Articles | Volume 12, issue 7
27 Jul 2018
Brief communication | 27 Jul 2018
Brief communication: Understanding solar geoengineering's potential to limit sea level rise requires attention from cryosphere experts
Peter J. Irvine et al.
No articles found.
Jun Wang, John C. Moore, Liyun Zhao, Chao Yue, and Zhenhua Di
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESDShort summary
We examine how geoengineering using aerosols in the atmosphere might impact urban climate in the greater Beijing region containing over 50 million people. Climate models have too coarse resolutions to resolve regional variations well, so we compare two work arounds for this – an expensive physical model, and a cheaper statistical method. The statistical method generally gives a reasonable representation of climate, has limited resolution, and a different seasonality from the physical model.
Yangxin Chen, Duoying Ji, Qian Zhang, John C. Moore, Olivier Boucher, Andy Jones, Thibaut Lurton, Michael J. Mills, Ulrike Niemeier, Roland Séférian, and Simone Tilmes
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESDShort summary
Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a way of counteracting the warming effects of increasing greenhouse gases by reflecting solar radiation. This work shows the solar geoengineering can slow down the northern high-latitude permafrost degradation, but can not preserve the permafrost ecosystem as that under a climate of the same warming level without solar geoengineering.
Mengdie Xie, John C. Moore, Liyun Zhao, Michael Wolovick, and Helene Muri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4581–4597,Short summary
We use data from six Earth system models to estimate Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) changes and its drivers under four different solar geoengineering methods. Solar dimming seems relatively more effective than marine cloud brightening or stratospheric aerosol injection at reversing greenhouse-gas-driven declines in AMOC. Geoengineering-induced AMOC amelioration is due to better maintenance of air–sea temperature differences and reduced loss of Arctic summer sea ice.
Debra K. Weisenstein, Daniele Visioni, Henning Franke, Ulrike Niemeier, Sandro Vattioni, Gabriel Chiodo, Thomas Peter, and David W. Keith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2955–2973,Short summary
This paper explores a potential method of geoengineering that could be used to slow the rate of change of climate over decadal scales. We use three climate models to explore how injections of accumulation-mode sulfuric acid aerosol change the large-scale stratospheric particle size distribution and radiative forcing response for the chosen scenarios. Radiative forcing per unit sulfur injected and relative to the change in aerosol burden is larger with particulate than with SO2 injections.
Haoran Kang, Liyun Zhao, Michael Wolovick, and John C. Moore
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Basal thermal conditions are important to ice dynamics, and sensitive to geothermal heat flux (GHF). We estimate basal thermal conditions of the Lambert-Amery glacier system with six GHFs. The two most-recent GHFs inverted from aerial geomagnetic observations produce a larger warm-based area, and match the observed subglacial lakes better than the other GHFs. The modelled basal melt rate is ten to hundreds of mm per year in fast flowing glaciers feeding Amery ice shelf, and smaller inland.
Chao Yue, Louise Steffensen Schmidt, Liyun Zhao, Michael Wolovick, and John C. Moore
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We use the ice sheet model PISM to estimate Vatnajökull mass balance under solar geoengineering. We find that Stratospheric aerosol injection at the rate of 5 Tg yr−1 reduces ice cap mass loss by 4 percentage points relative to the RCP4.5 scenario. Dynamic mass loss is a significant component of mass balance, but insensitive to climate forcing.
Rupert Gladstone, Benjamin Galton-Fenzi, David Gwyther, Qin Zhou, Tore Hattermann, Chen Zhao, Lenneke Jong, Yuwei Xia, Xiaoran Guo, Konstantinos Petrakopoulos, Thomas Zwinger, Daniel Shapero, and John Moore
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 889–905,Short summary
Retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet, and hence its contribution to sea level rise, is highly sensitive to melting of its floating ice shelves. This melt is caused by warm ocean currents coming into contact with the ice. Computer models used for future ice sheet projections are not able to realistically evolve these melt rates. We describe a new coupling framework to enable ice sheet and ocean computer models to interact, allowing projection of the evolution of melt and its impact on sea level.
