Articles | Volume 10, issue 2
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Analyzing airflow in static ice caves by using the calcFLOW method
Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambiente e Territorio e Scienze della Terra, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milan, Italy
University of Bern, Astronomical Institute, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Ruhr-University Bochum, Geography Department, Working Group Cave- and Subway-Climatology, Universitätsstrasse 150/Building NA, 44780 Bochum, Germany
Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambiente e Territorio e Scienze della Terra, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milan, Italy
No articles found.
Giovanni Baccolo, Barbara Delmonte, Elena Di Stefano, Giannantonio Cibin, Ilaria Crotti, Massimo Frezzotti, Dariush Hampai, Yoshinori Iizuka, Augusto Marcelli, and Valter Maggi
The Cryosphere, 15, 4807–4822,Short summary
As scientists are pushing efforts to recover deep ice cores to extend paleoclimatic reconstructions, it is now essential to explore deep ice. The latter was considered a relatively stable environment, but this view is changing. This study shows that the conditions of deep ice promote the interaction between soluble and insoluble impurities, favoring complex geochemical reactions that lead to the englacial dissolution and precipitation of specific minerals present in atmospheric mineral dust.
Daniela Festi, Margit Schwikowski, Valter Maggi, Klaus Oeggl, and Theo Manuel Jenk
The Cryosphere, 15, 4135–4143,Short summary
In our study we dated a 46 m deep ice core retrieved from the Adamello glacier (Central Italian Alps). We obtained a timescale combining the results of radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs with annual layer counting derived from pollen and refractory black carbon concentrations. Our results indicate that the surface of the glacier is older than the drilling date of 2016 by about 20 years, therefore revealing that the glacier is at high risk of collapsing under current climate warming conditions.
Filipe G. L. Lindau, Jefferson C. Simões, Barbara Delmonte, Patrick Ginot, Giovanni Baccolo, Chiara I. Paleari, Elena Di Stefano, Elena Korotkikh, Douglas S. Introne, Valter Maggi, Eduardo Garzanti, and Sergio Andò
The Cryosphere, 15, 1383–1397,Short summary
Information about the past climate variability in tropical South America is stored in the snow layers of the tropical Andean glaciers. Here we show evidence that the presence of very large aeolian mineral dust particles at Nevado Illimani (Bolivia) is strictly controlled by the occurrence of summer storms in the Bolivian Altiplano. Therefore, based on the snow dust content and its composition of stable water isotopes, we propose a new proxy for information on previous summer storms.
Andreas Kvas, Jan Martin Brockmann, Sandro Krauss, Till Schubert, Thomas Gruber, Ulrich Meyer, Torsten Mayer-Gürr, Wolf-Dieter Schuh, Adrian Jäggi, and Roland Pail
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 99–118,Short summary
Earth's gravity field provides invaluable insights into the state and changing nature of our planet. GOCO06s combines over 1 billion measurements from 19 satellites to produce a global gravity field model. The combination of different observation principles allows us to exploit the strengths of each satellite mission and provide a high-quality data set for Earth and climate sciences.
Martin Lasser, Ulrich Meyer, Adrian Jäggi, Torsten Mayer-Gürr, Andreas Kvas, Karl Hans Neumayer, Christoph Dahle, Frank Flechtner, Jean-Michel Lemoine, Igor Koch, Matthias Weigelt, and Jakob Flury
Adv. Geosci., 55, 1–11,Short summary
Correctly determining the orbit of Earth-orbiting satellites requires to account multiple background effects which appear in the system Earth. Usually, these effects are introduced by various complex force models, which are not always easy to handle. We publish and validate a data set of commonly used models to make it easier to track down potential issues when applying such background forces in orbit and gravity field determination.
Martin Lasser, Ulrich Meyer, Daniel Arnold, and Adrian Jäggi
Adv. Geosci., 50, 101–113,Short summary
We compute gravity field solutions from kinematic orbit positions of GRACE. These positions are derived from GPS based observations, and hence, they are contaminated by measurement noise. We present three methods of dealing with the noise in the data to obtain not only high-quality gravity field solutions but also an accurate quality information of the gravity fields.
Filipe Gaudie Ley Lindau, Jefferson Cardia Simões, Rafael da Rocha Ribeiro, Patrick Ginot, Barbara Delmonte, Giovanni Baccolo, Stanislav Kutuzov, Valter Maggi, and Edson Ramirez
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Glaciers are important freshwater sources in the Tropical Andes. Their retreat has been accelerating since the 1980s. This exposes fresh glacial sediments and facilitates the transport of coarse dust particles to the Nevado Illimani summit. Both the glacial area of Illimani and its ice core record of coarse dust particles respond to warmer conditions across the southern tropical Andes, and drier conditions over the Amazon basin.
