Articles | Volume 12, issue 12
Research article 13 Dec 2018
Research article | 13 Dec 2018
Variability in individual particle structure and mixing states between the glacier–snowpack and atmosphere in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau
Zhiwen Dong et al.
No articles found.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Chenghao Yu, Long Chen, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Lun Luo, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The Tibetan Plateau is known as ‘The Third Pole’ and is generally considered to be a clean area owing to its high altitude. However, it may receive the impacts of air pollutants transported from the Indian subcontinent. Pollutants generally enter the Tibetan Plateau in several ways. Among them is the Yarlung Zangbu/Brahmaputra Grand Canyon. In this study, we identified the influence of the Indian summer monsoon on the origin, transport and behavior of mercury in this area.
Yongkang Xue, Tandong Yao, Aaron A. Boone, Ismaila Diallo, Ye Liu, Xubin Zeng, William K. M. Lau, Shiori Sugimoto, Qi Tang, Xiaoduo Pan, Peter J. van Oevelen, Daniel Klocke, Myung-Seo Koo, Tomonori Sato, Zhaohui Lin, Yuhei Takaya, Constantin Ardilouze, Stefano Materia, Subodh K. Saha, Retish Senan, Tetsu Nakamura, Hailan Wang, Jing Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Mei Zhao, Xin-Zhong Liang, J. David Neelin, Frederic Vitart, Xin Li, Ping Zhao, Chunxiang Shi, Weidong Guo, Jianping Tang, Miao Yu, Yun Qian, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yang Zhang, Kun Yang, Ruby Leung, Yuan Qiu, Daniele Peano, Xin Qi, Yanling Zhan, Michael A. Brunke, Sin Chan Chou, Michael Ek, Tianyi Fan, Hong Guan, Hai Lin, Shunlin Liang, Helin Wei, Shaocheng Xie, Haoran Xu, Weiping Li, Xueli Shi, Paulo Nobre, Yan Pan, Yi Qin, Jeff Dozier, Craig R. Ferguson, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Qing Bao, Jinming Feng, Jinkyu Hong, Songyou Hong, Huilin Huang, Duoying Ji, Zhenming Ji, Shichang Kang, Yanluan Lin, Weiguang Liu, Ryan Muncaster, Patricia de Rosnay, Hiroshi G. Takahashi, Guiling Wang, Shuyu Wang, Weicai Wang, Xu Zhou, and Yuejian Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4465–4494,Short summary
The subseasonal prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts/floods has remained stubbornly low for years. This paper presents a new international initiative which, for the first time, introduces spring land surface temperature anomalies over high mountains to improve precipitation prediction through remote effects of land–atmosphere interactions. More than 40 institutions worldwide are participating in this effort. The experimental protocol and preliminary results are presented.
Shichang Kang, Yulan Zhang, Pengfei Chen, Junming Guo, Qianggong Zhang, Zhiyuan Cong, Susan Kaspari, Lekhendra Tripathee, Tanguang Gao, Hewen Niu, Xinyue Zhong, Xintong Chen, Zhaofu Hu, Xiaofei Li, Yang Li, Bigyan Neupane, Fangping Yan, Dipesh Rupakheti, Chaman Gul, Wei Zhang, Guangming Wu, Ling Yang, Zhaoqing Wang, and Chaoliu Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Tibetan Plateau is important to the earth’s climate. However, systematical observed data here are scares. To perform more integrated and in-depth investigations of the origins and distributions of atmospheric pollutants and their impacts on cryospheric change, systematic data of BC and OC from atmosphere, glaciers, snow cover, precipitation, and lake sediment cores over the plateau based on APCC program are provided.
Kun Wang, Shohei Hattori, Mang Lin, Sakiko Ishino, Becky Alexander, Kazuki Kamezaki, Naohiro Yoshida, and Shichang Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8357–8376,Short summary
Sulfate aerosols play an important climatic role and exert adverse effects on the ecological environment and human health. In this study, we present the triple oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate from the Mt. Everest region, southern Tibetan Plateau, and decipher the formation mechanisms of atmospheric sulfate in this pristine environment. The results indicate the important role of the S(IV) + O3 pathway in atmospheric sulfate formation promoted by conditions of high cloud water pH.
