Articles | Volume 13, issue 1
Brief communication 30 Jan 2019
Brief communication | 30 Jan 2019
Brief communication: Analysis of organic matter in surface snow by PTR-MS – implications for dry deposition dynamics in the Alps
Dušan Materić et al.
No articles found.
Malika Menoud, Carina van der Veen, Jaroslaw Necki, Jakub Bartyzel, Barbara Szénási, Mila Stanisavljević, Isabelle Pison, Philippe Bousquet, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13167–13185,Short summary
Using measurements of methane isotopes in ambient air and a 3D atmospheric transport model, in Krakow, Poland, we mainly detected fossil-fuel-related sources, coming from coal mining in Silesia and from the use of natural gas in the city. Emission inventories report large emissions from coal mine activity in Silesia, which is in agreement with our measurements. However, methane sources in the urban area of Krakow related to the use of fossil fuels might be underestimated in the inventories.
Xinyi Lu, Stephen J. Harris, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Euan G. Nisbet, David Lowry, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Malika Menoud, Stefan Schwietzke, and Bryce F. J. Kelly
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10527–10555,Short summary
Many coal seam gas (CSG) facilities in the Surat Basin, Australia, are adjacent to other sources of methane, including agricultural, urban, and natural seeps. This makes it challenging to estimate the amount of methane being emitted into the atmosphere from CSG facilities. This research demonstrates that measurements of the carbon and hydrogen stable isotopic composition of methane can distinguish between and apportion methane emissions from CSG facilities, cattle, and many other sources.
Stephen M. Platt, Øystein Hov, Torunn Berg, Knut Breivik, Sabine Eckhardt, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Rebecca Fisher, Georg Hansen, Hans-Christen Hansson, Jost Heintzenberg, Ove Hermansen, Dominic Heslin-Rees, Kim Holmén, Stephen Hudson, Roland Kallenborn, Radovan Krejci, Terje Krognes, Steinar Larssen, David Lowry, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Chris Lunder, Euan Nisbet, Pernilla B. Nizetto, Ki-Tae Park, Christina A. Pedersen, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Thomas Röckmann, Norbert Schmidbauer, Sverre Solberg, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Tove Svendby, Peter Tunved, Kjersti Tørnkvist, Carina van der Veen, Stergios Vratolis, Young Jun Yoon, Karl Espen Yttri, Paul Zieger, Wenche Aas, and Kjetil Tørseth
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Here we detail the history of the Zeppelin Observatory, a unique global background site as one of only a few in the high Arctic. We present long time series of up to 30 years of atmospheric components and atmospheric transport phenomena. Many of these time series are important to our understanding of Arctic/global atmospheric composition change. Finally, we discuss the future of the Zeppelin Observatory and emerging areas of future research on the Arctic atmosphere.
Max Thomas, Johannes C. Laube, Jan Kaiser, Samuel Allin, Patricia Martinerie, Robert Mulvaney, Anna Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Emmanuel Witrant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6857–6873,Short summary
CFC gases are destroying the Earth's life-protecting ozone layer. We improve understanding of CFC destruction by measuring the isotopic fingerprint of the carbon in the three most abundant CFCs. These are the first such measurements in the main region where CFCs are destroyed – the stratosphere. We reconstruct the atmospheric isotope histories of these CFCs back to the 1950s by measuring air extracted from deep snow and using a model. The model and the measurements are generally consistent.
Jakob B. Pernov, Rossana Bossi, Thibaut Lebourgeois, Jacob K. Nøjgaard, Rupert Holzinger, Jens L. Hjorth, and Henrik Skov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2895–2916,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important constituent in the Arctic atmosphere due to their effect on aerosol and ozone formation. However, an understanding of their sources is lacking. This research presents a multiseason high-time-resolution dataset of VOCs in the Arctic and details their temporal characteristics and source apportionment. Four sources were identified: biomass burning, marine cryosphere, background, and Arctic haze.
Hossein Maazallahi, Julianne M. Fernandez, Malika Menoud, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Zachary D. Weller, Stefan Schwietzke, Joseph C. von Fischer, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14717–14740,Short summary
Methane accounts for ∼ 25 % of current climate warming. The current lack of methane measurements is a barrier for tracking major sources, which are key for near-term climate mitigation. We use mobile measurements to identify and quantify methane emission sources in Utrecht (NL) and Hamburg (DE) with a focus on natural gas pipeline leaks. The measurements resulted in fixing the major leaks by the local utility, but coordinated efforts are needed at national levels for further emission reductions.
Joram J. D. Hooghiem, Maria Elena Popa, Thomas Röckmann, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Ines Tritscher, Rolf Müller, Rigel Kivi, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13985–14003,Short summary
Wildfires release a large quantity of pollutants that can reach the stratosphere through pyro-convection events. In September 2017, a stratospheric plume was accidentally sampled during balloon soundings in northern Finland. The source of the plume was identified to be wildfire smoke based on in situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and stable isotope analysis of CO. Furthermore, the age of the plume was estimated using backwards transport modelling to be ~24 d, with its origin in Canada.
Alina Fiehn, Julian Kostinek, Maximilian Eckl, Theresa Klausner, Michał Gałkowski, Jinxuan Chen, Christoph Gerbig, Thomas Röckmann, Hossein Maazallahi, Martina Schmidt, Piotr Korbeń, Jarosław Neçki, Pawel Jagoda, Norman Wildmann, Christian Mallaun, Rostyslav Bun, Anna-Leah Nickl, Patrick Jöckel, Andreas Fix, and Anke Roiger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12675–12695,Short summary
A severe reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is necessary to fulfill the Paris Agreement. We use aircraft- and ground-based in situ observations of trace gases and wind speed from two flights over the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, for independent emission estimation. The derived methane emission estimates are within the range of emission inventories, carbon dioxide estimates are in the lower range and carbon monoxide emission estimates are slightly higher than emission inventory values.