João Teixeira da Encarnação, Pieter Visser, Daniel Arnold, Aleš Bezdek, Eelco Doornbos, Matthias Ellmer, Junyi Guo, Jose van den IJssel, Elisabetta Iorfida, Adrian Jäggi, Jaroslav Klokocník, Sandro Krauss, Xinyuan Mao, Torsten Mayer-Gürr, Ulrich Meyer, Josef Sebera, C. K. Shum, Chaoyang Zhang, Yu Zhang, and Christoph Dahle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1385–1417,Short summary
Although not the primary mission of the Swarm three-satellite constellation, the sensors on these satellites are accurate enough to measure the melting and accumulation of Earth’s ice reservoirs, precipitation cycles, floods, and droughts, amongst others. Swarm sees these changes well compared to the dedicated GRACE satellites at spatial scales of roughly 1500 km. Swarm confirms most GRACE observations, such as the large ice melting in Greenland and the wet and dry seasons in the Amazon.
Giovanni Baccolo, Edyta Łokas, Paweł Gaca, Dario Massabò, Roberto Ambrosini, Roberto S. Azzoni, Caroline Clason, Biagio Di Mauro, Andrea Franzetti, Massimiliano Nastasi, Michele Prata, Paolo Prati, Ezio Previtali, Barbara Delmonte, and Valter Maggi
The Cryosphere, 14, 657–672,Short summary
Cryoconite is the sediment found on the surface of glaciers. The paper presents cryoconite as an environmental matrix able to accumulate natural and artificial radioactivity with unprecedented efficiency. Only samples from sites where nuclear accidents and explosions occurred present a stronger radioactive contamination. The peculiarities of glacial environments are responsible for this extreme feature, making cryoconite a useful tool tool for the monitoring of environmental radioactivity.
Biagio Di Mauro, Roberto Garzonio, Micol Rossini, Gianluca Filippa, Paolo Pogliotti, Marta Galvagno, Umberto Morra di Cella, Mirco Migliavacca, Giovanni Baccolo, Massimiliano Clemenza, Barbara Delmonte, Valter Maggi, Marie Dumont, François Tuzet, Matthieu Lafaysse, Samuel Morin, Edoardo Cremonese, and Roberto Colombo
The Cryosphere, 13, 1147–1165,Short summary
The snow albedo reduction due to dust from arid regions alters the melting dynamics of the snowpack, resulting in earlier snowmelt. We estimate up to 38 days of anticipated snow disappearance for a season that was characterized by a strong dust deposition event. This process has a series of further impacts. For example, earlier snowmelts may alter the hydrological cycle in the Alps, induce higher sensitivity to late summer drought, and finally impact vegetation and animal phenology.
Giovanni Leonelli, Anna Coppola, Maria Cristina Salvatore, Carlo Baroni, Giovanna Battipaglia, Tiziana Gentilesca, Francesco Ripullone, Marco Borghetti, Emanuele Conte, Roberto Tognetti, Marco Marchetti, Fabio Lombardi, Michele Brunetti, Maurizio Maugeri, Manuela Pelfini, Paolo Cherubini, Antonello Provenzale, and Valter Maggi
Clim. Past, 13, 1451–1471,Short summary
We analyze a tree-ring network from several sites distributed along the Italian Peninsula with the aims of detecting common climate drivers of tree growth and of reconstructing the past climate. We detect the main climatic drivers modulating tree-ring width (RW) and tree-ring maximum latewood density (MXD) and we reconstruct late summer temperatures since the early 1700s using a MXD chronology: this reconstruction is representative of a wide area around the Italian Peninsula.
S. Albani, N. M. Mahowald, G. Winckler, R. F. Anderson, L. I. Bradtmiller, B. Delmonte, R. François, M. Goman, N. G. Heavens, P. P. Hesse, S. A. Hovan, S. G. Kang, K. E. Kohfeld, H. Lu, V. Maggi, J. A. Mason, P. A. Mayewski, D. McGee, X. Miao, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, A. T. Perry, A. Pourmand, H. M. Roberts, N. Rosenbloom, T. Stevens, and J. Sun
Clim. Past, 11, 869–903,Short summary
We propose an innovative framework to organize paleodust records, formalized in a publicly accessible database, and discuss the emerging properties of the global dust cycle during the Holocene by integrating our analysis with simulations performed with the Community Earth System Model. We show how the size distribution of dust is intrinsically related to the dust mass accumulation rates and that only considering a consistent size range allows for a consistent analysis of the global dust cycle.
