Articles | Volume 12, issue 7
26 Jul 2018
Research article | 26 Jul 2018
Pore morphology of polar firn around closure revealed by X-ray tomography
Alexis Burr et al.
No articles found.
Neige Calonne, Alexis Burr, Armelle Philip, Frédéric Flin, and Christian Geindreau
The Cryosphere, 16, 967–980,Short summary
Modeling gas transport in ice sheets from surface to close-off is key to interpreting climate archives. Estimates of the diffusion coefficient and permeability of snow and firn are required but remain a large source of uncertainty. We present a new dataset of diffusion coefficients and permeability from 20 to 120 m depth at two Antarctic sites. We suggest predictive formulas to estimate both properties over the entire 100–850 kg m3 density range, i.e., anywhere within the ice sheet column.
Max Thomas, Johannes C. Laube, Jan Kaiser, Samuel Allin, Patricia Martinerie, Robert Mulvaney, Anna Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Emmanuel Witrant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6857–6873,Short summary
CFC gases are destroying the Earth's life-protecting ozone layer. We improve understanding of CFC destruction by measuring the isotopic fingerprint of the carbon in the three most abundant CFCs. These are the first such measurements in the main region where CFCs are destroyed – the stratosphere. We reconstruct the atmospheric isotope histories of these CFCs back to the 1950s by measuring air extracted from deep snow and using a model. The model and the measurements are generally consistent.
Kévin Fourteau, Laurent Arnaud, Xavier Faïn, Patricia Martinerie, David M. Etheridge, Vladimir Lipenkov, and Jean-Marc Barnola
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1171–1177,Short summary
Measurements of the porosity of three polar firns were conducted in the 1990s by Jean-Marc Barnola using the method of gas pycnometry. From these data, a parametrization of firn pore closure was produced and used in different published articles. However, the data have not been published in their own right yet. We have made the data publicly accessible on the PANGAEA database and here propose describing how they were obtained and used to produce the pore closure parametrization.
Kévin Fourteau, Patricia Martinerie, Xavier Faïn, Alexey A. Ekaykin, Jérôme Chappellaz, and Vladimir Lipenkov
Clim. Past, 16, 503–522,Short summary
We quantify how the greenhouse gas records of East Antarctic ice cores (which are the oldest ice cores) might differ from the actual atmosphere history. It is required to properly interpret ice core data. For this, we measured the methane of five new East Antarctic ice core sections using a high-resolution technique. We found that in these very old ice cores, one can retrieve concentration variations occurring in only a few centuries, allowing climatologists to study climate's fast dynamics.
Kévin Fourteau, Patricia Martinerie, Xavier Faïn, Christoph F. Schaller, Rebecca J. Tuckwell, Henning Löwe, Laurent Arnaud, Olivier Magand, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Johannes Freitag, Robert Mulvaney, Martin Schneebeli, and Vladimir Ya. Lipenkov
The Cryosphere, 13, 3383–3403,Short summary
Understanding gas trapping in polar ice is essential to study the relationship between greenhouse gases and past climates. New data of bubble closure, used in a simple gas-trapping model, show inconsistency with the final air content in ice. This suggests gas trapping is not fully understood. We also use a combination of high-resolution measurements to investigate the effect of polar snow stratification on gas trapping and find that all strata have similar pores, but that some close in advance.
Kévin Fourteau, Xavier Faïn, Patricia Martinerie, Amaëlle Landais, Alexey A. Ekaykin, Vladimir Ya. Lipenkov, and Jérôme Chappellaz
Clim. Past, 13, 1815–1830,Short summary
We measured methane concentrations from a polar ice core to quantify the differences between the ice record and the past true atmospheric conditions. Two effects were investigated by combining data analysis and modeling: the stratification of polar snow before gas enclosure driving chronological hiatuses in the record and the gradual formation of bubbles in the ice attenuating fast atmospheric variations. This study will contribute to improving future climatic interpretations from ice archives.
Mike J. Newland, Patricia Martinerie, Emmanuel Witrant, Detlev Helmig, David R. Worton, Chris Hogan, William T. Sturges, and Claire E. Reeves
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8269–8283,Short summary
We report increasing levels of alkyl nitrates in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere between 1960 and the mid-1990s. These increases are symptomatic of large-scale changes to the chemical composition of the atmosphere, particularly with regards to the amounts of short-lived, reactive species. The observed increases are likely driven by increasing levels of nitrogen oxides. These changes have direct implications for the lifetimes of climate-relevant species in the atmosphere, such as methane.
Markella Prokopiou, Patricia Martinerie, Célia J. Sapart, Emmanuel Witrant, Guillaume Monteil, Kentaro Ishijima, Sophie Bernard, Jan Kaiser, Ingeborg Levin, Thomas Blunier, David Etheridge, Ed Dlugokencky, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4539–4564,Short summary
Nitrous oxide is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with an increasing mole fraction. To understand its natural and anthropogenic sources we employ isotope measurements. Results show that while the N2O mole fraction increases, its heavy isotope content decreases. The isotopic changes observed underline the dominance of agricultural emissions especially at the early part of the record, whereas in the later decades the contribution from other anthropogenic sources increases.