Patrick Dewald, Jonathan M. Liebmann, Nils Friedrich, Justin Shenolikar, Jan Schuladen, Franz Rohrer, David Reimer, Ralf Tillmann, Anna Novelli, Changmin Cho, Kangming Xu, Rupert Holzinger, François Bernard, Li Zhou, Wahid Mellouki, Steven S. Brown, Hendrik Fuchs, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10459–10475,Short summary
We present direct measurements of NO3 reactivity resulting from the oxidation of isoprene by NO3 during an intensive simulation chamber study. Measurements were in excellent agreement with values calculated from measured isoprene amounts and the rate coefficient for the reaction of NO3 with isoprene. Comparison of the measurement with NO3 reactivities from non-steady-state and model calculations suggests that isoprene-derived RO2 and HO2 radicals account to ~ 50 % of overall NO3 losses.
Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Patrizia Ney, Oscar Hartogensis, Hugo de Boer, Kevin van Diepen, Dzhaner Emin, Geiske de Groot, Anne Klosterhalfen, Matthias Langensiepen, Maria Matveeva, Gabriela Miranda-García, Arnold F. Moene, Uwe Rascher, Thomas Röckmann, Getachew Adnew, Nicolas Brüggemann, Youri Rothfuss, and Alexander Graf
Biogeosciences, 17, 4375–4404,Short summary
The CloudRoots field experiment has obtained an open comprehensive observational data set that includes soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to investigate the interactions between a heterogeneous land surface and its overlying atmospheric boundary layer, including the rapid perturbations of clouds in evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate that in order to understand and represent diurnal variability, we need to measure and model processes from the leaf to the landscape scales.
Johannes C. Laube, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Karina E. Adcock, Bianca Baier, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Huilin Chen, Elise S. Droste, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Pauli Heikkinen, Andrew J. Hind, Rigel Kivi, Alexander Lojko, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Steve Randall, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Colm Sweeney, Max Thomas, Elinor Tuffnell, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9771–9782,Short summary
We demonstrate that AirCore technology, which is based on small low-cost balloons, can provide access to trace gas measurements such as CFCs at ultra-low abundances. This is a new way to quantify ozone-depleting, and related, substances in the stratosphere, which is largely inaccessible to aircraft. We show two potential uses: (a) tracking the stratospheric circulation, which is predicted to change, and (b) assessing three common meteorological reanalyses driving a global stratospheric model.
Getachew Agmuas Adnew, Thijs L. Pons, Gerbrand Koren, Wouter Peters, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 3903–3922,Short summary
We measured the effect of photosynthesis, the largest flux in the carbon cycle, on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 at the leaf level during gas exchange using three plant species. The main factors that limit the impact of land vegetation on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 are identified, characterized and discussed. The effect of photosynthesis on the isotopic composition of CO2 is commonly quantified as discrimination (ΔA).
Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Hossein Maazallahi, Andreas Forstmaier, Dominik Winkler, Magdalena E. G. Hofmann, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3683–3696,Short summary
We demonstrate for the first time that large festivals can be significant methane sources, though they are not included in emission inventories. We combined in situ measurements with a Gaussian plume model to determine the Oktoberfest emissions and show that they are not due solely to human biogenic emissions, but are instead primarily fossil fuel related. Our study provides the foundation to develop reduction policies for such events and new pathways to mitigate fossil fuel methane emissions.
Stefan Lossow, Charlotta Högberg, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gabriele P. Stiller, Ralf Bauer, Kaley A. Walker, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Michael Kiefer, Norbert Glatthor, Thomas von Clarmann, Donal P. Murtagh, Jörg Steinwagner, Thomas Röckmann, and Roland Eichinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 287–308,
Marco de Bruine, Maarten Krol, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, and Thomas Röckmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5177–5196,Short summary
An aerosol scheme with multiple aerosol species is introduced in the Dutch Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulation model (DALES) and focused to simulate the feedback of aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) on the aerosol population. Cloud aerosol processing is found to be sensitive to the numerical method, while removal by precipitation is more stable. How ACI increases or decreases the mean aerosol size depends on the balance between the evaporation of clouds/rain and ultimate removal by precipitation.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Iris N. Dekker, Sander Houweling, Sudhanshu Pandey, Maarten Krol, Thomas Röckmann, Tobias Borsdorff, Jochen Landgraf, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3433–3445,Short summary
During November 2017, very high pollution levels were measured in the northern part of India. In this study, satellite (TROPOMI) data and model (WRF) data on carbon monoxide (CO) are studied to investigate the main sources of the CO pollution over the Indo-Gangetic Plain. We found that residential and commercial combustion was a much more important source of CO than the post-monsoon crop burning during this period. Meteorology was found important in the accumulation and ventilation of CO.
Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Thorsten Hohaus, Ralf Tillmann, Iulia Gensch, Markus Müller, Philipp Eichler, Kang-Ming Xu, Patrick Schlag, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Zhujun Yu, Robert Wegener, Martin Kaminski, Rupert Holzinger, Armin Wisthaler, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12969–12989,Short summary
Defining the fundamental parameters that distribute organic molecules between the gas and particle phases is essential to understand their impact on the atmosphere. In this work, gas to particle partitioning of major biogenic oxidation products from monoterpenes and real plant emissions was investigated. While measurement results and theoretical calculation for most semi-volatile compounds are in good agreement, significant deviations are found for intermediate volatile organic compounds.