Jinlei Chen, Shichang Kang, Wentao Du, Junming Guo, Min Xu, Xinyue Zhong, Wei Zhang, and Jizu Chen
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
Sea ice was retreating with rapid warming in the Arctic. It will continue and approach to the worst predicted pathway released by IPCC. The irreversible tipping point might show around 2060 when the oldest ice is completely disappeared. It has huge impacts on human's production. Ordinary merchant ships will capable of passing the Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage in the midcentury, and the opening time will advance to the next ten years for icebreaker with moderate ice strengthening.
Shuang Yi, Chunqiao Song, Kosuke Heki, Shichang Kang, Qiuyu Wang, and Le Chang
The Cryosphere, 14, 2267–2281,Short summary
High-Asia glaciers have been observed to be retreating the fastest in the southeastern Tibeten Plateau, where vast amounts of glacier and snow feed the streamflow of the Brahmaputra. Here, we provide the first monthly glacier and snow mass balance during 2002–2017 based on satellite gravimetry. The results confirm previous long-term decreases but reveal strong seasonal variations. This work helps resolve previous divergent model estimates and underlines the importance of meltwater.
Meixin Zhang, Chun Zhao, Zhiyuan Cong, Qiuyan Du, Mingyue Xu, Yu Chen, Ming Chen, Rui Li, Yunfei Fu, Lei Zhong, Shichang Kang, Delong Zhao, and Yan Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5923–5943,Short summary
Analysis of multiple numerical experiments over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP) shows that the complex topography results in 50 % stronger overall cross-Himalayan transport during the pre-monsoon season primarily due to the strengthened efficiency of near-surface meridional transport towards the TP, enhanced wind speed in some valleys and deeper valley channels associated with larger transported BC mass volume, which leads to 30–50 % stronger BC radiative heating over the TP.
Xinghua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Qi Zhang, and Junying Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7897–7911,Short summary
Highly time resolved chemistry and sources of PM1 were measured by an Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS at Waliguan Baseline Observatory, a high-altitude background station at the northeastern edge of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP), during summer 2017. Relatively higher mass concentration of PM1 and dominant sulfate contribution were observed in this site compared to those at other high-elevation sites in the southern or central QTP, indicating the different aerosol sources between them.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Lekhendra Tripathee, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Mark G. Lawrence, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2725–2747,Short summary
The sources of primary and secondary aerosols in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau region are not well known. Organic molecular tracers are useful for aerosol source apportionment. The characterization of molecular tracers were first systemically investigated and the contribution from primary and secondary sources to carbonaceous aerosols was estimated in the Kathmandu Valley. Our results demonstrate that biomass burning contributed a significant fraction to OC in the Kathmandu Valley.
Yanqing An, Jianzhong Xu, Lin Feng, Xinghua Zhang, Yanmei Liu, Shichang Kang, Bin Jiang, and Yuhong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1115–1128,Short summary
Detailed molecular chemical composition of water-soluble organic matter in the Himalayas was characterized by positive electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for the first time. Many products formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds and biomass-burning-emitted compounds were found in the organic compounds, suggesting the important contribution of these two sources in the Himalayas.
Zhiyuan Cong, Shaopeng Gao, Wancang Zhao, Xin Wang, Guangming Wu, Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Yongqin Liu, and Junfeng Ji
The Cryosphere, 12, 3177–3186,Short summary
Cryoconites from glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding area were studied for iron oxides. We found that goethite is the predominant iron oxide form. Using the abundance, speciation and optical properties of iron oxides, the total light absorption was quantitatively attributed to goethite, hematite, black carbon and organic matter. Such findings are essential to understand the relative significance of anthropogenic and natural impacts.
Xintong Chen, Shichang Kang, Zhiyuan Cong, Junhua Yang, and Yaoming Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12859–12875,Short summary
To understand the impact of transboundary atmospheric black carbon on the Mt. Everest region and depict the transport pathways in different spatiotemporal scales, we first investigated the concentration level, temporal variation, and sources of black carbon based on high-resolution (2-year) measurements at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station (4276 m a.s.l.). Next, the WRF-Chem simulations were used to reveal the transport mechanisms of black carbon from southern Asia to the Mt. Everest region.