Johannes C. Laube, Norfazrin Mohd Hanif, Patricia Martinerie, Eileen Gallacher, Paul J. Fraser, Ray Langenfelds, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Jakob Schwander, Emmanuel Witrant, Jia-Lin Wang, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Lauren J. Gooch, Claire E. Reeves, William T. Sturges, and David E. Oram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15347–15358,
B. Lemieux-Dudon, L. Bazin, A. Landais, H. Toyé Mahamadou Kele, M. Guillevic, P. Kindler, F. Parrenin, and P. Martinerie
Clim. Past, 11, 959–978,
S. J. Allin, J. C. Laube, E. Witrant, J. Kaiser, E. McKenna, P. Dennis, R. Mulvaney, E. Capron, P. Martinerie, T. Röckmann, T. Blunier, J. Schwander, P. J. Fraser, R. L. Langenfelds, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6867–6877,Short summary
Stratospheric ozone protects life on Earth from harmful UV-B radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are man-made compounds which act to destroy this barrier. This paper presents (1) the first measurements of the stratospheric δ(37Cl) of CFCs -11 and -113; (2) the first quantification of long-term trends in the tropospheric δ(37Cl) of CFCs -11, -12 and -113. This study provides a better understanding of source and sink processes associated with these destructive compounds.
D. Helmig, V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, T. Röckmann, A. Zuiderweg, R. Holzinger, J. Hueber, C. Thompson, J. W. C. White, W. Sturges, A. Baker, T. Blunier, D. Etheridge, M. Rubino, and P. Tans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1463–1483,
V. V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, P. Novelli, D. M. Etheridge, I. Levin, Z. Wang, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. Kaiser, P. Lang, L. P. Steele, S. Hammer, J. Mak, R. L. Langenfelds, J. Schwander, J. P. Severinghaus, E. Witrant, G. Petron, M. O. Battle, G. Forster, W. T. Sturges, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Steffen, and J. W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7567–7585,
L. Bazin, A. Landais, B. Lemieux-Dudon, H. Toyé Mahamadou Kele, D. Veres, F. Parrenin, P. Martinerie, C. Ritz, E. Capron, V. Lipenkov, M.-F. Loutre, D. Raynaud, B. Vinther, A. Svensson, S. O. Rasmussen, M. Severi, T. Blunier, M. Leuenberger, H. Fischer, V. Masson-Delmotte, J. Chappellaz, and E. Wolff
Clim. Past, 9, 1715–1731,
D. Veres, L. Bazin, A. Landais, H. Toyé Mahamadou Kele, B. Lemieux-Dudon, F. Parrenin, P. Martinerie, E. Blayo, T. Blunier, E. Capron, J. Chappellaz, S. O. Rasmussen, M. Severi, A. Svensson, B. Vinther, and E. W. Wolff
Clim. Past, 9, 1733–1748,
M. Guillevic, L. Bazin, A. Landais, P. Kindler, A. Orsi, V. Masson-Delmotte, T. Blunier, S. L. Buchardt, E. Capron, M. Leuenberger, P. Martinerie, F. Prié, and B. M. Vinther
Clim. Past, 9, 1029–1051,
E. Capron, A. Landais, D. Buiron, A. Cauquoin, J. Chappellaz, M. Debret, J. Jouzel, M. Leuenberger, P. Martinerie, V. Masson-Delmotte, R. Mulvaney, F. Parrenin, and F. Prié
Clim. Past, 9, 983–999,
Related subject area
Discipline: Ice sheets | Subject: Field StudiesRapid and accurate polarimetric radar measurements of ice crystal fabric orientation at the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core siteDownhole distributed acoustic seismic profiling at Skytrain Ice Rise, West AntarcticaGlacier algae accelerate melt rates on the south-western Greenland Ice Sheet
Tun Jan Young, Carlos Martín, Poul Christoffersen, Dustin M. Schroeder, Slawek M. Tulaczyk, and Eliza J. Dawson
The Cryosphere, 15, 4117–4133,Short summary
If the molecules that make up ice are oriented in specific ways, the ice becomes softer and enhances flow. We use radar to measure the orientation of ice molecules in the top 1400 m of the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide. Our results match those from an ice core extracted 10 years ago and conclude that the ice flow has not changed direction for the last 6700 years. Our methods are straightforward and accurate and can be applied in places across ice sheets unsuitable for ice coring.
Alex M. Brisbourne, Michael Kendall, Sofia-Katerina Kufner, Thomas S. Hudson, and Andrew M. Smith
The Cryosphere, 15, 3443–3458,Short summary
How ice sheets flowed in the past is written into the structure and texture of the ice sheet itself. Measuring this structure and properties of the ice can help us understand the recent behaviour of the ice sheets. We use a relatively new technique, not previously attempted in Antarctica, to measure the seismic vibrations of a fibre optic cable down a borehole. We demonstrate the potential of this technique to unravel past ice flow and see hints of these complex signals from the ice flow itself.
Joseph M. Cook, Andrew J. Tedstone, Christopher Williamson, Jenine McCutcheon, Andrew J. Hodson, Archana Dayal, McKenzie Skiles, Stefan Hofer, Robert Bryant, Owen McAree, Andrew McGonigle, Jonathan Ryan, Alexandre M. Anesio, Tristram D. L. Irvine-Fynn, Alun Hubbard, Edward Hanna, Mark Flanner, Sathish Mayanna, Liane G. Benning, Dirk van As, Marian Yallop, James B. McQuaid, Thomas Gribbin, and Martyn Tranter
The Cryosphere, 14, 309–330,Short summary
Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is a major source of uncertainty for sea level rise projections. Ice-darkening due to the growth of algae has been recognized as a potential accelerator of melting. This paper measures and models the algae-driven ice melting and maps the algae over the ice sheet for the first time. We estimate that as much as 13 % total runoff from the south-western GrIS can be attributed to these algae, showing that they must be included in future mass balance models.
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Three-dimensional imaging of the pore network of polar firn from Antarctica was realized in order to relate the morphological evolution of pores with their progressive closure with depth. Evaluating the closed porosity was found to be very dependent on the size of samples and image reconstructions. A connectivity index, which is a parameter less dependent on such issues, was proposed and proved to accurately predict the close-off depths and densities of two polar sites.
Three-dimensional imaging of the pore network of polar firn from Antarctica was realized in...