Related subject area
Climate InteractionsClimatic control of the surface mass balance of the Patagonian IcefieldsSpatio-temporal reconstruction of winter glacier mass balance in the Alps, Scandinavia, Central Asia and western Canada (1981–2019) using climate reanalyses and machine learningChanges in March mean snow water equivalent since the mid-twentieth century and the contributing factors in reanalyses and CMIP6 climate modelsImpacts of snow assimilation on seasonal snow and meteorological forecasts for the Tibetan PlateauThe Antarctic contribution to 21st-century sea-level rise predicted by the UK Earth System Model with an interactive ice sheetA probabilistic framework for quantifying the role of anthropogenic climate change in marine-terminating glacier retreatsSynoptic control over winter snowfall variability observed in a remote site of Apennine Mountains (Italy), 1884–2015Network connectivity between the winter Arctic Oscillation and summer sea ice in CMIP6 models and observationsLand–atmosphere interactions in sub-polar and alpine climates in the CORDEX Flagship Pilot Study Land Use and Climate Across Scales (LUCAS) models – Part 2: The role of changing vegetationEvidence of elevation-dependent warming from the Chinese Tian ShanThe contribution of melt ponds to enhanced Arctic sea-ice melt during the Last InterglacialSignificant additional Antarctic warming in atmospheric bias-corrected ARPEGE projections with respect to control runOn the attribution of industrial-era glacier mass loss to anthropogenic climate changeSnow conditions in northern Europe: the dynamics of interannual variability versus projected long-term changeDiverging responses of high-latitude CO2 and CH4 emissions in idealized climate change scenariosDistributed summer air temperatures across mountain glaciers in the south-east Tibetan Plateau: temperature sensitivity and comparison with existing glacier datasetsAnalyzing links between simulated Laptev Sea sea ice and atmospheric conditions over adjoining landmasses using causal-effect networksAnthropogenic climate change versus internal climate variability: impacts on snow cover in the Swiss AlpsClouds damp the radiative impacts of polar sea ice lossHistorical Northern Hemisphere snow cover trends and projected changes in the CMIP6 multi-model ensembleGlacier runoff variations since 1955 in the Maipo River basin, in the semiarid Andes of central ChileCMIP5 model selection for ISMIP6 ice sheet model forcing: Greenland and AntarcticaOptimization of over-summer snow storage at midlatitudes and low elevationEffect of prescribed sea surface conditions on the modern and future Antarctic surface climate simulated by the ARPEGE atmosphere general circulation modelImpact of warming shelf waters on ice mélange and terminus retreat at a large SE Greenland glacierA long-term dataset of climatic mass balance, snow conditions, and runoff in Svalbard (1957–2018)An efficient surface energy–mass balance model for snow and iceBrief communication: Understanding solar geoengineering's potential to limit sea level rise requires attention from cryosphere expertsSpring snow albedo feedback over northern Eurasia: Comparing in situ measurements with reanalysis productsThe influence of atmospheric grid resolution in a climate model-forced ice sheet simulationFuture snowfall in the Alps: projections based on the EURO-CORDEX regional climate modelsComplex principal component analysis of mass balance changes on the Qinghai–Tibetan PlateauSonar gas flux estimation by bubble insonification: application to methane bubble flux from seep areas in the outer Laptev SeaBrief communication: The global signature of post-1900 land ice wastage on vertical land motionSimulating the evolution of Hardangerjøkulen ice cap in southern Norway since the mid-Holocene and its sensitivity to climate changeAtmospheric forcing of sea ice anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya regionBrief communication: Impacts of a developing polynya off Commonwealth Bay, East Antarctica, triggered by grounding of iceberg B09BA simple equation for the melt elevation feedback of ice sheetsGlacier melting and precipitation trends detected by surface area changes in Himalayan pondsENSO influence on surface energy and mass balance at Shallap Glacier, Cordillera Blanca, PeruWeak precipitation, warm winters and springs impact glaciers of south slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya) in the last 2 decades (1994–2013)Projected changes of snow conditions and avalanche activity in a warming climate: the French Alps over the 2020–2050 and 2070–2100 periodsThe effect of snow/sea ice type on the response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth) to increasing black carbonSensitivity of lake ice regimes to climate change in the Nordic regionClimate change implications for the glaciers of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalayan regionModeling near-surface firn temperature in a cold accumulation zone (Col du Dôme, French Alps): from a physical to a semi-parameterized approachLittle Ice Age climate reconstruction from ensemble reanalysis of Alpine glacier fluctuationsBoreal and temperate snow cover variations induced by black carbon emissions in the middle of the 21st centuryCoupling of climate models and ice sheet models by surface mass balance gradients: application to the Greenland Ice SheetThe impact of a seasonally ice free Arctic Ocean on the temperature, precipitation and surface mass balance of Svalbard
Tomás Carrasco-Escaff, Maisa Rojas, René Darío Garreaud, Deniz Bozkurt, and Marius Schaefer
The Cryosphere, 17, 1127–1149,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the interplay between climate and the Patagonian Icefields. By modeling the glacioclimatic conditions of the southern Andes, we found that the annual variations in net surface mass change experienced by these icefields are mainly controlled by annual variations in the air pressure field observed near the Drake Passage. Little dependence on main modes of variability was found, suggesting the Drake Passage as a key region for understanding the Patagonian Icefields.
