Articles | Volume 15, issue 7
The Cryosphere, 15, 3293–3315, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-15-3293-2021
The Cryosphere, 15, 3293–3315, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-15-3293-2021
Research article
16 Jul 2021
Research article | 16 Jul 2021

Avalanche danger level characteristics from field observations of snow instability

Jürg Schweizer et al.

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Cited articles

Bakermans, L., Jamieson, B., Schweizer, J., and Haegeli, P.: Using stability tests and regional avalanche danger to estimate the local avalanche danger, Ann. Glaciol., 51, 176–186, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756410791386616, 2010. 
Bellaire, S., Jamieson, B., and Schweizer, J.: When to dig? Thoughts on estimating slope stability, Proceedings ISSW 2010, International Snow Science Workshop, Lake Tahoe, CA, USA, 17–22 October 2010, 424–430, 2010. 
Breiman, L., Friedman, J. H., Olshen, R. A., and Stone, C. J.: Classification and regression trees, CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, 368 pp., 1998. 
EAWS: Avalanche Danger Scale, available at: https://www.avalanches.org/standards/avalanche-danger-scale/, last access: 30 March 2021. 
Fierz, C., Armstrong, R. L., Durand , Y., Etchevers, P., Greene, E., McClung, D. M., Nishimura, K., Satyawali, P. K., and Sokratov, S. A.: The International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground, HP-VII Technical Documents in Hydrology, IACS Contribution No 1, UNESCO-IHP, Paris, France, 90 pp., 2009. 
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Short summary
Snow avalanches threaten people and infrastructure in snow-covered mountain regions. To mitigate the effects of avalanches, warnings are issued by public forecasting services. Presently, the five danger levels are described in qualitative terms. We aim to characterize the avalanche danger levels based on expert field observations of snow instability. Our findings contribute to an evidence-based description of danger levels and to improve consistency and accuracy of avalanche forecasts.