Marco de Bruine, Maarten Krol, Twan van Noije, Philippe Le Sager, and Thomas Röckmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1443–1465,Short summary
Precipitation evaporation (PE) and subsequent aerosol resuspension (AR) are currently ignored or implemented only crudely in GCMs. This research introduces PE to Earth system model EC-Earth and explores ways to treat AR and the impact on global aerosol burden. Simple 1:1 scaling of AR with PE leads to an increase (+8 to 15.9 %). Taking into account raindrop size distribution and/or accounting for in-rain aerosol processing decreases aerosol burden -1.5 to 6.2 % and -10 to -11 %, respectively.
Karina E. Adcock, Claire E. Reeves, Lauren J. Gooch, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Matthew J. Ashfold, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Charles Chou, Paul J. Fraser, Ray L. Langenfelds, Norfazrin Mohd Hanif, Simon O'Doherty, David E. Oram, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Siew Moi Phang, Azizan Abu Samah, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4737–4751,
Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Ralf Tillmann, Thorsten Hohaus, Markus Müller, Philipp Eichler, Kang-Ming Xu, Patrick Schlag, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Robert Wegener, Martin Kaminski, Rupert Holzinger, Armin Wisthaler, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1481–1500,Short summary
This manuscript presents an intercomparison of state-of-the-art online and in situ particle sampling techniques connected to proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Collection and vaporization of aerosol combined with soft ionization mass spectrometry offers the advantage of detailed chemical characterization of SOA species. The benefits of these techniques are highlighted through their consistency in providing the chemical composition of biogenic SOA.
Emma Leedham Elvidge, Harald Bönisch, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andreas Engel, Paul J. Fraser, Eileen Gallacher, Ray Langenfelds, Jens Mühle, David E. Oram, Eric A. Ray, Anna R. Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Ray F. Weiss, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3369–3385,Short summary
Chemical species measured in stratospheric air can be used as proxies for stratospheric circulation changes which cannot be measured directly. A range of tracers is important to understand changing stratospheric dynamics. We demonstrate the suitability of PFCs and HFCs as tracers and support recent work that reduces the current stratospheric lifetime of SF6. Updates to policy-relevant parameters (e.g. stratospheric lifetime) linked to this change are provided for O3-depleting substances.
Taku Umezawa, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W. C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1207–1231,Short summary
Isotope measurements are useful for separating different methane sources. However, the lack of widely accepted standards and calibration methods for stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane in air has caused significant measurement offsets among laboratories. We conducted worldwide interlaboratory comparisons, surveyed the literature and assessed them systematically. This study may be of help in future attempts to harmonize data sets of isotopic composition of atmospheric methane.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Iris N. Dekker, Sander Houweling, Ilse Aben, Thomas Röckmann, Maarten Krol, Sara Martínez-Alonso, Merritt N. Deeter, and Helen M. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14675–14694,Short summary
This study estimates carbon monoxide emissions from the city of Madrid using MOPITT satellite data. There are two methods used and reviewed in this paper: a method that can only estimate a trend in the emission and a newly developed method that also includes model data from WRF to quantify the emissions. We find Madrid CO emissions to be lower by 48 % for 2002 and by 17 % for 2006 compared with the EdgarV4.2 emission inventory, but uncertainty (20 to 50 %) remains.
Carl Meusinger, Ulrike Dusek, Stephanie M. King, Rupert Holzinger, Thomas Rosenørn, Peter Sperlich, Maxime Julien, Gerald S. Remaud, Merete Bilde, Thomas Röckmann, and Matthew S. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6373–6391,Short summary
Isotope studies can constrain budgets of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is pivotal to air pollution and climate. SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis was found to be enriched in 13C relative to the precursor. The observed difference in 13C between the gas and particle phases may arise from isotope-dependent changes in branching ratios. Alternatively, some gas-phase products involve carbon atoms from highly enriched and depleted sites, giving a non-kinetic origin to the observed fractionations.
Célia J. Sapart, Natalia Shakhova, Igor Semiletov, Joachim Jansen, Sönke Szidat, Denis Kosmach, Oleg Dudarev, Carina van der Veen, Matthias Egger, Valentine Sergienko, Anatoly Salyuk, Vladimir Tumskoy, Jean-Louis Tison, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 14, 2283–2292,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean, especially the Siberian shelves, overlays large areas of subsea permafrost that is degrading. We show that methane with a biogenic origin is emitted from this permafrost. At locations where bubble plumes have been observed, methane can escape oxidation in the surface sediment and rapidly migrate through the very shallow water column of this region to escape to the atmosphere, generating a positive radiative feedback.
Markella Prokopiou, Patricia Martinerie, Célia J. Sapart, Emmanuel Witrant, Guillaume Monteil, Kentaro Ishijima, Sophie Bernard, Jan Kaiser, Ingeborg Levin, Thomas Blunier, David Etheridge, Ed Dlugokencky, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4539–4564,Short summary
Nitrous oxide is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with an increasing mole fraction. To understand its natural and anthropogenic sources we employ isotope measurements. Results show that while the N2O mole fraction increases, its heavy isotope content decreases. The isotopic changes observed underline the dominance of agricultural emissions especially at the early part of the record, whereas in the later decades the contribution from other anthropogenic sources increases.
