Articles | Volume 16, issue 8
Research article
24 Aug 2022
Research article |  | 24 Aug 2022

Snow Avalanche Frequency Estimation (SAFE): 32 years of monitoring remote avalanche depositional zones in high mountains of Afghanistan

Arnaud Caiserman, Roy C. Sidle, and Deo Raj Gurung

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Cited articles

Abermann, J., Eckerstorfer, M., Malnes, E., and Hansen, B. U.: A large wet snow avalanche cycle in West Greenland quantified using remote sensing and in situ observations, Nat. Hazards, 97, 517–534,, 2019. Accidents,, last access: 30 June 2021. 
European Agency for Asylum: Badakhshan,, last access: 15 August 2022. 
Bair, E. H., Rittger, K., Ahmad, J. A., and Chabot, D.: Comparison of modeled snow properties in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan, The Cryosphere, 14, 331–347,, 2020. 
Barbolini, M., Pagliardi, M., Ferro, F., and Corradeghini, P.: Avalanche hazard mapping over large undocumented areas, Nat. Hazards, 56, 451–464,, 2011. 
Short summary
Snow avalanches cause considerable material and human damage in all mountain regions of the world. We present the first model to automatically inventory avalanche deposits at the scale of a catchment area – here the Amu Panj in Afghanistan – every year since 1990. This model called Snow Avalanche Frequency Estimation (SAFE) is available online on the Google Engine. SAFE has been designed to be simple and universal to use. Nearly 810 000 avalanches were detected over the 32 years studied.