Articles | Volume 15, issue 6
The Cryosphere, 15, 2873–2888, 2021
The Cryosphere, 15, 2873–2888, 2021

Research article 24 Jun 2021

Research article | 24 Jun 2021

Non-normal flow rules affect fracture angles in sea ice viscous–plastic rheologies

Damien Ringeisen et al.

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Cited articles

Aksenov, Y. and Hibler, W. D.: Failure Propagation Effects in an Anisotropic Sea Ice Dynamics Model, in: IUTAM Symposium on Scaling Laws in Ice Mechanics and Ice Dynamics, edited by: Dempsey, J. P. and Shen, H. H., Solid Mechanics and Its Applications, 363–372, Springer, the Netherlands, 2001. a
Alshibli, K. A. and Sture, S.: Shear Band Formation in Plane Strain Experiments of Sand, J. Geotech. Geoenviron., 126, 495–503,, 2000. a, b
Anderson, E. M.: The dynamics of faulting and dyke formation with applications to Britain, Oliver and Boyd, 1942. a
Arthur, J. R. F., Dunstan, T., Al-Ani, Q. a. J. L., and Assadi, A.: Plastic deformation and failure in granular media, Géotechnique, 27, 53–74,, 1977. a
Badgley, F. I.: Heat balance at the surface of the Arctic Ocean, in: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Western Snow Conference, Western Snow Conference, Spokane, Washington, available at: (last access: 3 June 2021), 1961. a
Short summary
Deformations in the Arctic sea ice cover take the shape of narrow lines. High-resolution sea ice models recreate these deformation lines. Recent studies have shown that the most widely used sea ice model creates fracture lines with intersection angles larger than those observed and cannot create smaller angles. In our work, we change the way sea ice deforms post-fracture. This change allows us to understand the link between the sea ice model and intersection angles and create more acute angles.