Ulrike Dusek, Regina Hitzenberger, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Magdalena Kistler, Harro A. J. Meijer, Sönke Szidat, Lukas Wacker, Rupert Holzinger, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3233–3251,Short summary
Measurements of the radioactive carbon isotope 14C allow to identify the sources of aerosol carbon. We report an extensive 14C source apportionment record in the Netherlands with samples covering a whole year. We discovered that long-range transport has a large influence on aerosol carbon levels. Fossil fuel carbon is least influenced by long-range transport and more regional in origin. Biomass burning seems to be a minor source of aerosol carbon in the Netherlands.
Bastiaan Jonkheid, Thomas Röckmann, Norbert Glatthor, Christof Janssen, Gabriele Stiller, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 6069–6079,
Dorota Janina Mrozek, Carina van der Veen, Magdalena E. G. Hofmann, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5607–5620,Short summary
Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) is a device to collect and to store the stratospheric profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples. The sub-samples (each of 25 mL at ambient temperature and pressure) can be later introduced to the continuous flow systems to measure for example the isotopic composition of CO2. The performance of the coupled system is demonstrated for a set of air samples from an AirCore flight in November 2014 near Sodankylä, Finland.
Beatriz Sayuri Oyama, Maria de Fátima Andrade, Pierre Herckes, Ulrike Dusek, Thomas Röckmann, and Rupert Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14397–14408,Short summary
Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities; hence, the study was performed in São Paulo city, where light- (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on different fuels. We find that organic aerosol emission from LDVs and HDVs is a complex process involving oxidation of fuel constituents, NOx chemistry, and condensation of unburned fuel hydrocarbons on new or existing particles. The obtained emission patterns can be used to study processing of young aerosol in Brazil.
Matthias Egger, Peter Kraal, Tom Jilbert, Fatimah Sulu-Gambari, Célia J. Sapart, Thomas Röckmann, and Caroline P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 13, 5333–5355,Short summary
By combining detailed geochemical analyses with diagenetic modeling, we provide new insights into how methane dynamics may strongly overprint burial records of iron, sulfur and phosphorus in marine systems subject to changes in organic matter loading or water column salinity. A better understanding of these processes will improve our ability to read ancient sediment records and thus to predict the potential consequences of global warming and human-enhanced inputs of nutrients to the ocean.
Thomas Röckmann, Simon Eyer, Carina van der Veen, Maria E. Popa, Béla Tuzson, Guillaume Monteil, Sander Houweling, Eliza Harris, Dominik Brunner, Hubertus Fischer, Giulia Zazzeri, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Willi A. Brand, Jaroslav M. Necki, Lukas Emmenegger, and Joachim Mohn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10469–10487,Short summary
A dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS)-based technique were deployed at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD.
Peter Sperlich, Nelly A. M. Uitslag, Jürgen M. Richter, Michael Rothe, Heike Geilmann, Carina van der Veen, Thomas Röckmann, Thomas Blunier, and Willi A. Brand
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3717–3737,Short summary
Isotope measurements in atmospheric CH4 are performed since more than 3 decades. However, standard gases to harmonize global measurements are not available to this day. We designed two methods to calibrate a suite of 8 CH4 gases with a wide range in isotopic composition to the VPDB and VSMOW scales with high precision and accuracy. Synthetic air mixtures with ~2 ppm of calibrated CH4 can be provided to the community by the ISOLAB of the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Germany.
Patrick Schlag, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Marcus Johannes Blom, Francesco Canonaco, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Marcel Moerman, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, and Rupert Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8831–8847,Short summary
This work provides chemical composition data of atmospheric aerosols acquired during 1 year in the rural site of Cabauw, the Netherlands. In some periods, we found unexpected high particle mass concentrations exceeding the WHO limits. Using these composition data, we found that reducing ammonia emissions in this region would largely reduce the main aerosol component ammonium nitrate, whereas the local mitigation of the organics turned out to be difficult due to the lack of a designated source.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, Maarten Krol, Ilse Aben, Frédéric Chevallier, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, John B. Miller, Rob Detmers, Toshinobu Machida, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5043–5062,Short summary
This study investigates the constraint provided by measurements of Xratio (XCH4/XCO2) from space on surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2. We apply the ratio inversion method described in Pandey et al. (2015) to Xratio retrievals from the GOSAT with the TM5-4DVAR inverse modeling system, to constrain the surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010. The results are compared to proxy CH4 inversions using model-derived-XCO2 mixing ratios from CarbonTracker and MACC.
S. Eyer, B. Tuzson, M. E. Popa, C. van der Veen, T. Röckmann, M. Rothe, W. A. Brand, R. Fisher, D. Lowry, E. G. Nisbet, M. S. Brennwald, E. Harris, C. Zellweger, L. Emmenegger, H. Fischer, and J. Mohn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 263–280,Short summary
We present a newly developed field-deployable, autonomous platform simultaneously measuring the three most abundant isotopologues of methane using mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The instrument consists of a compact quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) coupled to a preconcentration unit, called TRace gas EXtractor (TREX). The performance of this new in situ technique was investigated during a 2-week measurement campaign and compared to other techniques.
N. Bândă, M. Krol, M. van Weele, T. van Noije, P. Le Sager, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 195–214,Short summary
We quantify the processes responsible for methane growth rate variability in the period 1990 to 1995, a period with variations in climate and radiation due to the Pinatubo eruption. We find significant contributions from changes in the methane emission from wetlands, and in the methane removal by OH caused by stratospheric aerosols, by the decrease in temperature and water vapour, by stratospheric ozone depletion and by changes in emissions of CO and NMVOC.
