Articles | Volume 12, issue 7
Research article 26 Jul 2018
Research article | 26 Jul 2018
Glacier change along West Antarctica's Marie Byrd Land Sector and links to inter-decadal atmosphere–ocean variability
Frazer D. W. Christie et al.
No articles found.
Sophy Elizabeth Oliver, Coralia Cartis, Iris Kriest, Simon F. B. Tett, and Samar Khatiwala
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Global ocean biogeochemical models are used within Earth System Models which are used to predict future climate change. However, these are very computationally expensive to run, therefore are rarely routinely improved/calibrated to real oceanic observations. Here we apply a new, fast optimisation algorithm to one such model, and show that it can calibrate the model much faster than previously managed, therefore encouraging further ocean biogeochemical model improvements.
Helen Ockenden, Robert G. Bingham, Andrew Curtis, and Daniel Goldberg
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
Hills and valleys hidden under the ice of Thwaites Glacier have an impact on ice flow and future ice loss, but there are not many three dimensional observations of their location or size. We apply a mathematical theory to new high resolution observations of the ice surface to predict the bed topography beneath the ice. There is a good correlation with ice-penetrating radar observations. The method may be useful in areas with few direct observations, or as a further constraint for other methods.
Livia Jakob, Noel Gourmelen, Martin Ewart, and Stephen Plummer
The Cryosphere, 15, 1845–1862,Short summary
Glaciers and ice caps are currently the largest contributor to sea level rise. Global monitoring of these regions is a challenging task, and significant differences remain between current estimates. This study looks at glacier changes in High Mountain Asia and the Gulf of Alaska using a new technique, which for the first time makes the use of satellite radar altimetry for mapping ice mass loss over mountain glacier regions possible.
Bradley R. Markle and Eric J. Steig
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
The geochemistry preserved in polar ice can provide detailed histories of Earth’s climate over millennia. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of ice form many Antarctic ice cores to reconstruct temperature variability of Antarctica and of the midlatitude Southern Hemisphere over tens of thousands of years. We improve upon existing methods to estimate temperature from the geochemical measurements and investigate the patterns of climate change in the past.
Thomas Slater, Isobel R. Lawrence, Inès N. Otosaka, Andrew Shepherd, Noel Gourmelen, Livia Jakob, Paul Tepes, Lin Gilbert, and Peter Nienow
The Cryosphere, 15, 233–246,Short summary
Satellite observations are the best method for tracking ice loss, because the cryosphere is vast and remote. Using these, and some numerical models, we show that Earth has lost 28 trillion tonnes (Tt) of ice since 1994 from Arctic sea ice (7.6 Tt), ice shelves (6.5 Tt), mountain glaciers (6.1 Tt), the Greenland (3.8 Tt) and Antarctic ice sheets (2.5 Tt), and Antarctic sea ice (0.9 Tt). It has taken just 3.2 % of the excess energy Earth has absorbed due to climate warming to cause this ice loss.
Jenna A. Epifanio, Edward J. Brook, Christo Buizert, Jon S. Edwards, Todd A. Sowers, Emma C. Kahle, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Eric J. Steig, Dominic A. Winski, Erich C. Osterberg, Tyler J. Fudge, Murat Aydin, Ekaterina Hood, Michael Kalk, Karl J. Kreutz, David G. Ferris, and Joshua A. Kennedy
Clim. Past, 16, 2431–2444,Short summary
A new ice core drilled at the South Pole provides a 54 000-year paleo-environmental record including the composition of the past atmosphere. This paper describes the gas chronology for the South Pole ice core, based on a high-resolution methane record. The new gas chronology, in combination with the existing ice age scale from Winski et al. (2019), allows a model-independent reconstruction of the delta age record.
Jessica A. Badgeley, Eric J. Steig, Gregory J. Hakim, and Tyler J. Fudge
Clim. Past, 16, 1325–1346,
Tyler J. Fudge, David A. Lilien, Michelle Koutnik, Howard Conway, C. Max Stevens, Edwin D. Waddington, Eric J. Steig, Andrew J. Schauer, and Nicholas Holschuh
Clim. Past, 16, 819–832,Short summary
A 1750 m ice core at the South Pole was recently drilled. The oldest ice is ~55 000 years old. Since ice at the South Pole flows at 10 m per year, the ice in the core originated upstream, where the climate is different. We made measurements of the ice flow, snow accumulation, and temperature upstream. We determined the ice came from ~150 km away near the Titan Dome where the accumulation rate was similar but the temperature was colder. Our measurements improve the interpretation of the ice core.
Wei Wei, Donald D. Blankenship, Jamin S. Greenbaum, Noel Gourmelen, Christine F. Dow, Thomas G. Richter, Chad A. Greene, Duncan A. Young, SangHoon Lee, Tae-Wan Kim, Won Sang Lee, and Karen M. Assmann
The Cryosphere, 14, 1399–1408,Short summary
Getz Ice Shelf is the largest meltwater source from Antarctica of the Southern Ocean. This study compares the relative importance of the meltwater production of Getz from both ocean and subglacial sources. We show that basal melt rates are elevated where bathymetric troughs provide pathways for warm Circumpolar Deep Water to enter the Getz Ice Shelf cavity. In particular, we find that subshelf melting is enhanced where subglacially discharged fresh water flows across the grounding line.
David A. Lilien, Ian Joughin, Benjamin Smith, and Noel Gourmelen
The Cryosphere, 13, 2817–2834,Short summary
We used a number of computer simulations to understand the recent retreat of a rapidly changing group of glaciers in West Antarctica. We found that significant melt underneath the floating extensions of the glaciers, driven by relatively warm ocean water at depth, was likely needed to cause the large retreat that has been observed. If melt continues around current rates, retreat is likely to continue through the coming century and extend beyond the present-day drainage area of these glaciers.
Dominic A. Winski, Tyler J. Fudge, David G. Ferris, Erich C. Osterberg, John M. Fegyveresi, Jihong Cole-Dai, Zayta Thundercloud, Thomas S. Cox, Karl J. Kreutz, Nikolas Ortman, Christo Buizert, Jenna Epifanio, Edward J. Brook, Ross Beaudette, Jeffrey Severinghaus, Todd Sowers, Eric J. Steig, Emma C. Kahle, Tyler R. Jones, Valerie Morris, Murat Aydin, Melinda R. Nicewonger, Kimberly A. Casey, Richard B. Alley, Edwin D. Waddington, Nels A. Iverson, Nelia W. Dunbar, Ryan C. Bay, Joseph M. Souney, Michael Sigl, and Joseph R. McConnell
Clim. Past, 15, 1793–1808,Short summary
A deep ice core was recently drilled at the South Pole to understand past variations in the Earth's climate. To understand the information contained within the ice, we present the relationship between the depth and age of the ice in the South Pole Ice Core. We found that the oldest ice in our record is from 54 302 ± 519 years ago. Our results show that, on average, 7.4 cm of snow falls at the South Pole each year.
