Articles | Volume 14, issue 10
Research article 29 Oct 2020
Research article | 29 Oct 2020
Systematic bias of Tibetan Plateau snow cover in subseasonal-to-seasonal models
Wenkai Li et al.
No articles found.
Mengyuan Mu, Martin G. De Kauwe, Anna M. Ukkola, Andy J. Pitman, Weidong Guo, Sanaa Hobeichi, and Peter R. Briggs
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 919–938,Short summary
Groundwater can buffer the impacts of drought and heatwaves on ecosystems, which is often neglected in model studies. Using a land surface model with groundwater, we explained how groundwater sustains transpiration and eases heat pressure on plants in heatwaves during multi-year droughts. Our results showed the groundwater’s influences diminish as drought extends and are regulated by plant physiology. We suggest neglecting groundwater in models may overstate projected future heatwave intensity.
Xiaolu Ling, Ying Huang, Weidong Guo, Yixin Wang, Chaorong Chen, Bo Qiu, Jun Ge, Kai Qin, Yong Xue, and Jian Peng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4209–4229,Short summary
Soil moisture (SM) plays a critical role in the water and energy cycles of the Earth system, for which a long-term SM product with high quality is urgently needed. In situ observations are generally treated as the true value to systematically evaluate five SM products, including one remote sensing product and four reanalysis data sets during 1981–2013. This long-term intercomparison study provides clues for SM product enhancement and further hydrological applications.
Yongkang Xue, Tandong Yao, Aaron A. Boone, Ismaila Diallo, Ye Liu, Xubin Zeng, William K. M. Lau, Shiori Sugimoto, Qi Tang, Xiaoduo Pan, Peter J. van Oevelen, Daniel Klocke, Myung-Seo Koo, Tomonori Sato, Zhaohui Lin, Yuhei Takaya, Constantin Ardilouze, Stefano Materia, Subodh K. Saha, Retish Senan, Tetsu Nakamura, Hailan Wang, Jing Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Mei Zhao, Xin-Zhong Liang, J. David Neelin, Frederic Vitart, Xin Li, Ping Zhao, Chunxiang Shi, Weidong Guo, Jianping Tang, Miao Yu, Yun Qian, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yang Zhang, Kun Yang, Ruby Leung, Yuan Qiu, Daniele Peano, Xin Qi, Yanling Zhan, Michael A. Brunke, Sin Chan Chou, Michael Ek, Tianyi Fan, Hong Guan, Hai Lin, Shunlin Liang, Helin Wei, Shaocheng Xie, Haoran Xu, Weiping Li, Xueli Shi, Paulo Nobre, Yan Pan, Yi Qin, Jeff Dozier, Craig R. Ferguson, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Qing Bao, Jinming Feng, Jinkyu Hong, Songyou Hong, Huilin Huang, Duoying Ji, Zhenming Ji, Shichang Kang, Yanluan Lin, Weiguang Liu, Ryan Muncaster, Patricia de Rosnay, Hiroshi G. Takahashi, Guiling Wang, Shuyu Wang, Weicai Wang, Xu Zhou, and Yuejian Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4465–4494,Short summary
The subseasonal prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts/floods has remained stubbornly low for years. This paper presents a new international initiative which, for the first time, introduces spring land surface temperature anomalies over high mountains to improve precipitation prediction through remote effects of land–atmosphere interactions. More than 40 institutions worldwide are participating in this effort. The experimental protocol and preliminary results are presented.
Meng-Zhuo Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, Ying Han, and Weidong Guo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3079–3094,Short summary
The Multivariable Integrated Evaluation Tool (MVIETool) is a simple-to-use and straightforward tool designed for evaluation and intercomparison of climate models in terms of vector fields or multiple fields. The tool incorporates some new improvements in vector field evaluation (VFE) and multivariable integrated evaluation (MVIE) methods, which are introduced in this paper.
Yingxia Gao, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Charlotte A. DeMott, and Pang-Chi Hsu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5191–5209,Short summary
Both the air–sea coupling and ocean mean state affect the fidelity of simulated boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO). To elucidate their relative effects on the simulated BSISO, a set of experiments was conducted using a superparameterized AGCM and its coupled version. Both air–sea coupling and cold ocean mean state improve the BSISO amplitude due to the suppression of the overestimated variance, while the former (latter) could further upgrade (degrade) the BSISO propagation.