Matteo Guidicelli, Matthias Huss, Marco Gabella, and Nadine Salzmann
The Cryosphere, 17, 977–1002,Short summary
Spatio-temporal reconstruction of winter glacier mass balance is important for assessing long-term impacts of climate change. However, high-altitude regions significantly lack reliable observations, which is limiting the calibration of glaciological and hydrological models. We aim at improving knowledge on the spatio-temporal variations in winter glacier mass balance by exploring the combination of data from reanalyses and direct snow accumulation observations on glaciers with machine learning.
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
Changes in snow amount since the mid-20th century are studied, focusing on the mechanisms that have changed the water equivalent of the snowpack (SWE). Both reanalysis and climate model data show a decrease in SWE in most of the Northern Hemisphere. The total winter precipitation has increased in most areas, but this has been compensated by reduced snowfall-to-precipitation ratio and enhanced snowmelt. However, the details and magnitude of these trends vary between different data sets.
Wei Li, Jie Chen, Lu Li, Yvan J. Orsolini, Yiheng Xiang, Retish Senan, and Patricia de Rosnay
The Cryosphere, 16, 4985–5000,Short summary
Snow assimilation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) may influence seasonal forecasts over this region. To investigate the impacts of snow assimilation on the seasonal forecasts of snow, temperature and precipitation, twin ensemble reforecasts are initialized with and without snow assimilation above 1500 m altitude over the TP for spring and summer in 2018. The results show that snow assimilation can improve seasonal forecasts over the TP through the interaction between land and atmosphere.
Antony Siahaan, Robin S. Smith, Paul R. Holland, Adrian Jenkins, Jonathan M. Gregory, Victoria Lee, Pierre Mathiot, Antony J. Payne, Jeff K. Ridley, and Colin G. Jones
The Cryosphere, 16, 4053–4086,Short summary
The UK Earth System Model is the first to fully include interactions of the atmosphere and ocean with the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Under the low-greenhouse-gas SSP1–1.9 (Shared Socioeconomic Pathway) scenario, the ice sheet remains stable over the 21st century. Under the strong-greenhouse-gas SSP5–8.5 scenario, the model predicts strong increases in melting of large ice shelves and snow accumulation on the surface. The dominance of accumulation leads to a sea level fall at the end of the century.
John Erich Christian, Alexander A. Robel, and Ginny Catania
The Cryosphere, 16, 2725–2743,Short summary
Marine-terminating glaciers have recently retreated dramatically, but the role of anthropogenic forcing remains uncertain. We use idealized model simulations to develop a framework for assessing the probability of rapid retreat in the context of natural climate variability. Our analyses show that century-scale anthropogenic trends can substantially increase the probability of retreats. This provides a roadmap for future work to formally assess the role of human activity in recent glacier change.
Vincenzo Capozzi, Carmela De Vivo, and Giorgio Budillon
The Cryosphere, 16, 1741–1763,Short summary
This work documents the snowfall variability observed from late XIX century to recent years in Montevergine (southern Italy) and discusses its relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation. The main results lie in the absence of a trend until mid-1970s, in the strong reduction of the snowfall quantity and frequency from mid-1970s to 1990s and in the increase of both variables from early 2000s. In the past 50 years, the nivometric regime has been strongly modulated by AO and NAO indices.
William Gregory, Julienne Stroeve, and Michel Tsamados
The Cryosphere, 16, 1653–1673,Short summary
This research was conducted to better understand how coupled climate models simulate one of the large-scale interactions between the atmosphere and Arctic sea ice that we see in observational data, the accurate representation of which is important for producing reliable forecasts of Arctic sea ice on seasonal to inter-annual timescales. With network theory, this work shows that models do not reflect this interaction well on average, which is likely due to regional biases in sea ice thickness.
Priscilla A. Mooney, Diana Rechid, Edouard L. Davin, Eleni Katragkou, Natalie de Noblet-Ducoudré, Marcus Breil, Rita M. Cardoso, Anne Sophie Daloz, Peter Hoffmann, Daniela C. A. Lima, Ronny Meier, Pedro M. M. Soares, Giannis Sofiadis, Susanna Strada, Gustav Strandberg, Merja H. Toelle, and Marianne T. Lund
The Cryosphere, 16, 1383–1397,Short summary
We use multiple regional climate models to show that afforestation in sub-polar and alpine regions reduces the radiative impact of snow albedo on the atmosphere, reduces snow cover, and delays the start of the snowmelt season. This is important for local communities that are highly reliant on snowpack for water resources and winter tourism. However, models disagree on the amount of change particularly when snow is melting. This shows that more research is needed on snow–vegetation interactions.