Robert Tardif, Gregory J. Hakim, Walter A. Perkins, Kaleb A. Horlick, Michael P. Erb, Julien Emile-Geay, David M. Anderson, Eric J. Steig, and David Noone
Clim. Past, 15, 1251–1273,Short summary
An updated Last Millennium Reanalysis is presented, using an expanded multi-proxy database, and proxy models representing the seasonal characteristics of proxy records, in addition to the dual sensitivity to temperature and moisture of tree-ring-width chronologies. We show enhanced skill in spatial reconstructions of key climate variables in the updated reanalysis, compared to an earlier version, resulting from the combined influences of the enhanced proxy network and improved proxy modeling.
Christophe Bellisario, Helen E. Brindley, Simon F. B. Tett, Rolando Rizzi, Gianluca Di Natale, Luca Palchetti, and Giovanni Bianchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7927–7937,Short summary
We explore the possibility of inferring far-infrared downwelling radiances from mid-infrared observations to better constrain radiation schemes in climate models. Our results imply that while it is feasible to use this type of approach, the quality of the extension will be strongly dependent on the noise characteristics of the observations and on the accurate characterisation of the atmospheric state.
Damon Davies, Robert G. Bingham, Edward C. King, Andrew M. Smith, Alex M. Brisbourne, Matteo Spagnolo, Alastair G. C. Graham, Anna E. Hogg, and David G. Vaughan
The Cryosphere, 12, 1615–1628,Short summary
This paper investigates the dynamics of ice stream beds using repeat geophysical surveys of the bed of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica; 60 km of the bed was surveyed, comprising the most extensive repeat ground-based geophysical surveys of an Antarctic ice stream; 90 % of the surveyed bed shows no significant change despite the glacier increasing in speed by up to 40 % over the last decade. This result suggests that ice stream beds are potentially more stable than previously suggested.
Nancy A. N. Bertler, Howard Conway, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Daniel B. Emanuelsson, Mai Winstrup, Paul T. Vallelonga, James E. Lee, Ed J. Brook, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Taylor J. Fudge, Elizabeth D. Keller, W. Troy Baisden, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Peter D. Neff, Thomas Blunier, Ross Edwards, Paul A. Mayewski, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Christo Buizert, Silvia Canessa, Ruzica Dadic, Helle A. Kjær, Andrei Kurbatov, Dongqi Zhang, Edwin D. Waddington, Giovanni Baccolo, Thomas Beers, Hannah J. Brightley, Lionel Carter, David Clemens-Sewall, Viorela G. Ciobanu, Barbara Delmonte, Lukas Eling, Aja Ellis, Shruthi Ganesh, Nicholas R. Golledge, Skylar Haines, Michael Handley, Robert L. Hawley, Chad M. Hogan, Katelyn M. Johnson, Elena Korotkikh, Daniel P. Lowry, Darcy Mandeno, Robert M. McKay, James A. Menking, Timothy R. Naish, Caroline Noerling, Agathe Ollive, Anaïs Orsi, Bernadette C. Proemse, Alexander R. Pyne, Rebecca L. Pyne, James Renwick, Reed P. Scherer, Stefanie Semper, Marius Simonsen, Sharon B. Sneed, Eric J. Steig, Andrea Tuohy, Abhijith Ulayottil Venugopal, Fernando Valero-Delgado, Janani Venkatesh, Feitang Wang, Shimeng Wang, Dominic A. Winski, V. Holly L. Winton, Arran Whiteford, Cunde Xiao, Jiao Yang, and Xin Zhang
Clim. Past, 14, 193–214,Short summary
Temperature and snow accumulation records from the annually dated Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core show that for the past 2 700 years, the eastern Ross Sea warmed, while the western Ross Sea showed no trend and West Antarctica cooled. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. Now all three regions show concurrent warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea.
Barbara Stenni, Mark A. J. Curran, Nerilie J. Abram, Anais Orsi, Sentia Goursaud, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Raphael Neukom, Hugues Goosse, Dmitry Divine, Tas van Ommen, Eric J. Steig, Daniel A. Dixon, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Elisabeth Isaksson, Alexey Ekaykin, Martin Werner, and Massimo Frezzotti
Clim. Past, 13, 1609–1634,Short summary
Within PAGES Antarctica2k, we build an enlarged database of ice core water stable isotope records. We produce isotopic composites and temperature reconstructions since 0 CE for seven distinct Antarctic regions. We find a significant cooling trend from 0 to 1900 CE across all regions. Since 1900 CE, significant warming trends are identified for three regions. Only for the Antarctic Peninsula is this most recent century-scale trend unusual in the context of last-2000-year natural variability.
Peter Kuipers Munneke, Daniel McGrath, Brooke Medley, Adrian Luckman, Suzanne Bevan, Bernd Kulessa, Daniela Jansen, Adam Booth, Paul Smeets, Bryn Hubbard, David Ashmore, Michiel Van den Broeke, Heidi Sevestre, Konrad Steffen, Andrew Shepherd, and Noel Gourmelen
The Cryosphere, 11, 2411–2426,Short summary
How much snow falls on the Larsen C ice shelf? This is a relevant question, because this ice shelf might collapse sometime this century. To know if and when this could happen, we found out how much snow falls on its surface. This was difficult, because there are only very few measurements. Here, we used data from automatic weather stations, sled-pulled radars, and a climate model to find that melting the annual snowfall produces about 20 cm of water in the NE and over 70 cm in the SW.
Simon F. B. Tett, Kuniko Yamazaki, Michael J. Mineter, Coralia Cartis, and Nathan Eizenberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3567–3589,Short summary
The paper shows it is possible to automatically calibrate the parameters in the atmospheric component of two climate models. The resulting atmosphere–ocean models are often, but not always, stable and realistic. The computational cost to do this is feasible. The implications are that it is possible to generate multiple configurations of a single model with different parameter values but which all look similar to the standard model and that the techniques could be used to calibrate other models.
Darren Slevin, Simon F. B. Tett, Jean-François Exbrayat, A. Anthony Bloom, and Mathew Williams
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2651–2670,
Tyler R. Jones, James W. C. White, Eric J. Steig, Bruce H. Vaughn, Valerie Morris, Vasileios Gkinis, Bradley R. Markle, and Spruce W. Schoenemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 617–632,Short summary
New measurement systems have been developed that continuously melt ice core samples, in contrast to other methods that analyze a single sample at a time. These newer systems are capable of reducing analysis time by many years and improving data set resolution. In this study, we introduce improved methodologies that optimize the speed, accuracy, and precision of a water isotope continuous-flow system. The presented system will be used for Antarctic and Greenland ice core projects.
Benjamin E. Smith, Noel Gourmelen, Alexander Huth, and Ian Joughin
The Cryosphere, 11, 451–467,Short summary
In this paper we investigate elevation changes of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica, one of the main sources of excess ice discharge into the ocean. We find that in early 2013, four subglacial lakes separated by 100 km drained suddenly, discharging more than 3 km3 of water under the fastest part of the glacier in less than 6 months. Concurrent ice-speed measurements show only minor changes, suggesting that ice dynamics are not strongly sensitive to changes in water flow.