Cenlin He, Mark G. Flanner, Fei Chen, Michael Barlage, Kuo-Nan Liou, Shichang Kang, Jing Ming, and Yun Qian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11507–11527,Short summary
Snow albedo plays a key role in the Earth and climate system. It can be affected by impurities and snow properties. This study implements new parameterizations into a widely used snow model to account for effects of snow shape and black carbon–snow mixing state on snow albedo reduction in the Tibetan Plateau. This study points toward an imperative need for extensive measurements and improved model characterization of snow grain shape and aerosol–snow mixing state in Tibet and elsewhere.
Xiufeng Yin, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Yaoming Ma, Yindong Tong, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Wang, Guoshuai Zhang, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10557–10574,Short summary
Total gaseous mercury concentrations were measured at Nam Co Station on the inland Tibetan Plateau for ~ 3 years. The mean concentration of TGM during the entire monitoring period was 1.33 ± 0.24 ngm-3, ranking it the lowest in China and indicating the pristine atmospheric environment of the inland Tibetan Plateau. Variation of TGM at Nam Co was affected by regional surface reemission, vertical mixing and long-range transported atmospheric mercury, which was associated with the Indian monsoon.
Hewen Niu, Shichang Kang, Hailong Wang, Rudong Zhang, Xixi Lu, Yun Qian, Rukumesh Paudyal, Shijin Wang, Xiaofei Shi, and Xingguo Yan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6441–6460,Short summary
Deposition of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on the surface of glaciers can greatly alter the energy fluxes of glaciers. Two years of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in a glacierized region are analyzed. We mainly studied the light absorption properties of carbonaceous aerosol and have employed a global aerosol–climate model to estimate source attributions of atmospheric black carbon.
D. Rupakheti, S. Kang, Z. Cong, M. Rupakheti, L. Tripathee, A. K. Panday, and B. Holben
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 1493–1497,
Chaman Gul, Siva Praveen Puppala, Shichang Kang, Bhupesh Adhikary, Yulan Zhang, Shaukat Ali, Yang Li, and Xiaofei Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4981–5000,Short summary
Snow and ice samples were collected from six glaciers and multiple mountain valleys from northern Pakistan. Samples were analyzed for black carbon and water-insoluble organic carbon. Relatively high concentrations of black carbon, organic carbon, and dust were reported. Snow albedo and radiative forcing were estimated for the snow samples. Possible source regions of pollutants were identified through various techniques.
Xinghua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Yanmei Liu, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4617–4638,Short summary
Highly time and chemically resolved submicron aerosol properties were characterized online for the first time in a high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas by using the Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Biomass burning plumes were frequently observed and the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical processing) were characterized. The source and chemical composition of organic aerosol were further elucidated using positive matrix factorization analysis.
Haipeng Wang, Jianhui Chen, Shengda Zhang, David D. Zhang, Zongli Wang, Qinghai Xu, Shengqian Chen, Shijin Wang, Shichang Kang, and Fahu Chen
Clim. Past, 14, 383–396,Short summary
The chironomid-inferred temperature record from Gonghai Lake exhibits a stepwise decreasing trend since 4 ka. A cold event in the Era of Disunity, the Sui-Tang Warm Period, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age can all be recognized in our record, as well as in many other temperature reconstructions in China. Local wars in Shanxi Province, documented in the historical literature during the past 2700 years, are statistically significantly correlated with changes in temperature.
Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Michael Sprenger, Zhiyuan Cong, Tanguang Gao, Chaoliu Li, Shu Tao, Xiaofei Li, Xinyue Zhong, Min Xu, Wenjun Meng, Bigyan Neupane, Xiang Qin, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 12, 413–431,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities deposited on snow can reduce surface albedo and contribute to the near-worldwide melting of snowpack and ice. This study focused on the black carbon and mineral dust in snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau. We discussed their concentrations, distributions, possible sources, and albedo reduction and radiative forcing. Findings indicated that the impacts of black carbon and mineral dust need to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections.