Lu Gao, Haijun Deng, Xiangyong Lei, Jianhui Wei, Yaning Chen, Zhongqin Li, Miaomiao Ma, Xingwei Chen, Ying Chen, Meibing Liu, and Jianyun Gao
The Cryosphere, 15, 5765–5783,Short summary
There is a widespread controversy on the existence of the elevation-dependent warming (EDW) phenomenon due to the limited observations in high mountains. This study provides new evidence of EDW from the Chinese Tian Shan based on a high-resolution (1 km, 6-hourly) air temperature dataset. The result reveals the significant EDW on a monthly scale. The warming rate of the minimum temperature in winter showed a significant elevation dependence (p < 0.01), especially above 3000 m.
Rachel Diamond, Louise C. Sime, David Schroeder, and Maria-Vittoria Guarino
The Cryosphere, 15, 5099–5114,Short summary
The Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 3 (HadGEM3) is the first coupled climate model to simulate an ice-free summer Arctic during the Last Interglacial (LIG), 127 000 years ago, and yields accurate Arctic surface temperatures. We investigate the causes and impacts of this extreme simulated ice loss and, in particular, the role of melt ponds.
Julien Beaumet, Michel Déqué, Gerhard Krinner, Cécile Agosta, Antoinette Alias, and Vincent Favier
The Cryosphere, 15, 3615–3635,Short summary
We use empirical run-time bias correction (also called flux correction) to correct the systematic errors of the ARPEGE atmospheric climate model. When applying the method to future climate projections, we found a lesser poleward shift and an intensification of the maximum of westerly winds present in the southern high latitudes. This yields a significant additional warming of +0.6 to +0.9 K of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with respect to non-corrected control projections using the RCP8.5 scenario.
Gerard H. Roe, John Erich Christian, and Ben Marzeion
The Cryosphere, 15, 1889–1905,Short summary
The worldwide retreat of mountain glaciers and consequent loss of ice mass is one of the most obvious signs of a changing climate and has significant implications for the hydrology and natural hazards in mountain landscapes. Consistent with our understanding of the human role in temperature change, we demonstrate that the central estimate of the size of the human-caused mass loss is essentially 100 % of the observed loss. This assessment resolves some important inconsistencies in the literature.
The Cryosphere, 15, 1677–1696,Short summary
Interannual variability of snow amount in northern Europe is studied. In the coldest areas, total winter precipitation governs snow amount variability. In warmer regions, the fraction of snowfall that survives without melting is more important. Since winter temperature and precipitation are positively correlated, there is often more snow in milder winters in the coldest areas. However, in model simulations of a warmer future climate, snow amount decreases nearly everywhere in northern Europe.
Philipp de Vrese, Tobias Stacke, Thomas Kleinen, and Victor Brovkin
The Cryosphere, 15, 1097–1130,Short summary
With large amounts of carbon stored in frozen soils and a highly energy-limited vegetation the Arctic is very sensitive to changes in climate. Here our simulations with the land surface model JSBACH reveal a number of offsetting factors moderating the Arctic's net response to global warming. More importantly we find that the effects of climate change may not be fully reversible on decadal timescales, leading to substantially different CH4 emissions depending on whether the Arctic warms or cools.
Thomas E. Shaw, Wei Yang, Álvaro Ayala, Claudio Bravo, Chuanxi Zhao, and Francesca Pellicciotti
The Cryosphere, 15, 595–614,Short summary
Near surface air temperature (Ta) is important for simulating the melting of glaciers, though its variability in space and time on mountain glaciers is still poorly understood. We combine new Ta observations on glacier in Tibet with several glacier datasets around the world to explore the applicability of an existing method to estimate glacier Ta based upon glacier flow distance. We make a first step at generalising a method and highlight the remaining unknowns for this field of research.
Zoé Rehder, Anne Laura Niederdrenk, Lars Kaleschke, and Lars Kutzbach
The Cryosphere, 14, 4201–4215,Short summary
To better understand the connection between sea ice and permafrost, we investigate how sea ice interacts with the atmosphere over the adjacent landmass in the Laptev Sea region using a climate model. Melt of sea ice in spring is mainly controlled by the atmosphere; in fall, feedback mechanisms are important. Throughout summer, lower-than-usual sea ice leads to more southward transport of heat and moisture, but these links from sea ice to the atmosphere over land are weak.