E. C. Turner, H.-T. Lee, and S. F. B. Tett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6561–6575,
K. C. Rose, N. Ross, T. A. Jordan, R. G. Bingham, H. F. J. Corr, F. Ferraccioli, A. M. Le Brocq, D. M. Rippin, and M. J. Siegert
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 139–152,Short summary
We use ice-penetrating-radar data to identify a laterally continuous, gently sloping topographic block, comprising two surfaces separated by a distinct break in slope, preserved beneath the Institute and Möller ice streams, West Antarctica. We interpret these features as extensive erosion surfaces, showing that ancient (pre-glacial) surfaces can be preserved at low elevations beneath ice sheets. Different erosion regimes (e.g. fluvial and marine) may have formed these surfaces.
D. Slevin, S. F. B. Tett, and M. Williams
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 295–316,
C. Buizert, K. M. Cuffey, J. P. Severinghaus, D. Baggenstos, T. J. Fudge, E. J. Steig, B. R. Markle, M. Winstrup, R. H. Rhodes, E. J. Brook, T. A. Sowers, G. D. Clow, H. Cheng, R. L. Edwards, M. Sigl, J. R. McConnell, and K. C. Taylor
Clim. Past, 11, 153–173,
L. Geng, J. Cole-Dai, B. Alexander, J. Erbland, J. Savarino, A. J. Schauer, E. J. Steig, P. Lin, Q. Fu, and M. C. Zatko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13361–13376,Short summary
Examinations on snowpit and firn core results from Summit, Greenland suggest that there are two mechanisms leading to the observed double nitrate peaks in some years in the industrial era: 1) long-rang transport of nitrate and 2) enhanced local photochemical production of nitrate. Both of these mechanisms are related to pollution transport, as the additional nitrate from either direct transport or enhanced local photochemistry requires enhanced nitrogen sources from anthropogenic emissions.
A. P. Wright, A. M. Le Brocq, S. L. Cornford, R. G. Bingham, H. F. J. Corr, F. Ferraccioli, T. A. Jordan, A. J. Payne, D. M. Rippin, N. Ross, and M. J. Siegert
The Cryosphere, 8, 2119–2134,
E. J. Steig, V. Gkinis, A. J. Schauer, S. W. Schoenemann, K. Samek, J. Hoffnagle, K. J. Dennis, and S. M. Tan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2421–2435,
B. Medley, I. Joughin, B. E. Smith, S. B. Das, E. J. Steig, H. Conway, S. Gogineni, C. Lewis, A. S. Criscitiello, J. R. McConnell, M. R. van den Broeke, J. T. M. Lenaerts, D. H. Bromwich, J. P. Nicolas, and C. Leuschen
The Cryosphere, 8, 1375–1392,
E. D. Sofen, B. Alexander, E. J. Steig, M. H. Thiemens, S. A. Kunasek, H. M. Amos, A. J. Schauer, M. G. Hastings, J. Bautista, T. L. Jackson, L. E. Vogel, J. R. McConnell, D. R. Pasteris, and E. S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5749–5769,
M. J. Siegert, N. Ross, H. Corr, B. Smith, T. Jordan, R. G. Bingham, F. Ferraccioli, D. M. Rippin, and A. Le Brocq
The Cryosphere, 8, 15–24,
P. Fretwell, H. D. Pritchard, D. G. Vaughan, J. L. Bamber, N. E. Barrand, R. Bell, C. Bianchi, R. G. Bingham, D. D. Blankenship, G. Casassa, G. Catania, D. Callens, H. Conway, A. J. Cook, H. F. J. Corr, D. Damaske, V. Damm, F. Ferraccioli, R. Forsberg, S. Fujita, Y. Gim, P. Gogineni, J. A. Griggs, R. C. A. Hindmarsh, P. Holmlund, J. W. Holt, R. W. Jacobel, A. Jenkins, W. Jokat, T. Jordan, E. C. King, J. Kohler, W. Krabill, M. Riger-Kusk, K. A. Langley, G. Leitchenkov, C. Leuschen, B. P. Luyendyk, K. Matsuoka, J. Mouginot, F. O. Nitsche, Y. Nogi, O. A. Nost, S. V. Popov, E. Rignot, D. M. Rippin, A. Rivera, J. Roberts, N. Ross, M. J. Siegert, A. M. Smith, D. Steinhage, M. Studinger, B. Sun, B. K. Tinto, B. C. Welch, D. Wilson, D. A. Young, C. Xiangbin, and A. Zirizzotti
The Cryosphere, 7, 375–393,
Related subject area
Discipline: Ice sheets | Subject: AntarcticNunataks as barriers to ice flow: implications for palaeo ice sheet reconstructionsQuantifying the potential future contribution to global mean sea level from the Filchner–Ronne basin, AntarcticaDid Holocene climate changes drive West Antarctic grounding line retreat and readvance?Downscaled surface mass balance in Antarctica: impacts of subsurface processes and large-scale atmospheric circulationInvestigating the internal structure of the Antarctic ice sheet: the utility of isochrones for spatiotemporal ice-sheet model calibrationWhat is the surface mass balance of Antarctica? An intercomparison of regional climate model estimatesEnergetics of surface melt in West AntarcticaBrief communication: Thwaites Glacier cavity evolutionAssessment of ICESat-2 ice surface elevations over the Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) route, East Antarctica, based on coordinated multi-sensor observationsStatistical emulation of a perturbed basal melt ensemble of an ice sheet model to better quantify Antarctic sea level rise uncertaintiesEnvironmental drivers of circum-Antarctic glacier and ice shelf front retreat over the last two decadesAerogeophysical characterization of Titan Dome, East Antarctica, and potential as an ice core targetDiverging future surface mass balance between the Antarctic ice shelves and grounded ice sheetPhysics-based SNOWPACK model improves representation of near-surface Antarctic snow and firn densityThe GRISLI-LSCE contribution to the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (ISMIP6) – Part 2: Projections of the Antarctic ice sheet evolution by the end of the 21st centuryTanDEM-X PolarDEM 90 m of Antarctica: Generation and error characterizationRecent acceleration of Denman Glacier (1972–2017), East Antarctica, driven by grounding line retreat and changes in ice tongue configurationISMIP6-based projections of ocean-forced Antarctic Ice Sheet evolution using the Community Ice Sheet ModelFuture surface mass balance and surface melt in the Amundsen sector of the West Antarctic Ice SheetSensitivity of the Antarctic ice sheets to the warming of marine isotope substage 11cExploring the impact of atmospheric forcing and basal drag on the Antarctic Ice Sheet under Last Glacial Maximum conditionsDrivers of Pine Island Glacier speed-up between 1996 and 2016Scoring Antarctic surface mass balance in climate models to refine future projectionsWind-induced seismic noise at the Princess Elisabeth Antarctica StationDistribution and seasonal evolution of supraglacial lakes on Shackleton Ice Shelf, East AntarcticaMapping the grounding zone of Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica, from ICESat-2 laser altimetryMid-Holocene thinning of David Glacier, Antarctica: Chronology and ControlsImpact of coastal East Antarctic ice rises on surface mass balance: insights from observations and modelingTemporal and spatial variability in surface roughness and accumulation rate around 88° S from repeat airborne geophysical surveysThe role of history and strength of the oceanic forcing in sea level projections from Antarctica with the Parallel Ice Sheet ModelISMIP6 Antarctica: a multi-model ensemble of the Antarctic ice sheet evolution over the 21st centuryNew gravity-derived bathymetry for the Thwaites, Crosson, and Dotson ice shelves revealing two ice shelf populationsRevealing the former bed of Thwaites Glacier using sea-floor bathymetry: implications for warm-water routing and bed controls on ice flow and buttressingA 14.5-million-year record of East Antarctic Ice Sheet fluctuations from the central Transantarctic Mountains, constrained with cosmogenic 3He, 10Be, 21Ne, and 26AlExperimental protocol for sea level projections from ISMIP6 stand-alone ice sheet modelsLarge-scale englacial folding and deep-ice stratigraphy within the West Antarctic Ice SheetSynoptic conditions and atmospheric moisture