals, M., and Urgeles, R.: Subglacial morphology and glacial evolution of the Palmer deep outlet system, Antarctic Peninsula, Geomorphology, 75, 125–142, 2006.
Dowdeswell, J. A., Ottesen, D., Evans, J., Ó Cofaigh, C., and Anderson, J. B.: Submarine glacial landforms and rates of ice-stream collapse, Geology, 26, 819–822, 2008.
Eittreim, S. L., Cooper, A. K., and Wannesson, J.: Seismic stratigraphic evidence of ice-sheet advances on the Wilkes Land margin of Antarctica, Sediment. Geol., 96, 131–156, 1995.
Evans, J., Dowdeswell, J. A., and Ó Cofaigh, C.: Late Quaternary submarine bedforms and ice-sheet flow in Gerlache Strait and on the adjacent continental shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, J. Quaternary Sci., 19, 397–407, 2004.
Evans, J., Pudsey, C. J., Ó Cofaigh, C., Morris, P., and Domack, E. W.: Late Quaternary glacial history, flow dynamics and sedimentation along the eastern margin of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 24, 741–774, 2005.
Fretwell, P., Pritchard, H. D., Vaughan, D. G., Bamber, J. L., Barrand, N. E., Bell, R., Bianchi, C., Bingham, R. G., Blankenship, D. D., Casassa, G., Catania, G., Callens, D., Conway, H., Cook, A. J., Corr, H. F. J., Damaske, D., Damm, V., Ferraccioli, F., Forsberg, R., Fujita, S., Gim, Y., Gogineni, P., Griggs, J. A., Hindmarsh, R. C. A., Holmlund, P., Holt, J. W., Jacobel, R. W., Jenkins, A., Jokat, W., Jordan, T., King, E. C., Kohler, J., Krabill, W., Riger-Kusk, M., Langley, K. A., Leitchenkov, G., Leuschen, C., Luyendyk, B. P., Matsuoka, K., Mouginot, J., Nitsche, F. O., Nogi, Y., Nost, O. A., Popov, S. V., Rignot, E., Rippin, D. M., Rivera, A., Roberts, J., Ross, N., Siegert, M. J., Smith, A. M., Steinhage, D., Studinger, M., Sun, B., Tinto, B. K., Welch, B. C., Wilson, D., Young, D. A., Xiangbin, C., and Zirizzotti, A.: Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 7, 375–393, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-7-375-2013, 2013.
Gades, A., Raymond, C. F., Conway, H., and Jacobel, R.: Bed properties of Siple Dome and adjacent ice streams, West Antarctica, inferred from radio-echo sounding measurements, J. Glaciol., 46, 88–94, 2000.
Gilbert, R., Domack, E. W., and Camerlenghi, A.: Deglacial history of the Greenpeace Trough: ice Sheet to Ice Shelf transition in the Northwestern Weddell Sea, Antarct. Res. Ser., 79, 195–204, 2003.
Glasser, N. F., Davies, B. J., Carrivick, J. L., Rodés, A., Hambrey, M. J., Smellie, J. L., and Domack, E.: Ice-stream initiation, duration and thinning on James Rosse Island, northern Antarctic Peninsula, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 86, 78–88, 2014.
Golledge, N. R., Levy, R. H., McKay, R. M., Fogwill, C. J., White, D. A., Graham, A. G. C., Smith, J. A., Hillenbrand, C.-D., Licht, K. J., Denton, G. H., Ackert Jr., R. P., Maas, S. M., and Hall, B. L.: Glaciology and geological signature of the Last Glacial Maximum Antarctic ice sheet, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 78, 225-247, 2013.
Graham, A. G. C. and Smith, J. A.: Palaeoglaciology of the Alexander Island ice cap, western Antarctic Peninsula, reconstructed from marine geophysical and core data, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 35, 63–81, 2012.
Gudmundsson, G. H.: Transmission of basal variability to a glacier surface, J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 108, ETG 9-1–19, 2003.
Heroy, D. C. and Anderson, J. B.: Ice-sheet extent of the Antarctic Peninsula region during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) – insights from glacial geomorphology, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 117, 1497–1512, 2005.
Johnson, J. S., Bentley, M. J., Roberts, S. J., Binnie, S. A., and Freeman, S. P. H. T.: Holocene deglacial history of the northeast Antarctic Peninsula – a review and new chronological constraints, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 30, 3791–3802, 2011.