Xinyue Zhong, Tingjun Zhang, Shichang Kang, Kang Wang, Lei Zheng, Yuantao Hu, and Huijuan Wang
The Cryosphere, 12, 227–245,
Jianzhong Xu, Qi Zhang, Jinsen Shi, Xinlei Ge, Conghui Xie, Junfeng Wang, Shichang Kang, Ruixiong Zhang, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 427–443,Short summary
This manuscript presents results from a comprehensive field study using an HR-AMS coupled with a suite of other instruments in central Tibetan Plateau. The study discusses the chemical composition, sources, and processes of submicron aerosol during the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon. Organic aerosol was overall highly oxidized during the entire study with higher O / C ratios during the pre-monsoon period. Sensitivity of air pollution transport with synoptic process was also evaluated.
Lin Feng, Yanqing An, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Xiaofei Li, Yongqiang Zhou, Yunlin Zhang, Bin Jiang, and Yuhong Liao
Revised manuscript not accepted
Chaoliu Li, Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Pengfei Chen, Xiaowen Han, Zhaofu Hu, Guoshuai Zhang, Ye Hong, Shaopeng Gao, Bin Qu, Zhejing Zhu, Jiwei Li, Bing Chen, and Mika Sillanpää
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11899–11912,Short summary
In this study, we found, due to contribution of carbonates, previously reported BC concentration in atmosphere of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP) were overestimated by around 39–52 %. Meanwhile, we found BC deposition of lake cores overestimated the atmospheric deposition of BC in the HTP; BC depositions of glacier region reflected actual values of 17.9 ± 5.3 mg m−2 a−1. The above results are critical for studying atmospheric distribution and chemical transport of BC in and around the HTP.
Xiufeng Yin, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Zhiyuan Cong, Jiali Luo, Lang Zhang, Yaoming Ma, Guoshuai Zhang, Dipesh Rupakheti, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11293–11311,Short summary
We presented 5-year surface ozone measurements at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau and made a synthesis comparison of diurnal and seasonal patterns on regional and hemispheric scales. Surface ozone at Nam Co is mainly dominated by natural processes and is less influenced by stratospheric intrusions and human activities than on the rim of the Tibetan Plateau. Ozone at Nam Co is representative of background that is valuable for studying ozone-related effects on large scales.
Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhupesh Adhikary, Puppala Siva Praveen, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shichang Kang, Khadak Singh Mahata, Manish Naja, Qianggong Zhang, Arnico Kumar Panday, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11041–11063,Short summary
For the first time, atmospheric composition was monitored during pre-monsoon season of 2013 at Lumbini (UNESCO world heritage site as birthplace of the Buddha). PM and O3 frequently exceeded WHO guidelines. Pollution concentration, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini were investigated. Potential source regions were also identified. Results show that air pollution at this site is of a great concern, requiring prompt attention for mitigation.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Quanlian Li, Dipesh Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Lekhendra Tripathee, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Wu Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Shaopeng Gao, Guangming Wu, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8867–8885,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) tracers in the aerosols in Lumbini, northern IGP, were studied for the first time. The levoglucosan was the predominant tracer and BB significantly contributed to the air quality in Lumbini. Mixed crop residues and hardwood were main burning materials. BB emissions constituted large fraction of OC, especially during the post-monsoon season. The sources of BB aerosols in Lumbini varies seasonally due to the influence of local emissions and long-range transport.
Bin Liu, Zhiyuan Cong, Yuesi Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Xin Wan, Yuepeng Pan, Zirui Liu, Yonghong Wang, Guoshuai Zhang, Zhongyan Wang, Yongjie Wang, and Shichang Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 449–463,Short summary
The first observation net of background atmospheric aerosols of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau were conducted in 2011–2013, and the aerosol mass loadings were especially illustrated in this paper. Consequently, these terrestrial aerosol masses were strongly ecosystem-dependent, with various seasonality and diurnal cycles at these sites. These findings implicate that regional characteristics and fine-particle emissions need to be treated sensitively when assessing their climatic effects.