pathways associated with virga and precipitation over coastal Adélie Land in AntarcticaRefractory black carbon (rBC) variability in a 47-year West Antarctic snow and firn coreSpatial probabilistic calibration of a high-resolution Amundsen Sea Embayment ice sheet model with satellite altimeter dataHow useful is snow accumulation in reconstructing surface air temperature in Antarctica? A study combining ice core records and climate modelsGlacial-cycle simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) – Part 1: Boundary conditions and climatic forcingGlacial-cycle simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) – Part 2: Parameter ensemble analysisInterannual variability of summer surface mass balance and surface melting in the Amundsen sector, West AntarcticaThickness of the divide and flank of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet through the last deglaciationNew Last Glacial Maximum ice thickness constraints for the Weddell Sea Embayment, AntarcticaCalving cycle of the Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica, driven by changes in ice shelf geometryBrief communication: A submarine wall protecting the Amundsen Sea intensifies melting of neighboring ice shelvesModelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet across the mid-Pleistocene transition – implications for Oldest IcePast water flow beneath Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, West AntarcticaUncertainty quantification of the multi-centennial response of the Antarctic ice sheet to climate change
Martim Mas e Braga, Richard Selwyn Jones, Jennifer C. H. Newall, Irina Rogozhina, Jane L. Andersen, Nathaniel A. Lifton, and Arjen P. Stroeven
The Cryosphere, 15, 4929–4947,Short summary
Mountains higher than the ice surface are sampled to know when the ice reached the sampled elevation, which can be used to guide numerical models. This is important to understand how much ice will be lost by ice sheets in the future. We use a simple model to understand how ice flow around mountains affects the ice surface topography and show how much this influences results from field samples. We also show that models need a finer resolution over mountainous areas to better match field samples.
Emily A. Hill, Sebastian H. R. Rosier, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, and Matthew Collins
The Cryosphere, 15, 4675–4702,Short summary
Using an ice flow model and uncertainty quantification methods, we provide probabilistic projections of future sea level rise from the Filchner–Ronne region of Antarctica. We find that it is most likely that this region will contribute negatively to sea level rise over the next 300 years, largely as a result of increased surface mass balance. We identify parameters controlling ice shelf melt and snowfall contribute most to uncertainties in projections.
Sarah U. Neuhaus, Slawek M. Tulaczyk, Nathan D. Stansell, Jason J. Coenen, Reed P. Scherer, Jill A. Mikucki, and Ross D. Powell
The Cryosphere, 15, 4655–4673,Short summary
We estimate the timing of post-LGM grounding line retreat and readvance in the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica. Our analyses indicate that the grounding line retreated over our field sites within the past 5000 years (coinciding with a warming climate) and readvanced roughly 1000 years ago (coinciding with a cooling climate). Based on these results, we propose that the Siple Coast grounding line motions in the middle to late Holocene were driven by relatively modest changes in regional climate.
Nicolaj Hansen, Peter L. Langen, Fredrik Boberg, Rene Forsberg, Sebastian B. Simonsen, Peter Thejll, Baptiste Vandecrux, and Ruth Mottram
The Cryosphere, 15, 4315–4333,Short summary
We have used computer models to estimate the Antarctic surface mass balance (SMB) from 1980 to 2017. Our estimates lies between 2473.5 ± 114.4 Gt per year and 2564.8 ± 113.7 Gt per year. To evaluate our models, we compared the modelled snow temperatures and densities to in situ measurements. We also investigated the spatial distribution of the SMB. It is very important to have estimates of the Antarctic SMB because then it is easier to understand global sea level changes.
Johannes Sutter, Hubertus Fischer, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 15, 3839–3860,Short summary
Projections of global sea-level changes in a warming world require ice-sheet models. We expand the calibration of these models by making use of the internal architecture of the Antarctic ice sheet, which is formed by its evolution over many millennia. We propose that using our novel approach to constrain ice sheet models, we will be able to both sharpen our understanding of past and future sea-level changes and identify weaknesses in the parameterisation of current continental-scale models.
Ruth Mottram, Nicolaj Hansen, Christoph Kittel, J. Melchior van Wessem, Cécile Agosta, Charles Amory, Fredrik Boberg, Willem Jan van de Berg, Xavier Fettweis, Alexandra Gossart, Nicole P. M. van Lipzig, Erik van Meijgaard, Andrew Orr, Tony Phillips, Stuart Webster, Sebastian B. Simonsen, and Niels Souverijns
The Cryosphere, 15, 3751–3784,Short summary
We compare the calculated surface mass budget (SMB) of Antarctica in five different regional climate models. On average ~ 2000 Gt of snow accumulates annually, but different models vary by ~ 10 %, a difference equivalent to ± 0.5 mm of global sea level rise. All models reproduce observed weather, but there are large differences in regional patterns of snowfall, especially in areas with very few observations, giving greater uncertainty in Antarctic mass budget than previously identified.
Madison L. Ghiz, Ryan C. Scott, Andrew M. Vogelmann, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Matthew Lazzara, and Dan Lubin
The Cryosphere, 15, 3459–3494,Short summary
We investigate how melt occurs over the vulnerable ice shelves of West Antarctica and determine that the three primary mechanisms can be evaluated using archived numerical weather prediction model data and satellite imagery. We find examples of each mechanism: thermal blanketing by a warm atmosphere, radiative heating by thin clouds, and downslope winds. Our results signify the potential to make a multi-decadal assessment of atmospheric stress on West Antarctic ice shelves in a warming climate.
Suzanne L. Bevan, Adrian J. Luckman, Douglas I. Benn, Susheel Adusumilli, and Anna Crawford
The Cryosphere, 15, 3317–3328,Short summary
The stability of the West Antarctic ice sheet depends on the behaviour of the fast-flowing glaciers, such as Thwaites, that connect it to the ocean. Here we show that a large ocean-melted cavity beneath Thwaites Glacier has remained stable since it first formed, implying that, in line with current theory, basal melt is now concentrated close to where the ice first goes afloat. We also show that Thwaites Glacier continues to thin and to speed up and that continued retreat is therefore likely.
Rongxing Li, Hongwei Li, Tong Hao, Gang Qiao, Haotian Cui, Youquan He, Gang Hai, Huan Xie, Yuan Cheng, and Bofeng Li
The Cryosphere, 15, 3083–3099,Short summary
We present the results of an assessment of ICESat-2 surface elevations along the 520 km CHINARE route in East Antarctica. The assessment was performed based on coordinated multi-sensor observations from a global navigation satellite system, corner cube retroreflectors, retroreflective target sheets, and UAVs. The validation results demonstrate that ICESat-2 elevations are accurate to 1.5–2.5 cm and can potentially overcome the uncertainties in the estimation of mass balance in East Antarctica.