Xiaoran Guo, Liyun Zhao, Rupert M. Gladstone, Sainan Sun, and John C. Moore
The Cryosphere, 13, 3139–3153,
Sandro Vattioni, Debra Weisenstein, David Keith, Aryeh Feinberg, Thomas Peter, and Andrea Stenke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4877–4897,Short summary
This study is among the first modeling studies on stratospheric sulfate geoengineering that interactively couple a size-resolved sectional aerosol module to well-described stratospheric chemistry and radiation schemes in a global 3-D chemistry–climate model. We found that compared with SO2 injection, the direct emission of aerosols results in more effective radiative forcing and that sensitivities to different injection strategies vary for different forms of injected sulfur.
Rupert M. Gladstone, Yuwei Xia, and John Moore
The Cryosphere, 12, 3605–3615,Short summary
Computer models for the simulation of marine ice sheets (ice sheets resting on bedrock below sea level) historically show poor numerical convergence for grounding line (the boundary between grounded and floating parts of the ice sheet) movement. We have further characterised the nature of the numerical problems leading to poor convergence and highlighted implications for the design of computer experiments that test grounding line movement.
Liren Wei, Duoying Ji, Chiyuan Miao, Helene Muri, and John C. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16033–16050,Short summary
We analyzed streamflow and flood frequency under the stratospheric aerosol geoengineering scenario simulated by climate models. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering appears to reduce flood risk in most regions, but the overall effects are largely determined by the large-scale geographic pattern. Over the Amazon, stratospheric aerosol geoengineering ameliorates the drying trend here under a future warming climate.
Michael J. Wolovick and John C. Moore
The Cryosphere, 12, 2955–2967,Short summary
In this paper, we explore the possibility of using locally targeted geoengineering to slow the rate of an ice sheet collapse. We find that an intervention as big as existing large civil engineering projects could have a 30 % probability of stopping an ice sheet collapse, while larger interventions have better odds of success. With more research to improve upon the simple designs we considered, it may be possible to perfect a design that was both achievable and had good odds of success.
Ben Kravitz, Philip J. Rasch, Hailong Wang, Alan Robock, Corey Gabriel, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Jim Haywood, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Helene Muri, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, Shuting Yang, and Jin-Ho Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13097–13113,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening has been proposed as a means of geoengineering/climate intervention, or deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. In idealized simulations that highlight contrasts between land and ocean, we find that the globe warms, including the ocean due to transport of heat from land. This study reinforces that no net energy input into the Earth system does not mean that temperature will necessarily remain unchanged.
Duoying Ji, Songsong Fang, Charles L. Curry, Hiroki Kashimura, Shingo Watanabe, Jason N. S. Cole, Andrew Lenton, Helene Muri, Ben Kravitz, and John C. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10133–10156,Short summary
We examine extreme temperature and precipitation under climate-model-simulated solar dimming and stratospheric aerosol injection geoengineering schemes. Both types of geoengineering lead to lower minimum temperatures at higher latitudes and greater cooling of minimum temperatures and maximum temperatures over land compared with oceans. Stratospheric aerosol injection is more effective in reducing tropical extreme precipitation, while solar dimming is more effective over extra-tropical regions.
Qin Wang, John C. Moore, and Duoying Ji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9173–9188,Short summary
(1) Genesis potential and ventilation indices are assessed in 6 ESMs running RCP4.5 and G4, in 6 tropical cyclone genesis basins. (2) Genesis potential is reasonably well parameterized by simple surface temperature, but other factors are important in different basins and models such as relative humidity and wind shear. (3) The Northern Hemisphere basins behave rather differently from the southern ones, and these dominate TC statistics. G4 leads to significantly fewer TCs globally than RCP4.5.
Anboyu Guo, John C. Moore, and Duoying Ji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8689–8706,Short summary
This is an examination of both the zonal and meridional tropical circulations under G1 geoengineering using eight ESMs. Drivers of the changes are examined, with meridional temperature gradient being the dominant factor. The Hadley circulation is changed under G1 differently for each hemisphere, but changes are small compared with abrupt4xCO2. Changes in the Walker circulation are subtle but potentially important in some regions, and ENSO impacts circulations only slightly differently under G1.