S. Walter, A. Kock, T. Steinhoff, B. Fiedler, P. Fietzek, J. Kaiser, M. Krol, M. E. Popa, Q. Chen, T. Tanhua, and T. Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 13, 323–340,Short summary
Oceans are a source of H2, an indirect greenhouse gas. Measurements constraining the temporal and spatial patterns of oceanic H2 emissions are sparse and although H2 is assumed to be produced mainly biologically, direct evidence for biogenic marine production was lacking. By analyzing the H2 isotopic composition (δD) we were able to constrain the global H2 budget in more detail, verify biogenic production and point to additional sources. We also showed that current models are reasonably working.
S. L. Pathirana, C. van der Veen, M. E. Popa, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5315–5324,Short summary
CO is established as an important indirect greenhouse gas, as it is the major sink for the OH∙. We have developed a fully automated system for the determination of δ13C and δ18O in atmospheric CO. The blank signal of the Schütze reagent is 1-3 % of the typical sample size. The repeatability is 0.1 ‰ for δ13C and 0.2 ‰ for δ18O. The analytical repeatability for the mole fraction is ~0.7 nmol mol-1 for 100 mL of ambient air (185.4 nmol mol-1 of CO). A single measurement is performed in 18 min.
J. Timkovsky, A. W. H. Chan, T. Dorst, A. H. Goldstein, B. Oyama, and R. Holzinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5177–5187,
Q. Chen, M. E. Popa, A. M. Batenburg, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13003–13021,Short summary
We investigated soil production and uptake of H2 and associated isotope effects. Uptake and emission of H2 occurred simultaneously at all sampling sites, with strongest emission where N2 fixing legume was present. The fractionation constant during soil uptake was about 0.945 and it did not show positive correlation with deposition velocity. The isotopic composition of H2 emitted from soil with legume was about -530‰, which is less deuterium-depleted than isotope equilibrium between H2O and H2.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3903–3922,
S. Pandey, S. Houweling, M. Krol, I. Aben, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8615–8629,Short summary
This study attempts to determine the feasibility of a new assimilation method of satellite measurements of CH4 and CO2 for optimization of their surface fluxes in a synthetic environment. Instead of their absolute concentrations, we assimilate the ratios of their concentrations (CH4/CO2) in our inversion. Doing so helps us to reduce the effect of atmospheric scattering on the measurements in our system. However, assimilation of the ratios makes the inversion non-linear.
K. Ishijima, M. Takigawa, K. Sudo, S. Toyoda, N. Yoshida, T. Röckmann, J. Kaiser, S. Aoki, S. Morimoto, S. Sugawara, and T. Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We developed an atmospheric N2O isotopocule model based on a chemistry-coupled atmospheric general circulation model and a simple method to optimize the model, and estimated the isotopic signatures of surface sources at the hemispheric scale. Data obtained from ground-based observations, measurements of firn air, and balloon and aircraft flights were used to optimize the long-term trends, interhemispheric gradients, and photolytic fractionation, respectively, in the model.
S. J. Allin, J. C. Laube, E. Witrant, J. Kaiser, E. McKenna, P. Dennis, R. Mulvaney, E. Capron, P. Martinerie, T. Röckmann, T. Blunier, J. Schwander, P. J. Fraser, R. L. Langenfelds, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6867–6877,Short summary
Stratospheric ozone protects life on Earth from harmful UV-B radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are man-made compounds which act to destroy this barrier. This paper presents (1) the first measurements of the stratospheric δ(37Cl) of CFCs -11 and -113; (2) the first quantification of long-term trends in the tropospheric δ(37Cl) of CFCs -11, -12 and -113. This study provides a better understanding of source and sink processes associated with these destructive compounds.
F. A. Stap, O. P. Hasekamp, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1287–1301,Short summary
We present the capability of an aerosol retrieval algorithm, intended for multi-angle, multi-wavelength photopolarimetric measurements, to intrinsically screen for sub-pixel liquid water cloud contamination. The screening is based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The algorithm has been applied to a synthetic data set of partially clouded scenes and (non-cloud-screened) POLDER3/PARASOL observations.
S. J. Sutanto, G. Hoffmann, R. A. Scheepmaker, J. Worden, S. Houweling, K. Yoshimura, I. Aben, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 999–1019,
D. J. Mrozek, C. van der Veen, M. Kliphuis, J. Kaiser, A. A. Wiegel, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 811–822,Short summary
Our analytical system is a promising tool for investigating the triple oxygen isotope composition of CO2 from stratospheric air samples of volumes 100ml and smaller. The method is designed for measuring air samples with CO2 mole fractions between 360 and 400ppm, and it is the first fully automated analytical system that uses CeO2 as the isotope exchange medium.