Mira Berdahl, Gunter Leguy, William H. Lipscomb, and Nathan M. Urban
The Cryosphere, 15, 2683–2699,Short summary
Antarctic ice shelves are vulnerable to warming ocean temperatures and have already begun thinning in response to increased basal melt rates. Sea level is expected to rise due to Antarctic contributions, but uncertainties in rise amount and timing remain largely unquantified. To facilitate uncertainty quantification, we use a high-resolution ice sheet model to build, test, and validate an ice sheet emulator and generate probabilistic sea level rise estimates for 100 and 200 years in the future.
Celia A. Baumhoer, Andreas J. Dietz, Christof Kneisel, Heiko Paeth, and Claudia Kuenzer
The Cryosphere, 15, 2357–2381,Short summary
We present a record of circum-Antarctic glacier and ice shelf front change over the last two decades in combination with potential environmental variables forcing frontal retreat. Along the Antarctic coastline, glacier and ice shelf front retreat dominated between 1997–2008 and advance between 2009–2018. Decreasing sea ice days, intense snowmelt, weakening easterly winds, and relative changes in sea surface temperature were identified as enabling factors for glacier and ice shelf front retreat.
Lucas H. Beem, Duncan A. Young, Jamin S. Greenbaum, Donald D. Blankenship, Marie G. P. Cavitte, Jingxue Guo, and Sun Bo
The Cryosphere, 15, 1719–1730,Short summary
Radar observation collected above Titan Dome of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is used to describe ice geometry and test a hypothesis that ice beneath the dome is older than 1 million years. An important climate transition occurred between 1.25 million and 700 thousand years ago, and if ice old enough to study this period can be removed as an ice core, new insights into climate dynamics are expected. The new observations suggest the ice is too young – more likely 300 to 800 thousand years old.
Christoph Kittel, Charles Amory, Cécile Agosta, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Stefan Hofer, Alison Delhasse, Sébastien Doutreloup, Pierre-Vincent Huot, Charlotte Lang, Thierry Fichefet, and Xavier Fettweis
The Cryosphere, 15, 1215–1236,Short summary
The future surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) will influence the ice dynamics and the contribution of the ice sheet to the sea level rise. We investigate the AIS sensitivity to different warmings using physical and statistical downscaling of CMIP5 and CMIP6 models. Our results highlight a contrasting effect between the grounded ice sheet (where the SMB is projected to increase) and ice shelves (where the future SMB depends on the emission scenario).
Eric Keenan, Nander Wever, Marissa Dattler, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Brooke Medley, Peter Kuipers Munneke, and Carleen Reijmer
The Cryosphere, 15, 1065–1085,Short summary
Snow density is required to convert observed changes in ice sheet volume into mass, which ultimately drives ice sheet contribution to sea level rise. However, snow properties respond dynamically to wind-driven redistribution. Here we include a new wind-driven snow density scheme into an existing snow model. Our results demonstrate an improved representation of snow density when compared to observations and can therefore be used to improve retrievals of ice sheet mass balance.
Aurélien Quiquet and Christophe Dumas
The Cryosphere, 15, 1031–1052,Short summary
We present here the GRISLI-LSCE contribution to the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 for Antarctica. The project aims to quantify the ice sheet contribution to global sea level rise for the next century. We show that increased precipitation in the future in some cases mitigates this contribution, with positive to negative values in 2100 depending of the climate forcing used. Sub-shelf-basal-melt uncertainties induce large differences in simulated grounding-line retreats.
Birgit Wessel, Martin Huber, Christian Wohlfart, Adina Bertram, Nicole Osterkamp, Ursula Marschalk, Astrid Gruber, Felix Reuß, Sahra Abdullahi, Isabel Georg, and Achim Roth
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
We present a new digital elevation model (DEM) of Antarctica derived from the TanDEM-X DEM, with new interferometric radar acquisitions incorporated and edited elevations, especially at the coast. A strength of this DEM is its homogeneity and completeness. Extensive validation work shows an excellent vertical accuracy of −0.3 m ± 2.5 m standard deviation on blue ice surfaces compared to ICESat laser altimeter heights. The new TanDEM-X PolarDEM 90 m of Antarctica is freely available.
Bertie W. J. Miles, Jim R. Jordan, Chris R. Stokes, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, and Adrian Jenkins
The Cryosphere, 15, 663–676,Short summary
We provide a historical overview of changes in Denman Glacier's flow speed, structure and calving events since the 1960s. Based on these observations, we perform a series of numerical modelling experiments to determine the likely cause of Denman's acceleration since the 1970s. We show that grounding line retreat, ice shelf thinning and the detachment of Denman's ice tongue from a pinning point are the most likely causes of the observed acceleration.
William H. Lipscomb, Gunter R. Leguy, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Xylar Asay-Davis, Hélène Seroussi, and Sophie Nowicki
The Cryosphere, 15, 633–661,Short summary
This paper describes Antarctic climate change experiments in which the Community Ice Sheet Model is forced with ocean warming predicted by global climate models. Generally, ice loss begins slowly, accelerates by 2100, and then continues unabated, with widespread retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mass loss by 2500 varies from about 150 to 1300 mm of equivalent sea level rise, based on the predicted ocean warming and assumptions about how this warming drives melting beneath ice shelves.
Marion Donat-Magnin, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Christoph Kittel, Cécile Agosta, Charles Amory, Hubert Gallée, Gerhard Krinner, and Mondher Chekki
The Cryosphere, 15, 571–593,Short summary
We simulate the West Antarctic climate in 2100 under increasing greenhouse gases. Future accumulation over the ice sheet increases, which reduces sea level changing rate. Surface ice-shelf melt rates increase until 2100. Some ice shelves experience a lot of liquid water at their surface, which indicates potential ice-shelf collapse. In contrast, no liquid water is found over other ice shelves due to huge amounts of snowfall that bury liquid water, favouring refreezing and ice-shelf stability.
Martim Mas e Braga, Jorge Bernales, Matthias Prange, Arjen P. Stroeven, and Irina Rogozhina
The Cryosphere, 15, 459–478,Short summary
We combine a computer model with different climate records to simulate how Antarctica responded to warming during marine isotope substage 11c, which can help understand Antarctica's natural drivers of change. We found that the regional climate warming of Antarctica seen in ice cores was necessary for the model to match the recorded sea level rise. A collapse of its western ice sheet is possible if a modest warming is sustained for ca. 4000 years, contributing 6.7 to 8.2 m to sea level rise.
Javier Blasco, Jorge Alvarez-Solas, Alexander Robinson, and Marisa Montoya
The Cryosphere, 15, 215–231,Short summary
During the Last Glacial Maximum the Antarctic Ice Sheet was larger and more extended than at present. However, neither its exact position nor the total ice volume are well constrained. Here we investigate how the different climatic boundary conditions, as well as basal friction configurations, affect the size and extent of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and discuss its potential implications.
Jan De Rydt, Ronja Reese, Fernando S. Paolo, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 15, 113–132,Short summary
We used satellite observations and numerical simulations of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, between 1996 and 2016 to show that the recent increase in its flow speed can only be reproduced by computer models if stringent assumptions are made about the material properties of the ice and its underlying bed. These assumptions are not commonly adopted in ice flow modelling, and our results therefore have implications for future simulations of Antarctic ice flow and sea level projections.