Liyun Zhao, John C. Moore, Bo Sun, Xueyuan Tang, and Xiaoran Guo
The Cryosphere, 12, 1651–1663,Short summary
We investigate the age–depth profile to be expected of the ongoing deep ice coring at Kunlun station, Dome A, using the depth-varying anisotropic fabric suggested by the recent polarimetric measurements in a three-dimensional, thermo-mechanically coupled full-Stokes model. The model results suggest that the age of the deep ice at Kunlun is 649–831 ka, and there are large regions where 1-million-year-old ice may be found 200 m above the bedrock within 5–6 km of the Kunlun station.
Yongmei Gong, Thomas Zwinger, Jan Åström, Bas Altena, Thomas Schellenberger, Rupert Gladstone, and John C. Moore
The Cryosphere, 12, 1563–1577,Short summary
In this study we apply a discrete element model capable of simulating ice fracturing. A microscopic-scale discrete process is applied in addition to a continuum ice dynamics model to investigate the mechanisms facilitated by basal meltwater production, surface meltwater and ice crack opening, for the surge in Basin 3, Austfonna ice cap. The discrete element model is used to locate the ice cracks that can penetrate though the full thickness of the glacier and deliver surface water to the bed.
Camilla W. Stjern, Helene Muri, Lars Ahlm, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Jim Haywood, Ben Kravitz, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven J. Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, and Jón Egill Kristjánsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 621–634,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening (MCB) has been proposed to help limit global warming. We present here the first multi-model assessment of idealized MCB simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. While all models predict a global cooling as intended, there is considerable spread between the models both in terms of radiative forcing and the climate response, largely linked to the substantial differences in the models' representation of clouds.
Sainan Sun, Stephen L. Cornford, John C. Moore, Rupert Gladstone, and Liyun Zhao
The Cryosphere, 11, 2543–2554,Short summary
The buttressing effect of the floating ice shelves is diminished by the fracture process. We developed a continuum damage mechanics model component of the ice sheet model to simulate the process. The model is tested on an ideal marine ice sheet geometry. We find that behavior of the simulated marine ice sheet is sensitive to fracture processes on the ice shelf, and the stiffness of ice around the grounding line is essential to ice sheet evolution.
Liyun Zhao, Yi Yang, Wei Cheng, Duoying Ji, and John C. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6547–6564,Short summary
We find stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection geoengineering, G3, can slow shrinkage of high-mountain Asia glaciers by about 50 % by 2069 relative to losses from RCP8.5. The reduction in mean precipitation expected for solar geoengineering is less important than the temperature-driven shift from solid to liquid precipitation for forcing Himalayan glacier change. The termination of geoengineering in 2069 leads to temperature rise of 1.3 °C and corresponding increase in glacier volume loss rate.
Hiroki Kashimura, Manabu Abe, Shingo Watanabe, Takashi Sekiya, Duoying Ji, John C. Moore, Jason N. S. Cole, and Ben Kravitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3339–3356,Short summary
This study analyses shortwave radiation (SW) in the G4 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. G4 involves stratospheric injection of 5 Tg yr−1 of SO2 against the RCP4.5 scenario. The global mean forcing of the sulphate geoengineering has an inter-model variablity of −3.6 to −1.6 W m−2, implying a high uncertainty in modelled processes of sulfate aerosols. Changes in water vapour and cloud amounts due to the SO2 injection weaken the forcing at the surface by around 50 %.
Wenli Wang, Annette Rinke, John C. Moore, Duoying Ji, Xuefeng Cui, Shushi Peng, David M. Lawrence, A. David McGuire, Eleanor J. Burke, Xiaodong Chen, Bertrand Decharme, Charles Koven, Andrew MacDougall, Kazuyuki Saito, Wenxin Zhang, Ramdane Alkama, Theodore J. Bohn, Philippe Ciais, Christine Delire, Isabelle Gouttevin, Tomohiro Hajima, Gerhard Krinner, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Paul A. Miller, Benjamin Smith, Tetsuo Sueyoshi, and Artem B. Sherstiukov
The Cryosphere, 10, 1721–1737,Short summary
The winter snow insulation is a key process for air–soil temperature coupling and is relevant for permafrost simulations. Differences in simulated air–soil temperature relationships and their modulation by climate conditions are found to be related to the snow model physics. Generally, models with better performance apply multilayer snow schemes.