Jianzhong Xu, Jinsen Shi, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Matthias Vonwiller, Sönke Szidat, Jinming Ge, Jianmin Ma, Yanqing An, Shichang Kang, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14937–14957,Short summary
This study deployed an AMS field study in Lanzhou, a city in northwestern China, evaluating the chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during wintertime. In comparison with the results during summer in Lanzhou, the air pollution during winter was more severe and the sources were more complex. In addition, this paper estimates the contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon to primary and secondary organic carbon using the carbon isotopic method.
Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Yulan Zhang, Xiang Qin, Yang Li, Xiaopeng Zhang, Zhaofu Hu, Pengfei Chen, Xiaofei Li, Bin Qu, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 10, 2611–2621,Short summary
DOC release of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 was 192 kg km−2 yr−1, of which 43.2 % could be decomposed and return to atmosphere as CO2 within 28 days, producing positive feedback in the warming process and influencing downstream ecosystems. Radiative forcing of snow pit DOC was calculated to be 0.43 W m−2, accounting for about 10 % of the radiative forcing caused by BC. Therefore, DOC is also a light-absorbing agent in glacierized regions, influencing the albedo of glacier surface and glacier melting.
Shengyun Chen, Wenjie Liu, Qian Zhao, Lin Zhao, Qingbai Wu, Xingjie Lu, Shichang Kang, Xiang Qin, Shilong Chen, Jiawen Ren, and Dahe Qin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Experimental warming was manipulated using open top chambers in alpine grassland ecosystem in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results revealed variations of earlier thawing, later freezing and longer freezing-thawing periods in shallow soil. Further, the estimated permafrost table declined under the warming scenarios. The work will be helpful to evaluate the stability of Qinghai-Tibet Railway/Highway and estimate the release of carbon under the future climate warming.
Yang Li, Jizu Chen, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Bin Qu, Lekhendra Tripathee, Fangping Yan, Yulan Zhang, Junmin Guo, Chaman Gul, and Xiang Qin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first quantitative dataset of the impacts of light absorbing particles (LAPs) on glacier ablation estimated directly from the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau (TP).The average concentrations of black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD) in surface snow and ice at Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (LHG) were much higher than those detected in snow pits and ice cores in TP and Tien Shan mountains.
S. Song, N. E. Selin, A. L. Soerensen, H. Angot, R. Artz, S. Brooks, E.-G. Brunke, G. Conley, A. Dommergue, R. Ebinghaus, T. M. Holsen, D. A. Jaffe, S. Kang, P. Kelley, W. T. Luke, O. Magand, K. Marumoto, K. A. Pfaffhuber, X. Ren, G.-R. Sheu, F. Slemr, T. Warneke, A. Weigelt, P. Weiss-Penzias, D. C. Wip, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7103–7125,Short summary
A better knowledge of mercury (Hg) emission fluxes into the global atmosphere is important for assessing its human health impacts and evaluating the effectiveness of corresponding policy actions. We for the first time apply a top-down approach at a global scale to quantitatively estimate present-day mercury emission sources as well as key parameters in a chemical transport model, in order to better constrain the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury.
S. Kang, F. Wang, U. Morgenstern, Y. Zhang, B. Grigholm, S. Kaspari, M. Schwikowski, J. Ren, T. Yao, D. Qin, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1213–1222,
Related subject area
Discipline: Glaciers | Subject: Atmospheric InteractionsThe distribution and evolution of supraglacial lakes on 79° N Glacier (north-eastern Greenland) and interannual climatic controlsAtmospheric extremes caused high oceanward sea surface slope triggering the biggest calving event in more than 50 years at the Amery Ice ShelfSpatio-temporal flow variations driving heat exchange processes at a mountain glacierMeasurements and modeling of snow albedo at Alerce Glacier, Argentina: effects of volcanic ash, snow grain size, and cloudinessTowards understanding the pattern of glacier mass balances in High Mountain Asia using regional climatic modellingA multi-season investigation of glacier surface roughness lengths through in situ and remote observation
Jenny V. Turton, Philipp Hochreuther, Nathalie Reimann, and Manuel T. Blau
The Cryosphere, 15, 3877–3896,Short summary
We assess the climatic controls of melt lake development, melt duration, melt extent, and the spatial distribution of lakes of 79°N Glacier. There is a large interannual variability in the areal extent of the lakes and the maximum elevation of lake development, which is largely controlled by the summertime air temperatures and the snowpack thickness. Late-summer lake development can be prompted by spikes in surface mass balance. There is some evidence of inland expansion of lakes over time.
