Articles | Volume 12, issue 10
The Cryosphere, 12, 3161–3175, 2018
The Cryosphere, 12, 3161–3175, 2018

Review article 04 Oct 2018

Review article | 04 Oct 2018

An assessment of sub-snow GPS for quantification of snow water equivalent

Ladina Steiner et al.

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Cited articles

Appel, F., Bach, H., Koch, F., Prasch, M., and Mauser, W.: SNOWSENSE: Using satellite navigation, communication and remote sensing for timely access to high-quality and reliable information on snow, in: the EARSeL Workshop SIG Remote Sensing of Land Ice and Snow, Berne, Switzerland, 3–6 February 2014, 245–262, 2014. a
Beaumont, R.: Hood pressure pillow snow gage, J. Appl. Meteorol., 4, 626–631, 1965. a
Beaumont, R.: Snow accumulation, in: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Western Snow Conference, Seattle, USA, 19–21 April 1966. a, b, c
Boniface, K., Braun, J., McCreight, J., and Nievinski, F.: Comparison of SNODAS to GNSS reflectometry snow depth in the Western United States, Hydrol. Proc., 29, 2425–2437,, 2015. a
Cardellach, E., Fabra, F., Rius, A., Pettinato, S., and Daddio, S.: Characterization of Dry-snow Sub-structure using GNSS Reflected Signals, Remote Sens. Environ., 124, 122–134, 2012. a
Short summary
The amount of water stored in snow cover is of high importance for flood risks, climate change, and early-warning systems. We evaluate the potential of using GPS to estimate the stored water. We use GPS antennas buried underneath the snowpack and develop a model based on the path elongation of the GPS signals while propagating through the snowpack. The method works well over full seasons, including melt periods. Results correspond within 10 % to the state-of-the-art reference data.