Fabian Willibald, Sven Kotlarski, Adrienne Grêt-Regamey, and Ralf Ludwig
The Cryosphere, 14, 2909–2924,Short summary
Climate change will significantly reduce snow cover, but the extent remains disputed. We use regional climate model data as a driver for a snow model to investigate the impacts of climate change and climate variability on snow. We show that natural climate variability is a dominant source of uncertainty in future snow trends. We show that anthropogenic climate change will change the interannual variability of snow. Those factors will increase the vulnerabilities of snow-dependent economies.
Ramdane Alkama, Patrick C. Taylor, Lorea Garcia-San Martin, Herve Douville, Gregory Duveiller, Giovanni Forzieri, Didier Swingedouw, and Alessandro Cescatti
The Cryosphere, 14, 2673–2686,Short summary
The amount of solar energy absorbed by Earth is believed to strongly depend on clouds. Here, we investigate this relationship using satellite data and 32 climate models, showing that this relationship holds everywhere except over polar seas, where an increased reflection by clouds corresponds to an increase in absorbed solar radiation at the surface. This interplay between clouds and sea ice reduces by half the increase of net radiation at the surface that follows the sea ice retreat.
Lawrence Mudryk, María Santolaria-Otín, Gerhard Krinner, Martin Ménégoz, Chris Derksen, Claire Brutel-Vuilmet, Mike Brady, and Richard Essery
The Cryosphere, 14, 2495–2514,Short summary
We analyze how well updated state-of-the-art climate models reproduce observed historical snow cover extent and snow mass and how they project that these quantities will change up to the year 2100. Overall the updated models better represent historical snow extent than previous models, and they simulate stronger historical trends in snow extent and snow mass. They project that spring snow extent will decrease by 8 % for each degree Celsius that the global surface air temperature increases.
Álvaro Ayala, David Farías-Barahona, Matthias Huss, Francesca Pellicciotti, James McPhee, and Daniel Farinotti
The Cryosphere, 14, 2005–2027,Short summary
We reconstruct past glacier changes (1955–2016) and estimate the committed ice loss in the Maipo River basin (semi-arid Andes of Chile), with a focus on glacier runoff. We found that glacier volume has decreased by one-fifth since 1955 and that glacier runoff shows a sequence of decreasing maxima starting in a severe drought in 1968. As meltwater originating from the Andes plays a key role in this dry region, our results can be useful for developing adaptation or mitigation strategies.
Alice Barthel, Cécile Agosta, Christopher M. Little, Tore Hattermann, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Heiko Goelzer, Sophie Nowicki, Helene Seroussi, Fiammetta Straneo, and Thomas J. Bracegirdle
The Cryosphere, 14, 855–879,Short summary
We compare existing coupled climate models to select a total of six models to provide forcing to the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet simulations of the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (ISMIP6). We select models based on (i) their representation of current climate near Antarctica and Greenland relative to observations and (ii) their ability to sample a diversity of projected atmosphere and ocean changes over the 21st century.
Hannah S. Weiss, Paul R. Bierman, Yves Dubief, and Scott D. Hamshaw
The Cryosphere, 13, 3367–3382,Short summary
Climate change is devastating winter tourism. High-elevation, high-latitude ski centers have turned to saving snow over the summer. We present results of two field seasons to test and optimize over-summer snow storage at a midlatitude, low-elevation nordic ski center in the northeastern USA. In 2018, we tested coverings and found success overlaying 20 cm of wet woodchips with a reflective sheet. In 2019, we employed this strategy to a large pile and stored sufficient snow to open the ski season.
Julien Beaumet, Michel Déqué, Gerhard Krinner, Cécile Agosta, and Antoinette Alias
The Cryosphere, 13, 3023–3043,Short summary
The atmospheric model ARPEGE is used with a stretched grid in order to reach an average horizontal resolution of 35 km over Antarctica. Over 1981–2010, we forced the model with observed and modelled sea surface conditions (SSCs). For the late 21st century, we use original and bias-corrected sea surface conditions from RCP8.5 climate projections. We assess the impact of using direct or bias-corrected SSCs for the evolution of Antarctic climate and surface mass balance.
Suzanne L. Bevan, Adrian J. Luckman, Douglas I. Benn, Tom Cowton, and Joe Todd
The Cryosphere, 13, 2303–2315,Short summary
Kangerlussuaq Glacier in Greenland retreated significantly in the early 2000s and typified the response of calving glaciers to climate change. Satellite images show that it has recently retreated even further. The current retreat follows the appearance of extremely warm surface waters on the continental shelf during the summer of 2016, which likely entered the fjord and caused the rigid mass of sea ice and icebergs, which normally inhibits calving, to melt and break up.