Tessa Gorte, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, and Brooke Medley
The Cryosphere, 14, 4719–4733,Short summary
In this paper, we analyze several spatial and temporal criteria to assess the ability of models in the CMIP5 and CMIP6 frameworks to recreate past Antarctic surface mass balance. We then compared a subset of the top performing models to all remaining models to refine future surface mass balance predictions under different forcing scenarios. We found that the top performing models predict lower surface mass balance by 2100, indicating less buffering than otherwise expected of sea level rise.
Baptiste Frankinet, Thomas Lecocq, and Thierry Camelbeeck
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Icequakes are the result of processes occurring within the ice mass, or between the ice and its environment. Having a complete catalog of those icequakes provides a unique view on the ice dynamics. But, the instruments recording these events are polluted by different noise sources such as the wind. Using the data from multiple instruments, we found how the wind-noise affects the icequake monitoring at the Princess Elisabeth Station in Antarctica.
Jennifer F. Arthur, Chris R. Stokes, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, J. Rachel Carr, and Amber A. Leeson
The Cryosphere, 14, 4103–4120,Short summary
Surface meltwater lakes can flex and fracture ice shelves, potentially leading to ice shelf break-up. A long-term record of lake evolution on Shackleton Ice Shelf is produced using optical satellite imagery and compared to surface air temperature and modelled surface melt. The results reveal that lake clustering on the ice shelf is linked to melt-enhancing feedbacks. Peaks in total lake area and volume closely correspond with intense snowmelt events rather than with warmer seasonal temperatures.
Tian Li, Geoffrey J. Dawson, Stephen J. Chuter, and Jonathan L. Bamber
The Cryosphere, 14, 3629–3643,Short summary
Accurate knowledge of the Antarctic grounding zone is critical for the understanding of ice sheet instability and the evaluation of mass balance. We present a new, fully automated method to map the grounding zone from ICESat-2 laser altimetry. Our results of Larsen C Ice Shelf demonstrate the efficiency, density, and high spatial accuracy with which ICESat-2 can image complex grounding zones.
Jamey Stutz, Andrew Mackintosh, Kevin Norton, Ross Whitmore, Carlo Baroni, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, R. Selwyn Jones, Greg Balco, Maria Cristina Salvatore, Stefano Casale, Jae Il Lee, Yeong Bae Seong, Hyun Hee Rhee, Robert McKay, Lauren J. Vargo, Daniel Lowry, Perry Spector, Marcus Cristl, Susan Ivy Ochs, Luigia Di Nicola, Maria Iarossi, Finlay Stuart, and Tom Woodruff
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Understanding the long term behavior of ice sheets is essential to projecting future changes due to climate change. In this study, we use rocks deposited along the margin of the David Glacier, one of the largest glacier systems in the world, to reveal a rapid thinning event initiated over 7,000 years ago and endured for ~ 2,000 years. Using physical models, we show that sub-glacial topography and ocean heat are important drivers for change along this sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Thore Kausch, Stef Lhermitte, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Nander Wever, Mana Inoue, Frank Pattyn, Sainan Sun, Sarah Wauthy, Jean-Louis Tison, and Willem Jan van de Berg
The Cryosphere, 14, 3367–3380,Short summary
Ice rises are elevated parts of the otherwise flat ice shelf. Here we study the impact of an Antarctic ice rise on the surrounding snow accumulation by combining field data and modeling. Our results show a clear difference in average yearly snow accumulation between the windward side, the leeward side and the peak of the ice rise due to differences in snowfall and wind erosion. This is relevant for the interpretation of ice core records, which are often drilled on the peak of an ice rise.
Michael Studinger, Brooke C. Medley, Kelly M. Brunt, Kimberly A. Casey, Nathan T. Kurtz, Serdar S. Manizade, Thomas A. Neumann, and Thomas B. Overly
The Cryosphere, 14, 3287–3308,Short summary
We use repeat airborne geophysical data consisting of laser altimetry, snow, and Ku-band radar and optical imagery to analyze the spatial and temporal variability in surface roughness, slope, wind deposition, and snow accumulation at 88° S. We find small–scale variability in snow accumulation based on the snow radar subsurface layering, indicating areas of strong wind redistribution are prevalent at 88° S. There is no slope–independent relationship between surface roughness and accumulation.
Ronja Reese, Anders Levermann, Torsten Albrecht, Hélène Seroussi, and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere, 14, 3097–3110,Short summary
We compare 21st century projections of Antarctica's future sea-level contribution simulated with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model submitted to ISMIP6 with projections following the LARMIP-2 protocol based on the same model configuration. We find that (1) a preceding historic simulation increases mass loss by 5–50 % and that (2) the order of magnitude difference in the ice loss in our experiments following the two protocols can be explained by the translation of ocean forcing to sub-shelf melting.
Hélène Seroussi, Sophie Nowicki, Antony J. Payne, Heiko Goelzer, William H. Lipscomb, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Cécile Agosta, Torsten Albrecht, Xylar Asay-Davis, Alice Barthel, Reinhard Calov, Richard Cullather, Christophe Dumas, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi, Rupert Gladstone, Nicholas R. Golledge, Jonathan M. Gregory, Ralf Greve, Tore Hattermann, Matthew J. Hoffman, Angelika Humbert, Philippe Huybrechts, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Thomas Kleiner, Eric Larour, Gunter R. Leguy, Daniel P. Lowry, Chistopher M. Little, Mathieu Morlighem, Frank Pattyn, Tyler Pelle, Stephen F. Price, Aurélien Quiquet, Ronja Reese, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Andrew Shepherd, Erika Simon, Robin S. Smith, Fiammetta Straneo, Sainan Sun, Luke D. Trusel, Jonas Van Breedam, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, Ricarda Winkelmann, Chen Zhao, Tong Zhang, and Thomas Zwinger
The Cryosphere, 14, 3033–3070,Short summary
The Antarctic ice sheet has been losing mass over at least the past 3 decades in response to changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions. This study presents an ensemble of model simulations of the Antarctic evolution over the 2015–2100 period based on various ice sheet models, climate forcings and emission scenarios. Results suggest that the West Antarctic ice sheet will continue losing a large amount of ice, while the East Antarctic ice sheet could experience increased snow accumulation.
Tom A. Jordan, David Porter, Kirsty Tinto, Romain Millan, Atsuhiro Muto, Kelly Hogan, Robert D. Larter, Alastair G. C. Graham, and John D. Paden
The Cryosphere, 14, 2869–2882,Short summary
Linking ocean and ice sheet processes allows prediction of sea level change. Ice shelves form a floating buffer between the ice–ocean systems, but the water depth beneath is often a mystery, leaving a critical blind spot in our understanding of how these systems interact. Here, we use airborne measurements of gravity to reveal the bathymetry under the ice shelves flanking the rapidly changing Thwaites Glacier and adjacent glacier systems, providing new insights and data for future models.