Diana Francis, Kyle S. Mattingly, Stef Lhermitte, Marouane Temimi, and Petra Heil
The Cryosphere, 15, 2147–2165,Short summary
The unexpected September 2019 calving event from the Amery Ice Shelf, the largest since 1963 and which occurred almost a decade earlier than expected, was triggered by atmospheric extremes. Explosive twin polar cyclones provided a deterministic role in this event by creating oceanward sea surface slope triggering the calving. The observed record-anomalous atmospheric conditions were promoted by blocking ridges and Antarctic-wide anomalous poleward transport of heat and moisture.
Rebecca Mott, Ivana Stiperski, and Lindsey Nicholson
The Cryosphere, 14, 4699–4718,Short summary
The Hintereisferner Experiment (HEFEX) investigated spatial and temporal dynamics of the near-surface boundary layer and associated heat exchange processes close to the glacier surface during the melting season. Turbulence data suggest that strong changes in the local thermodynamic characteristics occur when westerly flows disturbed prevailing katabatic flow, forming across-glacier flows and facilitating warm-air advection from the surrounding ice-free areas, which potentially promote ice melt.
Julián Gelman Constantin, Lucas Ruiz, Gustavo Villarosa, Valeria Outes, Facundo N. Bajano, Cenlin He, Hector Bajano, and Laura Dawidowski
The Cryosphere, 14, 4581–4601,Short summary
We present the results of two field campaigns and modeling activities on the impact of atmospheric particles on Alerce Glacier (Argentinean Andes). We found that volcanic ash remains at different snow layers several years after eruption, increasing light absorption on the glacier surface (with a minor contribution of soot). This leads to 36 % higher annual glacier melting. We find remarkably that volcano eruptions in 2011 and 2015 have a relevant effect on the glacier even in 2016 and 2017.
Remco J. de Kok, Philip D. A. Kraaijenbrink, Obbe A. Tuinenburg, Pleun N. J. Bonekamp, and Walter W. Immerzeel
The Cryosphere, 14, 3215–3234,Short summary
Glaciers worldwide are shrinking, yet glaciers in parts of High Mountain Asia are growing. Using models of the regional climate and glacier growth, we reproduce the observed patterns of glacier growth and shrinkage in High Mountain Asia of the last decades. Increases in snow, in part from water that comes from lowland agriculture, have probably been more important than changes in temperature to explain the growing glaciers. We now better understand changes in the crucial mountain water cycle.
Noel Fitzpatrick, Valentina Radić, and Brian Menounos
The Cryosphere, 13, 1051–1071,Short summary
Measurements of surface roughness are rare on glaciers, despite being an important control for heat exchange with the atmosphere and surface melt. In this study, roughness values were determined through measurements at multiple locations and seasons and found to vary across glacier surfaces and to differ from commonly assumed values in melt models. Two new methods that remotely determine roughness from digital elevation models returned good performance and may facilitate improved melt modelling.
Anesio, A. M., Hodson, A. J., Fritz, A., Psenner, R., and Sattler, B.: High microbial activity on glaciers: importance to the global carbon cycle, Glob. Change Biol., 15, 955–960, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01758.x, 2009.