Jun Ge, Andrew J. Pitman, Weidong Guo, Beilei Zan, and Congbin Fu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 515–533,Short summary
We investigate the impact of revegetation on the hydrology of the Loess Plateau based on high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We find that past revegetation has caused decreased runoff and soil moisture with increased evapotranspiration as well as little response from rainfall. WRF suggests that further revegetation could aggravate this water imbalance. We caution that further revegetation might be unsustainable in this region.
Xiao-Lu Ling, Cong-Bin Fu, Zong-Liang Yang, and Wei-Dong Guo
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3119–3133,Short summary
Observation and simulation can provide the temporal and spatial variation of vegetation characteristics, while they are not satisfactory for understanding the mechanism of the exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere. Data assimilation (DA) can combine the observation and models via mathematical statistical analysis. Results show that the ensemble adjust Kalman filter (EAKF) is the optimal algorithm. In addition, models perform better when the DA accepts a higher proportion of observations.
Xueqian Wang, Weidong Guo, Bo Qiu, Ye Liu, Jianning Sun, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4989–4996,Short summary
Land use or cover change is a fundamental anthropogenic forcing for climate change. Based on field observations, we quantified the contributions of different factors to surface temperature change and deepened the understanding of its mechanisms. We found evaporative cooling plays the most important role in the temperature change, while radiative forcing, which is traditionally emphasized, is not significant. This study provided firsthand evidence to verify the model results in IPCC AR5.
Zhongfeng Xu, Zhaolu Hou, Ying Han, and Weidong Guo
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4365–4380,Short summary
This paper devises a new diagram called the vector field evaluation (VFE) diagram. The VFE diagram is a generalized Taylor diagram and is able to provide a concise evaluation of model performance in simulating vector fields (e.g., vector winds) in terms of three statistical variables. The VFE diagram can be applied to the evaluation of full vector fields or anomaly fields as needed. Some potential applications of the VFE diagram in model evaluation are also presented in the paper.
Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Lixia Liu, Qiang Liu, Ke Ding, Xiaorui Niu, Wei Nie, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Minghuai Wang, Jianning Sun, Weidong Guo, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10063–10082,Short summary
We conducted a comprehensive modelling work to understand the impact of biomass burning on synoptic weather during agricultural burning season in East China. We demonstrated that the numerical model with fire emission, chemical processes, and aerosol–meteorology online coupled could reproduce the change of air temperature and precipitation induced by air pollution during this event. This study highlights the importance of including human activities in numerical-model-based weather forecast.
Weidong Guo, Xueqian Wang, Jianning Sun, Aijun Ding, and Jun Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9875–9890,Short summary
Basic characteristics of land–atmosphere interactions at four neighboring sites with different underlying surfaces in southern China, a typical monsoon region, are analyzed systematically. Despite the same climate background, the differences in land surface characteristics like albedo and aerodynamic roughness length due to land use/cover change exert distinct influences on the surface radiative budget and energy allocation and result in differences of near-surface micrometeorological elements.
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Holt Hancock, Jordy Hendrikx, Markus Eckerstorfer, and Siiri Wickström
The Cryosphere, 15, 3813–3837,Short summary
We investigate how snow avalanche activity in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard, is broadly controlled by atmospheric circulation. Avalanche activity in this region is generally associated with atmospheric circulation conducive to increased precipitation, wind speeds, and air temperatures near Svalbard during winter storms. Our results help place avalanche activity on Spitsbergen in the wider context of Arctic environmental change and provide a foundation for improved avalanche forecasting here.
Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Xiangrui Kong, Fabrizio Orlando, Luca Artiglia, Astrid Waldner, Thomas Huthwelker, and Markus Ammann
The Cryosphere, 15, 2001–2020,Short summary
Chemical reactions in sea salt embedded in coastal polar snow impact the composition and air quality of the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the phase changes of sodium chloride. This is of importance as chemical reactions proceed faster in liquid solutions compared to in solid salt and the precise precipitation temperature of sodium chloride is still under debate. We focus on the upper nanometres of sodium chloride–ice samples because of their role as a reactive interface in the environment.
Abigail G. Hughes, Sonja Wahl, Tyler R. Jones, Alexandra Zuhr, Maria Hörhold, James W. C. White, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Water isotope records in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores are a valuable proxy for paleoclimate reconstruction, and are traditionally thought to primarily reflect precipitation input. However, post-depositional processes are hypothesized to contribute to the isotope climate signal. In this study we use laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling to show that sublimation and vapor-snow isotope exchange can rapidly influence the isotopic composition of the snowpack.