Ward van Pelt, Veijo Pohjola, Rickard Pettersson, Sergey Marchenko, Jack Kohler, Bartłomiej Luks, Jon Ove Hagen, Thomas V. Schuler, Thorben Dunse, Brice Noël, and Carleen Reijmer
The Cryosphere, 13, 2259–2280,Short summary
The climate in Svalbard is undergoing amplified change compared to the global mean, which has a strong impact on the climatic mass balance of glaciers and the state of seasonal snow in land areas. In this study we analyze a coupled energy balance–subsurface model dataset, which provides detailed information on distributed climatic mass balance, snow conditions, and runoff across Svalbard between 1957 and 2018.
Andreas Born, Michael A. Imhof, and Thomas F. Stocker
The Cryosphere, 13, 1529–1546,Short summary
We present a new numerical model to simulate the surface energy and mass balance of snow and ice. While similar models exist and cover a wide range of complexity from empirical models to those that simulate the microscopic structure of individual snow grains, we aim to strike a balance between physical completeness and numerical efficiency. This new model will enable physically accurate simulations over timescales of hundreds of millennia, a key requirement of investigating ice age cycles.
Peter J. Irvine, David W. Keith, and John Moore
The Cryosphere, 12, 2501–2513,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering, a form of solar geoengineering, is a proposal to add a reflective layer of aerosol to the upper atmosphere. This would reduce sea level rise by slowing the melting of ice on land and the thermal expansion of the oceans. However, there is considerable uncertainty about its potential efficacy. This article highlights key uncertainties in the sea level response to solar geoengineering and recommends approaches to address these in future work.
Martin Wegmann, Emanuel Dutra, Hans-Werner Jacobi, and Olga Zolina
The Cryosphere, 12, 1887–1898,Short summary
An important factor for Earth's climate is the high sunlight reflectivity of snow. By melting, it reveals darker surfaces and sunlight is converted to heat. We investigate how well this process is represented in reanalyses data sets compared to observations over Russia. We found snow processes to be well represented, but reflectivity variability needs to be improved. Our results highlight the need for a better representation of this key climate change feedback process in modelled data.
Marcus Lofverstrom and Johan Liakka
The Cryosphere, 12, 1499–1510,
Prisco Frei, Sven Kotlarski, Mark A. Liniger, and Christoph Schär
The Cryosphere, 12, 1–24,Short summary
Snowfall is central to Alpine environments, and its future changes will be associated with pronounced impacts. We here assess future snowfall changes in the European Alps based on an ensemble of state-of-the-art regional climate model experiments and on two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The results reveal pronounced changes in the Alpine snowfall climate with considerable snowfall reductions at low and mid-elevations but also snowfall increases at high elevations in midwinter.
Jingang Zhan, Hongling Shi, Yong Wang, and Yixin Yao
The Cryosphere, 11, 1487–1499,Short summary
The mass balance change on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the result of interactions between the atmospheric vapor and the surface water resources. We evaluated the spatial characteristics and principal components of mass balance change using CPCA and wavelet analysis. The results reflect the change in four major different atmospheric circulation patterns and their contribution percentages to mass balance. The novelty of the phase information revealed their impact area and travel route in detail.
Ira Leifer, Denis Chernykh, Natalia Shakhova, and Igor Semiletov
The Cryosphere, 11, 1333–1350,Short summary
Vast Arctic methane deposits may alter global climate and require remote sensing (RS) to map. Sonar has great promise, but quantitative inversion based on theory is challenged by multiple bubble acoustical scattering in plumes. We demonstrate use of a real-world in situ bubble plume calibration using a bubble model to correct for differences in the calibration and seep plumes. Spatial seep sonar maps were then used to improve understanding of subsurface geologic controls.
Riccardo E. M. Riva, Thomas Frederikse, Matt A. King, Ben Marzeion, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
The Cryosphere, 11, 1327–1332,Short summary
The reduction of ice masses stored on land has made an important contribution to sea-level rise over the last century, as well as changed the Earth's shape. We model the solid-earth response to ice mass changes and find significant vertical deformation signals over large continental areas. We show how deformation rates have varied strongly throughout the last century, which affects the interpretation and extrapolation of recent observations of vertical land motion and sea-level change.
Henning Åkesson, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Rianne H. Giesen, and Mathieu Morlighem
The Cryosphere, 11, 281–302,Short summary
We present simulations of the history of Hardangerjøkulen ice cap in southern Norway using a dynamical ice sheet model. From mid-Holocene ice-free conditions 4000 years ago, Hardangerjøkulen grows nonlinearly in response to a linear climate forcing, reaching maximum extent during the Little Ice Age (~ 1750 AD). The ice cap exhibits spatially asymmetric growth and retreat and is highly sensitive to climate change. Our results call for reassessment of glacier reconstructions from proxy records.