Bond, T. C., Doherty, S. J., Fahey, D. W., Forster, P. M., Berntsen, T., DeAngelo, B. J., Flanner, M. G., Ghan, S., Kärcher, B., Koch, D., Kinne, S., Kondo, Y., Quinn, P. K., Sarofim, M. C., Schultz, M. G., Schulz, M.,Venkataraman, C., Zhang, H., Zhang, S., Bellouin, N., Guttikunda, S. K., Hopke, P. K., Jacobson, M. Z., Kaiser, J. W., Klimont, Z., Lohmann, U., Schwarz, J. P., Shindell, D., Storelvmo, T., Warren, S. G., and Zender, C. S.: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 5380–5552, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50171, 2013.
Cappa, C. D., Onasch, T. B., Massoli, P., Worsnop, D. R., Bates, T. S., Cross, E. S., Davidovits, P., Hakala, J., Hayden, K. L., Jobson, B. T., Kolesar, K. R., Lack, D.A., Lerner, B. M., Li, S. M., Mellon, D., Nuaaman, I., Olfert, J. S., Petäjä, T., Quinn, P. K., Song, C., Subramanian, R., Williams, E. J., and Zaveri, R. A.: Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon, Science, 337, 1078–1081, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1223447, 2012.
Creamean, J. M., Suski, K. J., Rosenfeld, D., Cazorla, A., DeMott, P. J., Sullivan, R. C. White, A. B., Ralph, F. M., Minnis, P., Comstock, J. M., Tomlinson, J. M., and Prather, K. A.: Dust and Biological Aerosols from the Sahara and Asia Influence Precipitation in the Western U.S., Science, 339, 1572–1578, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1227279, 2013.
Dong, Z., Qin, D., Kang, S., Liu, Y., Li, Y., Huang, J., and Qin, X.: Individual particles of cryoconite deposited on the mountain glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau: Insights into chemical composition and sources, Atmos. Environ., 138, 114–124, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.020, 2016.
Dong, Z., Kang, S., Guo, J., Zhang, Q., Wang, X., and Qin, D.: Composition and mixing states of brown haze particle over the Himalayas along two transboundary south-north transects, Atmos. Environ., 156, 24–35, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.02.029, 2017.
Dumont, M., Brun, E., Picard, G., Michou, M., Libois, Q., Petit, J. R., Geyer, M., Morin, S., and Josse B.: Contribution of light-absorbing impurities in snow to Greenland's darkening since 2009, Nat. Geosci., 7, 509–512, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2180, 2014.
He, C., Liou, K.-N., Takano, Y., Zhang, R., Levy Zamora, M., Yang, P., Li, Q., and Leung, L. R.: Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11967–11980, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-11967-2015, 2015.
Hu, Z., Kang, S., Yan, F., Zhang, Y., Li, Y., Chen, P., Wang, K., Gao, S., and Li, C.: Dissolved organic carbon fractionation accelerates glacier-melting: A case study in the northern Tibetan Plateau, Sci. Total Environ., 627, 579–585, 2018.
IPCC: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp., 2013.
Jacobson, M. Z.: A physically-based treatment of elemental carbon optics: Implications for global direct forcing of aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 217–220, 2000.
Jacobson, M. Z.: Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature, 409, 695–697, https://doi.org/10.1038/35055518, 2001.
Jacobson, M. Z.: Effects ofbiomass burning on climate, accountingfor heat and moisture fluxes, black andbrown carbon, and cloud absorptioneffects, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 8980–9002, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD021861, 2014.
Judson, A. and Doesken, N.: Density of Freshly Fallen Snow in the Central Rocky Mountains, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 81, 1577–1588, 2000.
Kaspari, S. D., Schwikowski, M., Gysel, M., Flanner, M. G., Kang, S., Hou, S., and Mayewski, P. A.: Recent increase in black carbon concentrations from a Mt. Everest ice core spanning 1860–2000 AD, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L04703, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL046096, 2011.
Li, W. J., Shao, L. Y, Shi, Z., Chen, J., Yang, L., Yuan, Q., and Yan, C.: Mixing state and hygroscopicity of dust and haze particles before leaving Asian continent, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 1044–1059, 2014.
Li, W. J., Chen, S. R., Xu, Y. S., Guo, X. C., Sun, Y. L., Yang, X. Y., Wang, Z. F., Zhao, X. D., Chen, J. M., and Wang, W. X.: Mixing state and sources of submicron regional background aerosols in the northern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau and the influence of biomass burning, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13365–13376, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-13365-2015, 2015.