Dimitri Osmont, Sandra Brugger, Anina Gilgen, Helga Weber, Michael Sigl, Robin L. Modini, Christoph Schwörer, Willy Tinner, Stefan Wunderle, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 14, 3731–3745,Short summary
In this interdisciplinary case study, we were able to link biomass burning emissions from the June 2017 wildfires in Portugal to their deposition in the snowpack at Jungfraujoch, Swiss Alps. We analysed black carbon and charcoal in the snowpack, calculated backward trajectories, and monitored the fire evolution by remote sensing. Such case studies help to understand the representativity of biomass burning records in ice cores and how biomass burning tracers are archived in the snowpack.
Nikolas O. Aksamit and John W. Pomeroy
The Cryosphere, 14, 2795–2807,Short summary
In cold regions, it is increasingly important to quantify the amount of water stored as snow at the end of winter. Current models are inconsistent in their estimates of snow sublimation due to atmospheric turbulence. Specific wind structures have been identified that amplify potential rates of surface and blowing snow sublimation during blowing snow storms. The recurrence of these motions has been modeled by a simple scaling argument that has its foundation in turbulent boundary layer theory.
Andrew J. Schwartz, Hamish A. McGowan, Alison Theobald, and Nik Callow
The Cryosphere, 14, 2755–2774,Short summary
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Benjamin Walter, Hendrik Huwald, Josué Gehring, Yves Bühler, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere, 14, 1779–1794,Short summary
We applied a horizontally mounted low-cost precipitation radar to measure velocities, frequency of occurrence, travel distances and turbulence characteristics of blowing snow off a mountain ridge. Our analysis provides a first insight into the potential of radar measurements for determining blowing snow characteristics, improves our understanding of mountain ridge blowing snow events and serves as a valuable data basis for validating coupled numerical weather and snowpack simulations.
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The Cryosphere, 13, 3405–3412,Short summary
Snow mass fluxes and vertical profiles of relative humidity are used to document concurrent occurrences of drifting snow and near-surface air saturation at a site dominated by katabatic winds in East Antarctica. Despite a high prevalence of drifting snow conditions, we demonstrate that saturation is reached only in the most extreme wind and transport conditions and discuss implications for the understanding of surface mass and atmospheric moisture budgets of the Antarctic ice sheet.
Varun Sharma, Louise Braud, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere, 13, 3239–3260,Short summary
Snow surfaces, under the action of wind, form beautiful shapes such as waves and dunes. This study is the first ever study to simulate these shapes using a state-of-the-art numerical modelling tool. While these beautiful and ephemeral shapes on snow surfaces are fascinating from a purely aesthetic point of view, they are also critical in regulating the transfer of heat and mass between the atmosphere and snowpacks, thus being of huge importance to the Earth system.
Yvan Orsolini, Martin Wegmann, Emanuel Dutra, Boqi Liu, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Kun Yang, Patricia de Rosnay, Congwen Zhu, Wenli Wang, Retish Senan, and Gabriele Arduini
The Cryosphere, 13, 2221–2239,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau region exerts a considerable influence on regional climate, yet the snowpack over that region is poorly represented in both climate and forecast models due a large precipitation and snowfall bias. We evaluate the snowpack in state-of-the-art atmospheric reanalyses against in situ observations and satellite remote sensing products. Improved snow initialisation through better use of snow observations in reanalyses may improve medium-range to seasonal weather forecasts.
Dušan Materić, Elke Ludewig, Kangming Xu, Thomas Röckmann, and Rupert Holzinger
The Cryosphere, 13, 297–307,
Niels Souverijns, Alexandra Gossart, Stef Lhermitte, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Jacopo Grazioli, Alexis Berne, Claudio Duran-Alarcon, Brice Boudevillain, Christophe Genthon, Claudio Scarchilli, and Nicole P. M. van Lipzig
The Cryosphere, 12, 3775–3789,Short summary
Snowfall observations over Antarctica are scarce and currently limited to information from the CloudSat satellite. Here, a first evaluation of the CloudSat snowfall record is performed using observations of ground-based precipitation radars. Results indicate an accurate representation of the snowfall climatology over Antarctica, despite the low overpass frequency of the satellite, outperforming state-of-the-art model estimates. Individual snowfall events are however not well represented.
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Understanding the forecasting skills of the subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) model on Tibetan Plateau snow cover (TPSC) is the first step to applying the S2S model to hydrological forecasts over the Tibetan Plateau. This study conducted a multimodel comparison of the TPSC prediction skill to learn about their performance in capturing TPSC variability. S2S models can skillfully forecast TPSC within a lead time of 2 weeks but show limited skill beyond 3 weeks. Systematic biases of TPSC were found.
Understanding the forecasting skills of the subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) model on Tibetan...