Joughin, I., Fahnestock, M., MacAyeal, D. R., Bamber, J. L., and Gogineni, P.: Observation and analysis of ice flow in the largest Greenland ice stream, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 34021–34034, 2001.
Joughin, I., Smith, B. E., Howat, I. M., Scambos, T., and Moon, T.: Greenland flow variability from ice-sheet-wide velocity mapping, J. Glaciol., 56, 415–430, 2010.
Kilfeather, A. A., ÓCofaigh, C., Lloyd, J. M., Dowdswell, J. A., Xu, S., and Moreton, S. G.: Ice-stream retreat and ice-shelf history in Marguerite Trough, Antarctic Peninsula: Sedimentological and foraminiferal signatures, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 123, 997–1015, 2011.
Knight, P. G., Sugden, D. E., and Minty, C. D.: Ice flow around large obstacles as indicated by basal ice exposed at the margin of the Greenland ice sheet, J. Glaciol., 40, 359–367, 1994.
Larter, R. D. and Barker, P. F.: Seismic stratigraphy of the Antarctic Peninsula Pacific margin: a record of Pliocene–Pleistocene ice volume and paleoclimate, Geology, 17, 731–734, 1989.
Larter, R. D. and Vanneste, L. E.: Relict subglacial deltas on the Antarctic Peninsula outer shelf, Geology, 23, 33–36, 1995.
Lawver, L. A., Sloan, B. J., Barker, D. H. N., Ghidella, M. E., von Herzen, R. P., Keller, R. A., Klinkhammer, G. P., and Chin, C. S.: Distributed, active extension in Bransfield Basin, Antarctic Peninsula: evidence from multibeam bathymetry, GSA Today, 6, 1–6, 1996.
Leventer, A., Domack, E., Dunbar, R., Pike, J., Stickley, C., Maddison, E., Brachfield, S., Manely, P., and McClennan, C.: Marine sediment record from East Antarctica margin reveals dynamics of ice-sheet recession, GSA Today, 16, 4–10, 2006.
Livingstone, S. J., Ó Cofaigh, C., Stokes, C. R., Hillenbrand, C. D., Vieli, A., and Jamieson, S. S. R.: Antarctic palaeo-ice streams, Earth-Sci. Rev., 111, 90–128, 2012.
Luckman, A., Padman, L., and Jansen, D.: Persistent iceberg groundings in the western Weddell Sea, Antarctica, Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 385–391, 2010.
Marshall, S. J. and Cuffey, K. M.: Peregrinations of the Greenland Ice Sheet divide in the last glacial cycle: implications for central Greenland ice cores, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 179, 73–93, 2000.
Nereson, N. A., Hindmarsh, R. C. A., and Raymond, C. F.: Sensitivity of the divide position at Siple Dome, West Antarctica, to boundary forcing, Ann. Glaciol., 27, 207–214, 1998.
Nývlt, D., Košler, J., Mlčoch, B., Mixa, P., Lisá, L., Bubík, M., and Hendriks, B. W. H.: The Mendel Formation: Evidence for Late Miocene climatic cyclicity at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 299, 363–384, 2011.
Ó Cofaigh, C., Davies, B. J., Livingstone, S. J., Smith, J. A., Johnson, J. S., Hocking, E. P., Hodgson, D. A., Anderson, J. B., Bentley, M. J., Canals, M., Domack, E., Dowdeswell, J. A., Evans, J., Glasser, N. F., Hillenbrand, C. D., Larter, R. D., Roberts, S. J., and Simms, A. R.: Reconstruction of ice-sheet changes in the Antarctic Peninsula since the Last Glacial Maximum, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 100, 87–110, 2014.
Pudsey, C. J., Barker, P. F., and Larter, R. D.: Ice Sheet retreat from the Antarctic Peninsula shelf, Cont. Shelf. Res., 14, 1647–1675, 1994.
Pudsey, C. J., Evans, J., Domack, E. W., Morris, P., and Del Valle, R. A.: Bathymetry and acoustic facies beneath the former Larsen-A and Prince Gustav ice shelves, north-west Weddell Sea, Antarct. Sci., 13, 312–322, 2001.
