Articles | Volume 8, issue 6
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-8-2409-2014
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-8-2409-2014
Research article
 | 
23 Dec 2014
Research article |  | 23 Dec 2014

Ice and AIS: ship speed data and sea ice forecasts in the Baltic Sea

U. Löptien and L. Axell

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Cited articles

Axell, L.: BSRA-15: A Baltic Sea Reanalysis 1990–2004, Reports Oceanography 45, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden, 2013.
Berking, B.: Potential and benefits of AIS to Ships and Maritime Administration, WMU J. Mar. Affairs, 2, 61–78, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03195034, 2003.
Funkquist, L. and Kleine, E.: HIROMB: An introduction to HIROMB, an operational baroclinic model for the Baltic Sea, Report Oceanography 37, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden, 2007.
Green, M. J. A., Liljebladh, B., and Omstedt, A.: Physical oceanography and water exchange in the Northern Kvark Strait, Continent. Shelf Res., 26, 721–732, 2006
Haapala, J.: On the modelling of ice-thickness redistribution, J. Glaceol., 46, 427–437, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756500781833106, 2000.
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Short summary
The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in central northern Europe. In wintertime, on-time shipping depends crucially on sea ice forecasts. Among the forecasting tools heavily applied are numerical models, which suffer from a lack of calibration data because relevant ice properties are difficult (and costly) to monitor. We developed an innovative and inexpensive approach, by using ship speed observations obtained by the automatic identification system (AIS) to asses such models.