W. Wang, A. Rinke, J. C. Moore, X. Cui, D. Ji, Q. Li, N. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhang, D. M. Lawrence, A. D. McGuire, W. Zhang, C. Delire, C. Koven, K. Saito, A. MacDougall, E. Burke, and B. Decharme
The Cryosphere, 10, 287–306,Short summary
We use a model-ensemble approach for simulating permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau. We identify the uncertainties across models (state-of-the-art land surface models) and across methods (most commonly used methods to define permafrost).
We differentiate between uncertainties stemming from climatic driving data or from physical process parameterization, and show how these uncertainties vary seasonally and inter-annually, and how estimates are subject to the definition of permafrost used.
We differentiate between uncertainties stemming from climatic driving data or from physical process parameterization, and show how these uncertainties vary seasonally and inter-annually, and how estimates are subject to the definition of permafrost used.
S. Peng, P. Ciais, G. Krinner, T. Wang, I. Gouttevin, A. D. McGuire, D. Lawrence, E. Burke, X. Chen, B. Decharme, C. Koven, A. MacDougall, A. Rinke, K. Saito, W. Zhang, R. Alkama, T. J. Bohn, C. Delire, T. Hajima, D. Ji, D. P. Lettenmaier, P. A. Miller, J. C. Moore, B. Smith, and T. Sueyoshi
The Cryosphere, 10, 179–192,Short summary
Soil temperature change is a key indicator of the dynamics of permafrost. Using nine process-based ecosystem models with permafrost processes, a large spread of soil temperature trends across the models. Air temperature and longwave downward radiation are the main drivers of soil temperature trends. Based on an emerging observation constraint method, the total boreal near-surface permafrost area decrease comprised between 39 ± 14 × 103 and 75 ± 14 × 103 km2 yr−1 from 1960 to 2000.
B. Kravitz, A. Robock, S. Tilmes, O. Boucher, J. M. English, P. J. Irvine, A. Jones, M. G. Lawrence, M. MacCracken, H. Muri, J. C. Moore, U. Niemeier, S. J. Phipps, J. Sillmann, T. Storelvmo, H. Wang, and S. Watanabe
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3379–3392,
D. K. Weisenstein, D. W. Keith, and J. A. Dykema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11835–11859,Short summary
We investigate stratospheric aerosol geoengineering with solid particle injection by modeling the fractal structure of alumina aerosols and their interaction with background sulfate. We analyze the efficacy (W m^-2 of radiative forcing per megaton of injection) and risks (ozone loss, s) for both alumina and diamond particles as a function of injected monomer radius, finding 240nm alumina and 160nm diamond optimal. We discuss the limitations of our 2-D model study and associated uncertainties.
T. Zwinger, T. Malm, M. Schäfer, R. Stenberg, and J. C. Moore
The Cryosphere, 9, 1415–1426,Short summary
By deploying a large-scale high-resolution turbulent CFD simulation using the present-day topography of the Scharffenbergbotnen (SBB) valley, we show how the surrounding topography redirects incoming easterly katabatic storm fronts to impact the blue ice areas (BIA) inside the valley, where the snow cover frequently is removed. A further simulation of a reconstructed topography at the Late Glacial Maximum further reveals that the BIA at SBB must have formed after this period.
M. A. Rawlins, A. D. McGuire, J. S. Kimball, P. Dass, D. Lawrence, E. Burke, X. Chen, C. Delire, C. Koven, A. MacDougall, S. Peng, A. Rinke, K. Saito, W. Zhang, R. Alkama, T. J. Bohn, P. Ciais, B. Decharme, I. Gouttevin, T. Hajima, D. Ji, G. Krinner, D. P. Lettenmaier, P. Miller, J. C. Moore, B. Smith, and T. Sueyoshi
Biogeosciences, 12, 4385–4405,Short summary
We used outputs from nine models to better understand land-atmosphere CO2 exchanges across Northern Eurasia over the period 1960-1990. Model estimates were assessed against independent ground and satellite measurements. We find that the models show a weakening of the CO2 sink over time; the models tend to overestimate respiration, causing an underestimate in NEP; the model range in regional NEP is twice the multimodel mean. Residence time for soil carbon decreased, amid a gain in carbon storage.