Kelly A. Hogan, Robert D. Larter, Alastair G. C. Graham, Robert Arthern, James D. Kirkham, Rebecca Totten Minzoni, Tom A. Jordan, Rachel Clark, Victoria Fitzgerald, Anna K. Wåhlin, John B. Anderson, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Frank O. Nitsche, Lauren Simkins, James A. Smith, Karsten Gohl, Jan Erik Arndt, Jongkuk Hong, and Julia Wellner
The Cryosphere, 14, 2883–2908,Short summary
The sea-floor geometry around the rapidly changing Thwaites Glacier is a key control on warm ocean waters reaching the ice shelf and grounding zone beyond. This area was previously unsurveyed due to icebergs and sea-ice cover. The International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration mapped this area for the first time in 2019. The data reveal troughs over 1200 m deep and, as this region is thought to have only ungrounded recently, provide key insights into the morphology beneath the grounded ice sheet.
Allie Balter-Kennedy, Gordon Bromley, Greg Balco, Holly Thomas, and Margaret S. Jackson
The Cryosphere, 14, 2647–2672,Short summary
We describe new geologic evidence from Antarctica that demonstrates changes in East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) extent over the past ~ 15 million years. Our data show that the EAIS was a persistent feature in the Transantarctic Mountains for much of that time, including some (but not all) times when global temperature may have been warmer than today. Overall, our results comprise a long-term record of EAIS change and may provide useful constraints for ice sheet models and sea-level estimates.
Sophie Nowicki, Heiko Goelzer, Hélène Seroussi, Anthony J. Payne, William H. Lipscomb, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Cécile Agosta, Patrick Alexander, Xylar S. Asay-Davis, Alice Barthel, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, Richard Cullather, Denis Felikson, Xavier Fettweis, Jonathan M. Gregory, Tore Hattermann, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Peter Kuipers Munneke, Eric Larour, Christopher M. Little, Mathieu Morlighem, Isabel Nias, Andrew Shepherd, Erika Simon, Donald Slater, Robin S. Smith, Fiammetta Straneo, Luke D. Trusel, Michiel R. van den Broeke, and Roderik van de Wal
The Cryosphere, 14, 2331–2368,Short summary
This paper describes the experimental protocol for ice sheet models taking part in the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparion Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6) and presents an overview of the atmospheric and oceanic datasets to be used for the simulations. The ISMIP6 framework allows for exploring the uncertainty in 21st century sea level change from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
Neil Ross, Hugh Corr, and Martin Siegert
The Cryosphere, 14, 2103–2114,Short summary
Using airborne ice-penetrating radar we investigated the physical properties and structure of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Ice deep beneath the Institute Ice Stream has prominent layers with physical properties distinct from those around them and which are heavily folded like geological layers. In turn, these folds influence the present-day flow of the ice sheet, with implications for how computer models are used to simulate ice sheet flow and behaviour in a warming world.
Nicolas Jullien, Étienne Vignon, Michael Sprenger, Franziska Aemisegger, and Alexis Berne
The Cryosphere, 14, 1685–1702,Short summary
Although snowfall is the main input of water to the Antarctic ice sheet, snowflakes are often evaporated by dry and fierce winds near the surface of the continent. The amount of snow that actually reaches the ground is therefore considerably reduced. By analyzing the position of cyclones and fronts as well as by back-tracing the atmospheric moisture pathway towards Antarctica, this study explains in which meteorological conditions snowfall is either completely evaporated or reaches the ground.
Luciano Marquetto, Susan Kaspari, and Jefferson Cardia Simões
The Cryosphere, 14, 1537–1554,Short summary
Black carbon, commonly known as soot, is a particle originating from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning that plays an important role in the climatic system. In this work, we analyzed black carbon from an Antarctic ice core spanning 1968–2015 and observed very low concentrations of this particle in the snow, lower than previous works in West Antarctica. We suggest that black carbon transport to East Antarctica is different from its transport to West Antarctica.
Andreas Wernecke, Tamsin L. Edwards, Isabel J. Nias, Philip B. Holden, and Neil R. Edwards
The Cryosphere, 14, 1459–1474,Short summary
We investigate how the two-dimensional characteristics of ice thickness change from satellite measurements can be used to judge and refine a high-resolution ice sheet model of Antarctica. The uncertainty in 50-year model simulations for the currently most drastically changing part of Antarctica can be reduced by nearly 40 % compared to a simpler, non-spatial approach and nearly 90 % compared to the original spread in simulations.
Quentin Dalaiden, Hugues Goosse, François Klein, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Max Holloway, Louise Sime, and Elizabeth R. Thomas
The Cryosphere, 14, 1187–1207,Short summary
Large uncertainties remain in Antarctic surface temperature reconstructions over the last millennium. Here, the analysis of climate model outputs reveals that snow accumulation is a more relevant proxy for surface temperature reconstructions than δ18O. We use this finding in data assimilation experiments to compare to observed surface temperatures. We show that our continental temperature reconstruction outperforms reconstructions based on δ18O, especially for East Antarctica.
Torsten Albrecht, Ricarda Winkelmann, and Anders Levermann
The Cryosphere, 14, 599–632,Short summary
During the last glacial cycles the Antarctic Ice Sheet experienced alternating climatic conditions and varying sea-level history. In response, changes in ice sheet volume and ice-covered area occurred, implying feedbacks on the global sea level. We ran model simulations of the ice sheet with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) over the last two glacial cycles to evaluate the model's sensitivity to different choices of boundary conditions and parameters to gain confidence for future projections.
Torsten Albrecht, Ricarda Winkelmann, and Anders Levermann
The Cryosphere, 14, 633–656,Short summary
A large ensemble of glacial-cycle simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) was analyzed in which four relevant model parameters were systematically varied. These parameters were selected in a companion study and are associated with uncertainties in ice dynamics, climatic forcing, basal sliding and solid Earth deformation. For each ensemble member a statistical score is computed, which enables calibrating the model against both modern and geologic data.
Marion Donat-Magnin, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Hubert Gallée, Charles Amory, Christoph Kittel, Xavier Fettweis, Jonathan D. Wille, Vincent Favier, Amine Drira, and Cécile Agosta
The Cryosphere, 14, 229–249,Short summary
Modeling the interannual variability of the surface conditions over Antarctic glaciers is important for the identification of climate trends and climate predictions and to assess models. We simulate snow accumulation and surface melting in the Amundsen sector (West Antarctica) over 1979–2017. For all the glaciers, the interannual variability of summer snow accumulation and surface melting is driven by two distinct mechanisms related to variations in the Amundsen Sea Low strength and position.
Perry Spector, John Stone, and Brent Goehring
The Cryosphere, 13, 3061–3075,Short summary
We describe constraints on the thickness of the interior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) through the last deglaciation. Our data imply that the ice-sheet divide between the Ross and Weddell sea sectors of the WAIS was thicker than present for a period less than ~ 8 kyr within the past ~ 15 kyr. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the divide initially thickened due to the deglacial rise in snowfall and subsequently thinned in response to retreat of the ice-sheet margin.
Keir A. Nichols, Brent M. Goehring, Greg Balco, Joanne S. Johnson, Andrew S. Hein, and Claire Todd
The Cryosphere, 13, 2935–2951,Short summary
We studied the history of ice masses at three locations in the Weddell Sea Embayment, Antarctica. We measured rare isotopes in material sourced from mountains overlooking the Slessor Glacier, Foundation Ice Stream, and smaller glaciers on the Lassiter Coast. We show that ice masses were between 385 and 800 m thicker during the last glacial cycle than they are at present. The ice masses were both hundreds of metres thicker and remained thicker closer to the present than was previously thought.