S. J. Sutanto, B. van den Hurk, P. A. Dirmeyer, S. I. Seneviratne, T. Röckmann, K. E. Trenberth, E. M. Blyth, J. Wenninger, and G. Hoffmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2815–2827,
U. Dusek, M. Monaco, M. Prokopiou, F. Gongriep, R. Hitzenberger, H. A. J. Meijer, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1943–1955,
A. J. van Beelen, G. J. H. Roelofs, O. P. Hasekamp, J. S. Henzing, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5969–5987,
O. Peltola, A. Hensen, C. Helfter, L. Belelli Marchesini, F. C. Bosveld, W. C. M. van den Bulk, J. A. Elbers, S. Haapanala, J. Holst, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Nemitz, T. Röckmann, A. T. Vermeulen, and I. Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 11, 3163–3186,
S. Houweling, M. Krol, P. Bergamaschi, C. Frankenberg, E. J. Dlugokencky, I. Morino, J. Notholt, V. Sherlock, D. Wunch, V. Beck, C. Gerbig, H. Chen, E. A. Kort, T. Röckmann, and I. Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3991–4012,
B. Ringeval, S. Houweling, P. M. van Bodegom, R. Spahni, R. van Beek, F. Joos, and T. Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 11, 1519–1558,
M. E. Popa, M. K. Vollmer, A. Jordan, W. A. Brand, S. L. Pathirana, M. Rothe, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2105–2123,
D. Helmig, V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, T. Röckmann, A. Zuiderweg, R. Holzinger, J. Hueber, C. Thompson, J. W. C. White, W. Sturges, A. Baker, T. Blunier, D. Etheridge, M. Rubino, and P. Tans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1463–1483,
J. Timkovsky, P. Gankema, R. Pierik, and R. Holzinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
R. Holzinger, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, and J. Timkovsky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10125–10141,
F. A. Haumann, A. M. Batenburg, G. Pieterse, C. Gerbig, M. C. Krol, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9401–9413,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9233–9268,
P. Sperlich, C. Buizert, T. M. Jenk, C. J. Sapart, M. Prokopiou, T. Röckmann, and T. Blunier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2027–2041,
J. Schmitt, B. Seth, M. Bock, C. van der Veen, L. Möller, C. J. Sapart, M. Prokopiou, T. Sowers, T. Röckmann, and H. Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1425–1445,
S. Walter, A. Kock, and T. Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 10, 3391–3403,
J. C. Laube, A. Keil, H. Bönisch, A. Engel, T. Röckmann, C. M. Volk, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2779–2791,
N. Bândă, M. Krol, M. van Weele, T. van Noije, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2267–2281,
J.-H. Park, A. H. Goldstein, J. Timkovsky, S. Fares, R. Weber, J. Karlik, and R. Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1439–1456,
Related subject area
Discipline: Snow | Subject: Atmospheric InteractionsSynoptic control on snow avalanche activity in central SpitsbergenInterfacial supercooling and the precipitation of hydrohalite in frozen NaCl solutions as seen by X-ray absorption spectroscopyThe role of sublimation as a driver of climate signals in the water isotope content of surface snow: Laboratory and field experimental resultsTracing devastating fires in Portugal to a snow archive in the Swiss Alps: a case studySystematic bias of Tibetan Plateau snow cover in subseasonal-to-seasonal modelsWarm-air entrainment and advection during alpine blowing snow eventsQuantifying the impact of synoptic weather types and patterns on energy fluxes of a marginal snowpackRadar measurements of blowing snow off a mountain ridgeBrief communication: Rare ambient saturation during drifting snow occurrences at a coastal location of East AntarcticaUnderstanding snow bedform formation by adding sintering to a cellular automata modelEvaluation of snow depth and snow cover over the Tibetan Plateau in global reanalyses using in situ and satellite remote sensing observationsEvaluation of the CloudSat surface snowfall product over Antarctica using ground-based precipitation radars
Holt Hancock, Jordy Hendrikx, Markus Eckerstorfer, and Siiri Wickström
The Cryosphere, 15, 3813–3837,Short summary
We investigate how snow avalanche activity in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard, is broadly controlled by atmospheric circulation. Avalanche activity in this region is generally associated with atmospheric circulation conducive to increased precipitation, wind speeds, and air temperatures near Svalbard during winter storms. Our results help place avalanche activity on Spitsbergen in the wider context of Arctic environmental change and provide a foundation for improved avalanche forecasting here.
Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Xiangrui Kong, Fabrizio Orlando, Luca Artiglia, Astrid Waldner, Thomas Huthwelker, and Markus Ammann
The Cryosphere, 15, 2001–2020,Short summary
Chemical reactions in sea salt embedded in coastal polar snow impact the composition and air quality of the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the phase changes of sodium chloride. This is of importance as chemical reactions proceed faster in liquid solutions compared to in solid salt and the precise precipitation temperature of sodium chloride is still under debate. We focus on the upper nanometres of sodium chloride–ice samples because of their role as a reactive interface in the environment.
Abigail G. Hughes, Sonja Wahl, Tyler R. Jones, Alexandra Zuhr, Maria Hörhold, James W. C. White, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Water isotope records in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores are a valuable proxy for paleoclimate reconstruction, and are traditionally thought to primarily reflect precipitation input. However, post-depositional processes are hypothesized to contribute to the isotope climate signal. In this study we use laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling to show that sublimation and vapor-snow isotope exchange can rapidly influence the isotopic composition of the snowpack.
Dimitri Osmont, Sandra Brugger, Anina Gilgen, Helga Weber, Michael Sigl, Robin L. Modini, Christoph Schwörer, Willy Tinner, Stefan Wunderle, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 14, 3731–3745,Short summary
In this interdisciplinary case study, we were able to link biomass burning emissions from the June 2017 wildfires in Portugal to their deposition in the snowpack at Jungfraujoch, Swiss Alps. We analysed black carbon and charcoal in the snowpack, calculated backward trajectories, and monitored the fire evolution by remote sensing. Such case studies help to understand the representativity of biomass burning records in ice cores and how biomass burning tracers are archived in the snowpack.
Wenkai Li, Shuzhen Hu, Pang-Chi Hsu, Weidong Guo, and Jiangfeng Wei
The Cryosphere, 14, 3565–3579,Short summary
Understanding the forecasting skills of the subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) model on Tibetan Plateau snow cover (TPSC) is the first step to applying the S2S model to hydrological forecasts over the Tibetan Plateau. This study conducted a multimodel comparison of the TPSC prediction skill to learn about their performance in capturing TPSC variability. S2S models can skillfully forecast TPSC within a lead time of 2 weeks but show limited skill beyond 3 weeks. Systematic biases of TPSC were found.