D. Ji, L. Wang, J. Feng, Q. Wu, H. Cheng, Q. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Dong, Y. Dai, D. Gong, R.-H. Zhang, X. Wang, J. Liu, J. C. Moore, D. Chen, and M. Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2039–2064,
S. Sun, S. L. Cornford, Y. Liu, and J. C. Moore
The Cryosphere, 8, 1561–1576,
R. Gladstone, M. Schäfer, T. Zwinger, Y. Gong, T. Strozzi, R. Mottram, F. Boberg, and J. C. Moore
The Cryosphere, 8, 1393–1405,
B. Sun, J. C. Moore, T. Zwinger, L. Zhao, D. Steinhage, X. Tang, D. Zhang, X. Cui, and C. Martín
The Cryosphere, 8, 1121–1128,
T. Zwinger, M. Schäfer, C. Martín, and J. C. Moore
The Cryosphere, 8, 607–621,
J. A. Åström, T. I. Riikilä, T. Tallinen, T. Zwinger, D. Benn, J. C. Moore, and J. Timonen
The Cryosphere, 7, 1591–1602,
L. Zhao, L. Tian, T. Zwinger, R. Ding, J. Zong, Q. Ye, and J. C. Moore
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Z. Zhang and J. C. Moore
Ann. Geophys., 30, 1743–1750,
Related subject area
Discipline: Ice sheets | Subject: Climate InteractionsA probabilistic framework for quantifying the role of anthropogenic climate change in marine-terminating glacier retreatsSignificant additional Antarctic warming in atmospheric bias-corrected ARPEGE projections with respect to control runCMIP5 model selection for ISMIP6 ice sheet model forcing: Greenland and AntarcticaThe influence of atmospheric grid resolution in a climate model-forced ice sheet simulation
John Erich Christian, Alexander A. Robel, and Ginny Catania
The Cryosphere, 16, 2725–2743,Short summary
Marine-terminating glaciers have recently retreated dramatically, but the role of anthropogenic forcing remains uncertain. We use idealized model simulations to develop a framework for assessing the probability of rapid retreat in the context of natural climate variability. Our analyses show that century-scale anthropogenic trends can substantially increase the probability of retreats. This provides a roadmap for future work to formally assess the role of human activity in recent glacier change.
Julien Beaumet, Michel Déqué, Gerhard Krinner, Cécile Agosta, Antoinette Alias, and Vincent Favier
The Cryosphere, 15, 3615–3635,Short summary
We use empirical run-time bias correction (also called flux correction) to correct the systematic errors of the ARPEGE atmospheric climate model. When applying the method to future climate projections, we found a lesser poleward shift and an intensification of the maximum of westerly winds present in the southern high latitudes. This yields a significant additional warming of +0.6 to +0.9 K of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with respect to non-corrected control projections using the RCP8.5 scenario.
Alice Barthel, Cécile Agosta, Christopher M. Little, Tore Hattermann, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Heiko Goelzer, Sophie Nowicki, Helene Seroussi, Fiammetta Straneo, and Thomas J. Bracegirdle
The Cryosphere, 14, 855–879,Short summary
We compare existing coupled climate models to select a total of six models to provide forcing to the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet simulations of the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (ISMIP6). We select models based on (i) their representation of current climate near Antarctica and Greenland relative to observations and (ii) their ability to sample a diversity of projected atmosphere and ocean changes over the 21st century.
Marcus Lofverstrom and Johan Liakka
The Cryosphere, 12, 1499–1510,
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Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering, a form of solar geoengineering, is a proposal to add a reflective layer of aerosol to the upper atmosphere. This would reduce sea level rise by slowing the melting of ice on land and the thermal expansion of the oceans. However, there is considerable uncertainty about its potential efficacy. This article highlights key uncertainties in the sea level response to solar geoengineering and recommends approaches to address these in future work.
Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering, a form of solar geoengineering, is a proposal to add a...