Articles | Volume 10, issue 5
Research article
09 Sep 2016
Research article |  | 09 Sep 2016

Observations of capillary barriers and preferential flow in layered snow during cold laboratory experiments

Francesco Avanzi, Hiroyuki Hirashima, Satoru Yamaguchi, Takafumi Katsushima, and Carlo De Michele

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Cited articles

Abramoff, M. D., Magalhães, P. J., and Ram, S. J.: Image Processing using ImageJ, Biophotonics International, 11, 36–43, 2004.
Adachi, S., Yamaguchi, S., Ozeki, T., and Kose, K.: Hysteresis in the water retention curve of snow measured using an MRI system, in: Proceedings to the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska, 918–922, 2012.
Avanzi, F., Caruso, M., Jommi, C., De Michele, C., and Ghezzi, A.: Continuous-time monitoring of liquid water content in snowpacks using capacitance probes: A preliminary feasibility study, Adv. Water Resour., 68, 32–41,, 2014.
Avanzi, F., Hirashima, H., Yamaguchi, S., Katsushima, T., and De Michele, C.: Laboratory-based observations of capillary barriers and preferential flow in layered snow, The Cryosphere Discuss., 9, 6627–6659,, 2015a.
Avanzi, F., Yamaguchi, S., Hirashima, H., and De Michele, C.: Bulk volumetric liquid water content in a seasonal snowpack: modeling its dynamics in different climatic conditions, Adv. Water Resour., 86, 1–13,, 2015b.
Short summary
We investigate capillary barriers and preferential flow in layered snow during nine cold laboratory experiments. The dynamics of each sample were replicated solving Richards equation within the 1-D multi-layer physically based SNOWPACK model. Results show that both processes affect the speed of water infiltration in stratified snow and are marked by a high degree of spatial variability at cm scale and complex 3-D patterns.