Jan De Rydt, Gudmundur Hilmar Gudmundsson, Thomas Nagler, and Jan Wuite
The Cryosphere, 13, 2771–2787,Short summary
Two large icebergs are about to break off from the Brunt Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Rifting started several years ago and is now approaching its final phase. Satellite data and computer simulations show that over the past 2 decades, growth of the ice shelf has caused a build-up of forces within the ice, which culminated in its fracture. These natural changes in geometry coincided with large variations in flow speed, a process that is thought to be relevant for all Antarctic ice shelf margins.
Özgür Gürses, Vanessa Kolatschek, Qiang Wang, and Christian Bernd Rodehacke
The Cryosphere, 13, 2317–2324,Short summary
The warming of the Earth's climate system causes sea level rise. In Antarctica, ice streams flow into the sea and develop ice shelves. These are floating extensions of the ice streams. Ocean water melts these ice shelves. It has been proposed that a submarine wall could shield these ice shelves from the warm water. Our model simulation shows that the wall protects ice shelves. However, the warm water flows to neighboring ice shelves. There, enhanced melting reduces the effectiveness of the wall.
Johannes Sutter, Hubertus Fischer, Klaus Grosfeld, Nanna B. Karlsson, Thomas Kleiner, Brice Van Liefferinge, and Olaf Eisen
The Cryosphere, 13, 2023–2041,Short summary
The Antarctic Ice Sheet may have played an important role in moderating the transition between warm and cold climate epochs over the last million years. We find that the Antarctic Ice Sheet grew considerably about 0.9 Myr ago, a time when ice-age–warm-age cycles changed from a 40 000 to a 100 000 year periodicity. Our findings also suggest that ice as old as 1.5 Myr still exists at the bottom of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet despite the major climate reorganisations in the past.
James D. Kirkham, Kelly A. Hogan, Robert D. Larter, Neil S. Arnold, Frank O. Nitsche, Nicholas R. Golledge, and Julian A. Dowdeswell
The Cryosphere, 13, 1959–1981,Short summary
A series of huge (500 m wide, 50 m deep) channels were eroded by water flowing beneath Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in the past. The channels are similar to canyon systems produced by floods of meltwater released beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet millions of years ago. The spatial extent of the channels formed beneath Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers demonstrates significant quantities of water, possibly discharged from trapped subglacial lakes, flowed beneath these glaciers in the past.
Kevin Bulthuis, Maarten Arnst, Sainan Sun, and Frank Pattyn
The Cryosphere, 13, 1349–1380,Short summary
Using probabilistic methods, we quantify the uncertainty in the Antarctic ice-sheet response to climate change over the next millennium under the four RCP scenarios and parametric uncertainty. We find that the ice sheet is stable in RCP 2.6 regardless of parametric uncertainty, while West Antarctica undergoes disintegration in RCP 8.5 almost regardless of parametric uncertainty. We also show a high sensitivity of the ice-sheet response to uncertainty in sub-shelf melting and sliding conditions.
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Arneborg, L., Wåhlin, A. K., Björk, G., Liljebladh, B., and Orsi, A. H.: Persistent inflow of warm water onto the central Amundsen shelf, Nat. Geosci., 5, 876–880, https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO1644, 2012.
Arndt, J. E., Schenke, H. W., Jakobsson M., Nitsche, F. O., Buys, G., Goleby, B., Rebesco, M., Bohoyo, F., Hong, J., Black, J., Greku, R., Udintsev, G., Barrios, F., Reynoso-Peralta, W., Taisei, M., and Wigley, R.: The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Version 1.0 – A new bathymetric compilation covering circum – Antarctic waters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 3111–3117, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50413, 2013.
Asay-Davis, X. S., Jourdain, N. C., and Nakayama, Y.: Developments in simulating and parameterizing interactions between the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic Ice Sheet, Curr. Clim. Change Rep., 3, 316–329, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40641-017-0071-0, 2017.
Assman, K. M. and Timmerman, R.: Variability of dense water formation in the Ross Sea, Ocean Dyn., 55, 68–87, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-004-0106-7, 2005.
Baines, P. G.: A model for the structure of the Antarctic Slope Front, Deep-Sea Res. Pt II., 56, 859–873, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.10.030, 2009.
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Bingham, R. G., Ferraccioli, F., King, E. C., Larter, R. D., Pritchard, H. D., Smith, A. M., and Vaughan, D. G.: Inland thinning of West Antarctic Ice Sheet steered along subglacial rifts, Nature, 487, 468–471, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11292, 2012.
Brunt, K., Fricker, H. A., Padman, L., Scambos, T., and O'Neel, S.: Mapping the grounding zone of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using ICESat laser altimetry, Ann. Glaciol., 51, 71–79, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756410791392790, 2010.
Brunt, K. M., Fricker, H. A., and Padman, L.: Analysis of ice plains of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using ICESat laser altimetry, J. Glaciol., 57, 965–975, 2011.
Christie, F. D. W., Bingham, R. G., Gourmelen, N., Tett, S. F. B., and Muto, A.: Four-decade record of pervasive grounding line retreat along the Bellingshausen margin of West Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 5741–5749, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068972, 2016.
Christie, F. D. W., Bingham, R. G., and Bisset, R. R.: Grounding line, ice frontal position and coastal ice masks for the Marie Byrd Land Sector of West Antarctica, 2003–2015, PANGAEA, available at: https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.884782, 2018.
Chuter, S. J., Martin-Esañol, A., Wouters, B., and Bamber, J. L.: Mass balance reassessment of glaciers draining into the Abbot and Getz Ice Shelves of West Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 7328–7337, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073087, 2017.
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Dehecq, A., Gourmelen, N., and Trouveì, E.: Deriving large-scale glacier velocities from a complete satellite archive: Application to the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya, Remote Sens. Environ., 162, 55–66, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.01.031, 2015.
Depoorter, M. A., Bamber, J. L., Griggs, J. A., Lenaerts, J. T. M., Ligtenberg, S. R. M., van den Broeke, M. R., and Moholdt, G.: Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves, Nature, 502, 89–92, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12567, 2013.
Dotto, T. S., Garabato, A. N., Bacon, S., Tsamados, M., Holland P. R., Hooley, J., Frajka-Williams, E., Ridout, A., and Meredith, M. P.: Variability of the Ross Gyre, Southern Ocean: drivers and responses revealed by satellite altimetry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 6195–6204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL078607, 2018.
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With a focus on the hitherto little-studied Marie Byrd Land coastline linking Antarctica's more comprehensively studied Amundsen and Ross Sea Embayments, this paper uses both satellite remote sensing (Landsat, ASTER, ICESat, and CryoSat2) and climate and ocean records (i.e. ERA-Interim, Met Office EN4 data) to examine links between ice recession, inter-decadal atmosphere-ocean forcing and other influences acting upon the Pacific-facing coastline of West Antarctica.
With a focus on the hitherto little-studied Marie Byrd Land coastline linking Antarctica's more...