Peng, J., Hu, M., Guo, S., Du, Z., Zheng, J., Shang, D., Zamora, M. L., Zeng, L., Shao, M., Wu, Y., Zheng, J., Wang, Y., Glen, C. R. Collins, D. R., Molina, M. J., and Zhang, R.: Markedly enhanced absorption and direct radiative forcing of black carbon under polluted urban environments, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 113, 4266–4271, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1602310113, 2016.
Qiu, J.: The third pole, Nature, 454, 393–396, https://doi.org/10.1038/454393a, 2008.
Qu, B., Ming, J., Kang, S.-C., Zhang, G.-S., Li, Y.-W., Li, C.-D., Zhao, S.-Y., Ji, Z.-M., and Cao, J.-J.: The decreasing albedo of the Zhadang glacier on western Nyainqentanglha and the role of light-absorbing impurities, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11117–11128, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-11117-2014, 2014.
Ramanathan, V., Ramana, M., Roberts, G., Kim, D., Corrigan, C., Chung, C., and Winker, D.: Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption, Nature, 448, 575–578, 2007.
Semeniuk, T. A., Bruintjes, R. T., Salazar, V., Breed, D. W., Jensen, T. L., and Buseck, P. R.: Individual aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions below convective cloud bases in the Oman mountain region, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 2511–2528, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD021165, 2014.
Sjögren, B., Brandt, O., Nuth, C., Isaksson, E., Pohjola, V., Kohler, J., and Van de Wal, R. S. W.: Instruments and methods determination of firn density in ice cores using image analysis, J. Glaciol., 53, 413–419, doi:10.3189/002214307783258369, 2017.
Wang, M., Xu, B., Cao, J., Tie, X., Wang, H., Zhang, R., Qian, Y., Rasch, P. J., Zhao, S., Wu, G., Zhao, H., Joswiak, D. R., Li, J., and Xie, Y.: Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1191–1204, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-1191-2015, 2015.
Wang, X., Doherty, S., and Huang, J.: Black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in snow across Northern China, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 1471–1492, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD018291, 2013.
Ward, J. L., Flanner, M. G., Bergin, M., Dibb, J. E., Polashenski, C. M., Soja, A. J., and Thomas, J. L.: Modeled response of Greenland snowmelt to the presence of biomass burning-based absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere and snow, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 123, 6122–6141, https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JD027878, 2018.
Xu, B., Cao, J., Hansen, J., and Yao, T.: Black soot and the survival of Tibetan glaciers, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 22114–22118, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910444106, 2009.
Yan, F., Kang, S., Li, C., Zhang, Y., Qin, X., Li, Y., Zhang, X., Hu, Z., Chen, P., Li, X., Qu, B., and Sillanpää, M.: Concentration, sources and light absorption characteristics of dissolved organic carbon on a medium-sized valley glacier, northern Tibetan Plateau, The Cryosphere, 10, 2611–2621, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-2611-2016, 2016.
Yang, S., Xu, B., Cao, J., Zender, C. S., and Wang, M.: Climate effect of black carbon aerosol in a Tibetan Plateau glacier, Atmos. Environ., 111, 71–78, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.03.016, 2015.
Zhang, Y., Kang, S., Cong, Z., Schmale, J., Sprenger, M., Li, C., Yang, W., Gao, T., Sillanpää, M., Li, X., Liu, Y., Chen, P., and Zhang, X.: Light-absorbing impurities enhance glacier albedo reduction in the southeastern Tibetan plateau, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 122, 6915–6933, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD026397, 2017.
This study aimed to provide a first and unique record of physicochemical properties and mixing states of LAPs at the glacier and atmosphere interface over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau to determine the individual LAPs' structure aging and mixing state changes through the atmospheric deposition process from atmosphere to glacier–snowpack surface, thereby helping to characterize the LAPs' radiative forcing and climate effects in the cryosphere region.
This study aimed to provide a first and unique record of physicochemical properties and mixing...