Ethan R. Dale, Adrian J. McDonald, Jack H. J. Coggins, and Wolfgang Rack
The Cryosphere, 11, 267–280,Short summary
This work studies the affects of strong winds on sea ice within the Ross Sea polynya. We compare both automatic weather station (AWS) and reanalysis wind data with sea ice concentration (SIC) measurements based on satellite images. Due to its low resolution, the reanalysis data were unable to reproduce several relationships found between the AWS and SIC data. We find that the strongest third of wind speeds had the most significant affect on SIC and resulting sea ice production.
Christopher J. Fogwill, Erik van Sebille, Eva A. Cougnon, Chris S. M. Turney, Steve R. Rintoul, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi, Graeme F. Clark, E. M. Marzinelli, Eleanor B. Rainsley, and Lionel Carter
The Cryosphere, 10, 2603–2609,Short summary
Here we report new data from in situ oceanographic surveys and high-resolution ocean modelling experiments in the Commonwealth Bay region of East Antarctica, where in 2010 there was a major reconfiguration of the regional icescape due to the collision of the 97 km long iceberg B09B with the Mertz Glacier tongue. Here we compare post-calving observations with high-resolution ocean modelling which suggest that this reconfiguration has led to the development of a new polynya off Commonwealth Bay.
Anders Levermann and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere, 10, 1799–1807,Short summary
In recent decades, the Greenland Ice Sheet has been losing mass and has thereby contributed to global sea-level rise. Here we derive the basic equations for the melt elevation feedback that can lead to self-amplifying melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet and ice sheets in general. The theory unifies the results of complex models when the feedback dominates the dynamics and it allows us to estimate the melt time of ice sheets from data in cases where ice dynamic loss can be neglected.
Franco Salerno, Sudeep Thakuri, Nicolas Guyennon, Gaetano Viviano, and Gianni Tartari
The Cryosphere, 10, 1433–1448,Short summary
This contribution shows that the surface area variations of unconnected glacial ponds, i.e. ponds not directly connected to glacier ice, can be considered as suitable proxies for detecting past changes in the main hydrological components of the water balance (glacier melt, precipitation, evaporation) on the south side of Mt Everest.
F. Maussion, W. Gurgiser, M. Großhauser, G. Kaser, and B. Marzeion
The Cryosphere, 9, 1663–1683,Short summary
Using a newly developed open-source tool, we downscale the glacier surface energy and mass balance fluxes at Shallap Glacier. This allows an unprecedented quantification of the ENSO influence on a tropical glacier at climatological time scales (1980-2013). We find a stronger and steadier anti-correlation between Pacific sea-surface temperature (SST) and glacier mass balance than previously reported and provide keys to understand its mechanism.
F. Salerno, N. Guyennon, S. Thakuri, G. Viviano, E. Romano, E. Vuillermoz, P. Cristofanelli, P. Stocchi, G. Agrillo, Y. Ma, and G. Tartari
The Cryosphere, 9, 1229–1247,Short summary
Climate-trends data in Himalaya are completely absent at high elevation. We explore the south slopes of Mt Everest though time series reconstructed from 7 stations (2660-5600m) during 1994-2013. The main increase in temp is concentrated outside of the monsoon, minimum temp increased far more than maximum, while we note a precipitation weakening. We contribute to change the perspective on which climatic drivers (temperature vs. precipitation) led mainly the glacier responses in the last 20 yr.
H. Castebrunet, N. Eckert, G. Giraud, Y. Durand, and S. Morin
The Cryosphere, 8, 1673–1697,
A. A. Marks and M. D. King
The Cryosphere, 8, 1625–1638,
S. Gebre, T. Boissy, and K. Alfredsen
The Cryosphere, 8, 1589–1605,
A. J. Wiltshire
The Cryosphere, 8, 941–958,
A. Gilbert, C. Vincent, D. Six, P. Wagnon, L. Piard, and P. Ginot
The Cryosphere, 8, 689–703,
M. P. Lüthi
The Cryosphere, 8, 639–650,
M. Ménégoz, G. Krinner, Y. Balkanski, A. Cozic, O. Boucher, and P. Ciais
The Cryosphere, 7, 537–554,
M. M. Helsen, R. S. W. van de Wal, M. R. van den Broeke, W. J. van de Berg, and J. Oerlemans
The Cryosphere, 6, 255–272,
J. J. Day, J. L. Bamber, P. J. Valdes, and J. Kohler
The Cryosphere, 6, 35–50,
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In the paper a new method to calculate airflow speeds in static ice caves by using air temperature data is presented. As most study sites are in very remote places, where it is often not possible to use sonic anemometers and other devices for the analysis of the cave climate, we show how one can use the given database for calculating airflow speeds. Understanding/quantifying all elements of the specific cave climate is indispensable for understanding the evolution of the ice body in ice caves.
In the paper a new method to calculate airflow speeds in static ice caves by using air...