Rebesco, M., Liu, Y., Camerlenghi, A., Winsborrow, M., Laberg, J. S., Caburlotto, A., Diviacco, P., Accettella, D., Sauli, C., Wardell, N., and Tomini, I.: Deglaciation of the western margin of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet – a swath bathymetric and sub-bottom seismic study from the Kveithola Trough, Mar. Geol., 279, 141–147, 2011.
Rebesco, M., Domack, E., Zgur, F., Lavoie, C., Leventer, A., Brachfeld, S., Willmott, V., Halverson, G., Truffer, M., Scambos, T., Smith, J., and Pettit, E.: Boundary condition of grounding lines prior to collapse, Larsen-B Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Nature, 345, 1354–1358, 2014.
Reinardy, B. T. J., Larter, L. D., Hillenbrand, C. D., Murray, T., Hiemstra, J. F., and Booth, A. D.: Streaming flow of an Antarctic Peninsula palaeo-ice stream, both by basal sliding and deformation of substrate, J. Glaciol., 57, 596–608, 2011.
Roe, G. H. and Lindzen, R. S.: The mutual interaction between continental-scale ice sheets and atmospheric stationary waves, J. Climate, 14, 1450–1465, 2001.
Scambos, T. A., Hulbe, C. L., and Fahnestock, M.: Climate-induced ice shelf disintegration in the Antarctic Peninsula, in: Antarctic Peninsula Climate Variability, edited by: Domack, E. W., Leventer, A., Burnett, A., Bindschadler, R., Convey, P., and Kirby, M., Antarct. Res. Ser. 79, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 79–92, 2003.
Simms, A. R., Milliken, K. T., Anderson, J. B., and Wellner, J. S.: The marine record of deglaciation of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica since the Last Glacial Maximum, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 30, 1583–1601, 2011.
Sloan, B. J., Lawver, L. A., and Anderson, J. B.: Seismic stratigraphy of the Larsen Basin Eastern Antarctic Peninsula, in: Geology and Seismic Stratigraphy of the Antarctic Margin, edited by: Cooper, A. K., Barker, P. F., and Brancolini, G., Antarctic Res. Ser. 68, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 59–74, 1995.
Smith, R. T. and Anderson, J. B.: Ice-sheet evolution in James Ross Basin,Weddell Sea margin of the Antarctic Peninsula: the seismic stratigraphic record, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 122, 830–842, 2009.
Smith, T. and Anderson, J. B.: Seismic stratigraphy of the Joinville Platform: implications for regional climate evolution, in: Tectonic, Climatic and Cryospheric Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula, edited by: Anderson, J. B. and Wellner, J. S., American Geophysical Union Special Publication 063, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 51–62, 2011.
Stokes, C. R. and Clark, C. D.: The Dubawnt Lake palaeo-ice stream: evidence for dynamic ice sheet behaviour on the Canadian Shield and insights regarding the controls on ice-stream location and vigour, Boreas, 32, 264–279, 2003.
Vanneste, L. E. and Larter, R. D.: Deep-tow boomer survey on the Antarctic Peninsula Pacific Margin: an investigation of the morphology and acoustic characteristics of Late Quaternary sedimentary deposits on the outer continental shelf and upper slope, in: Geology and Seismic Stratigraphy of the Antarctic Margin, Part 1, edited by: Cooper, A. K., Barker, P. F., and Brancolini, G., American Ggophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 97–121, 1995.
Wellner, J. S., Lowe, A. L., Shipp, S. S., and Anderson, J. B.: Distribution of glacial geomorphic features on the Antarctic continental shelf and correlation with substrate: implications for ice behavior, J. Glaciol., 47, 397–411, 2001.
Wellner, J. S., Heroy, D. C., and Anderson, J. B.: The death mask of the antarctic ice sheet: comparison of glacial geomorphic features across the continental shelf, Geomorphology, 75, 157–171, 2006.
Willmott, V., Canals, M., and Casamor, J. L.: Retreat history of the Gerlache–Boyd ice stream, Northern Antarctic Peninsula: an ultra-high resolution acoustic study of the deglacial and post-glacial sediment drape, in: Antarctic Peninsula Climate Variability, edited by: Domack, E. W., Leventer, A., Burnett, A., Bindschadler, R., Peter, C., and Kirby, M., Antarct. Res. Ser., 79, 183–194, 2003.