Nikolas O. Aksamit and John W. Pomeroy
The Cryosphere, 14, 2795–2807,Short summary
In cold regions, it is increasingly important to quantify the amount of water stored as snow at the end of winter. Current models are inconsistent in their estimates of snow sublimation due to atmospheric turbulence. Specific wind structures have been identified that amplify potential rates of surface and blowing snow sublimation during blowing snow storms. The recurrence of these motions has been modeled by a simple scaling argument that has its foundation in turbulent boundary layer theory.
Andrew J. Schwartz, Hamish A. McGowan, Alison Theobald, and Nik Callow
The Cryosphere, 14, 2755–2774,Short summary
This study measured energy available for snowmelt during the 2016 and 2017 snow seasons in Kosciuszko National Park, NSW, Australia, and identified common traits for days with similar weather characteristics. The analysis showed that energy available for snowmelt was highest in the days before cold fronts passed through the region due to higher air temperatures. Regardless of differences in daily weather characteristics, solar radiation contributed the highest amount of energy to snowpack melt.
Benjamin Walter, Hendrik Huwald, Josué Gehring, Yves Bühler, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere, 14, 1779–1794,Short summary
We applied a horizontally mounted low-cost precipitation radar to measure velocities, frequency of occurrence, travel distances and turbulence characteristics of blowing snow off a mountain ridge. Our analysis provides a first insight into the potential of radar measurements for determining blowing snow characteristics, improves our understanding of mountain ridge blowing snow events and serves as a valuable data basis for validating coupled numerical weather and snowpack simulations.
Charles Amory and Christoph Kittel
The Cryosphere, 13, 3405–3412,Short summary
Snow mass fluxes and vertical profiles of relative humidity are used to document concurrent occurrences of drifting snow and near-surface air saturation at a site dominated by katabatic winds in East Antarctica. Despite a high prevalence of drifting snow conditions, we demonstrate that saturation is reached only in the most extreme wind and transport conditions and discuss implications for the understanding of surface mass and atmospheric moisture budgets of the Antarctic ice sheet.
Varun Sharma, Louise Braud, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere, 13, 3239–3260,Short summary
Snow surfaces, under the action of wind, form beautiful shapes such as waves and dunes. This study is the first ever study to simulate these shapes using a state-of-the-art numerical modelling tool. While these beautiful and ephemeral shapes on snow surfaces are fascinating from a purely aesthetic point of view, they are also critical in regulating the transfer of heat and mass between the atmosphere and snowpacks, thus being of huge importance to the Earth system.
Yvan Orsolini, Martin Wegmann, Emanuel Dutra, Boqi Liu, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Kun Yang, Patricia de Rosnay, Congwen Zhu, Wenli Wang, Retish Senan, and Gabriele Arduini
The Cryosphere, 13, 2221–2239,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau region exerts a considerable influence on regional climate, yet the snowpack over that region is poorly represented in both climate and forecast models due a large precipitation and snowfall bias. We evaluate the snowpack in state-of-the-art atmospheric reanalyses against in situ observations and satellite remote sensing products. Improved snow initialisation through better use of snow observations in reanalyses may improve medium-range to seasonal weather forecasts.
Niels Souverijns, Alexandra Gossart, Stef Lhermitte, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Jacopo Grazioli, Alexis Berne, Claudio Duran-Alarcon, Brice Boudevillain, Christophe Genthon, Claudio Scarchilli, and Nicole P. M. van Lipzig
The Cryosphere, 12, 3775–3789,Short summary
Snowfall observations over Antarctica are scarce and currently limited to information from the CloudSat satellite. Here, a first evaluation of the CloudSat snowfall record is performed using observations of ground-based precipitation radars. Results indicate an accurate representation of the snowfall climatology over Antarctica, despite the low overpass frequency of the satellite, outperforming state-of-the-art model estimates. Individual snowfall events are however not well represented.
Antony, R., Grannas, A. M., Willoughby, A. S., Sleighter, R. L., Thamban, M., and Hatcher, P. G.: Origin and sources of dissolved organic matter in snow on the East Antarctic ice sheet, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 6151–6159, https://doi.org/10.1021/es405246a, 2014.
Armbruster, D. A. and Pry, T.: Limit of Blank, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation, Clin. Biochem. Rev., 29, S49–S52, 2008.
Duan, B., Fairall, C. W., and Thomson, D. W.: Eddy Correlation Measurements of the Dry Deposition of Particles in Wintertime, J. Appl. Meteorol., 27, 642–652, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1988)027<0642:ECMOTD>2.0.CO;2, 1988.
Gallagher, M. W., Nemitz, E., Dorsey, J. R., Fowler, D., Sutton, M. A., Flynn, M., and Duyzer, J.: Measurements and parameterizations of small aerosol deposition velocities to grassland, arable crops, and forest: Influence of surface roughness length on deposition, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, AAC 8-1–AAC 8-10, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000817, 2002.
Giorio, C., Kehrwald, N., Barbante, C., Kalberer, M., King, A. C. F., Thomas, E. R., Wolff, E. W., and Zennaro, P.: Prospects for reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions from organic compounds in polar snow and ice, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 183, 1–22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.01.007, 2018.
Gkatzelis, G. I., Tillmann, R., Hohaus, T., Müller, M., Eichler, P., Xu, K.-M., Schlag, P., Schmitt, S. H., Wegener, R., Kaminski, M., Holzinger, R., Wisthaler, A., and Kiendler-Scharr, A.: Comparison of three aerosol chemical characterization techniques utilizing PTR-ToF-MS: a study on freshly formed and aged biogenic SOA, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1481–1500, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-1481-2018, 2018.
Grannas, A. M., Hockaday, W. C., Hatcher, P. G., Thompson, L. G., and Mosley-Thompson, E.: New revelations on the nature of organic matter in ice cores, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 111, D04304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006251, 2006.
Gröllert, C., Kasper, A., and Puxbaum, H.: Organic Compounds in High Alpine Snow, Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 67, 213–222, https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319708031405, 1997.
Guillaume, B., Liousse, C., Galy-Lacaux, C., Rosset, R., Gardrat, E., Cachier, H., Bessagnet, B., and Poisson, N.: Modeling exceptional high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols observed at Pic du Midi in spring–summer 2003: Comparison with Sonnblick and Puy de Dôme, Atmos. Environ., 42, 5140–5149, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.02.024, 2008.
Holzinger, R.: PTRwid: A new widget tool for processing PTR-TOF-MS data, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3903–3922, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-3903-2015, 2015.
Holzinger, R., Kasper-Giebl, A., Staudinger, M., Schauer, G., and Röckmann, T.: Analysis of the chemical composition of organic aerosol at the Mt. Sonnblick observatory using a novel high mass resolution thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometer (hr-TD-PTR-MS), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10111–10128, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-10111-2010, 2010a.
Holzinger, R., Williams, J., Herrmann, F., Lelieveld, J., Donahue, N. M., and Röckmann, T.: Aerosol analysis using a Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (TD-PTR-MS): a new approach to study processing of organic aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2257–2267, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-2257-2010, 2010b.
Kroll, J. H., Donahue, N. M., Jimenez, J. L., Kessler, S. H., Canagaratna, M. R., Wilson, K. R., Altieri, K. E., Mazzoleni, L. R., Wozniak, A. S., Bluhm, H., Mysak, E. R., Smith, J. D., Kolb, C. E., and Worsnop, D. R.: Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol, Nat. Chem., 3, 133–139, https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.948, 2011.
Kujawinski, E. B., Freitas, M. A., Zang, X., Hatcher, P. G., Green-Church, K. B., and Jones, R. B.: The application of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) to the structural characterization of natural organic matter, Org. Geochem., 33, 171–180, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(01)00149-8, 2002.
Legrand, M., Preunkert, S., Jourdain, B., Guilhermet, J., Faïn, X., Alekhina, I., and Petit, J. R.: Water-soluble organic carbon in snow and ice deposited at Alpine, Greenland, and Antarctic sites: a critical review of available data and their atmospheric relevance, Clim. Past, 9, 2195–2211, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-9-2195-2013, 2013.
Marsh, J. J. S., Boschi, V. L., Sleighter, R. L., Grannas, A. M., and Hatcher, P. G.: Characterization of dissolved organic matter from a Greenland ice core by nanospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, J. Glaciol., 59, 225–232, https://doi.org/10.3189/2013JoG12J061, 2013.
Materić, D.: Analysis of organic matter in surface snow by PTR-MS – implications for dry deposition dynamics in the Alps, Utrecht University, Utrecht, https://doi.org/10.24416/UU01-6LY8GT, 2019.
Materić, D., Peacock, M., Kent, M., Cook, S., Gauci, V., Röckmann, T., and Holzinger, R.: Characterisation of the semi-volatile component of Dissolved Organic Matter by Thermal Desorption – Proton Transfer Reaction – Mass Spectrometry, Sci. Rep.-UK, 7, 15936, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16256-x, 2017.
Müller-Tautges, C., Eichler, A., Schwikowski, M., Pezzatti, G. B., Conedera, M., and Hoffmann, T.: Historic records of organic compounds from a high Alpine glacier: influences of biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions, and dust transport, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1029–1043, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-1029-2016, 2016.
Nguyen, T. B., Crounse, J. D., Teng, A. P., St. Clair, J. M., Paulot, F., Wolfe, G. M., and Wennberg, P. O.: Rapid deposition of oxidized biogenic compounds to a temperate forest, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, E392–E401, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418702112, 2015.
Pokhrel, A., Kawamura, K., Ono, K., Seki, O., Fu, P., Matoba, S., and Shiraiwa, T.: Ice core records of monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers from Aurora Peak in Alaska since 1660s: Implication for climate change variability in the North Pacific Rim, Atmos. Environ., 130, 105–112, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.09.063, 2016.
Salvador, C. M., Ho, T.-T., Chou, C. C.-K., Chen, M.-J., Huang, W.-R., and Huang, S.-H.: Characterization of the organic matter in submicron urban aerosols using a Thermo-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TD-PTR-TOF-MS), Atmos. Environ., 140, 565–575, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.029, 2016.
Singh, P., Kumar, N., and Arora, M.: Degree–day factors for snow and ice for Dokriani Glacier, Garhwal Himalayas, J. Hydrol., 235, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00249-3, 2000.
Strader, R., Lurmann, F., and Pandis, S. N.: Evaluation of secondary organic aerosol formation in winter, Atmos. Environ., 33, 4849–4863, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00310-6, 1999.
Timkovsky, J., Dusek, U., Henzing, J. S., Kuipers, T. L., Röckmann, T., and Holzinger, R.: Offline thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry to study composition of organic aerosol, J. Aerosol Sci., 79, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2014.08.010, 2015.
Zhao, Y., Hennigan, C. J., May, A. A., Tkacik, D. S., de Gouw, J. A., Gilman, J. B., Kuster, W. C., Borbon, A., and Robinson, A. L.: Intermediate-Volatility Organic Compounds: A Large Source of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 13743–13750, https://doi.org/10.1021/es5035188, 2014.